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B 1 b 1 e 


N. T. 


c. 1 




C^'^^ (ratciia 31 iir ta. 


y () V n G o s p E L s 





ST. Jo II N, 


Oxforti anti iLoiOon : 








Vcr. 1 . In tlie bcginning was thc Word. 

Chrys. AVliilc all tlic otlicr Evangclists bcgiii witli the chns. 
Incarnatioii, Jolm, iiassing ovcr the Conception, Nativitv, ,*?°'V".'^" 
education, and growtli, spciks immcdiatcly of the Etcrnal Joan. 
Gencration, sa\iiig, In tlie bighuiiny u-as ihe irord. Auo. Aw-. Hb. 
The Grcck word " lopros" signifies both Word and Rcason. l^i^^'"" 

. . . . (■ill.TSt. 

But in this j)assage it is bcttcr to intcrprct it Word ; as (i. 03. 
rcfcrring not only to the Father, but to the crcation of 
tliings by thc opcrative power of tlie Word ; wlicrcas Kca- 
son, thougli it produce nothing, is still rightly called Kcason. 
AuG. A\ ords by tlicir daily usc, sound, and passagc out of us, ,\„p 
have bccomc connnon tliings. lUit thcrc is a word which ''^"'*- 

. . . Mii" r 

remaincth inward, in thc vcry man himsclf; distiiict from .io!,ii. i. 
tlic sound which j^rocccdcth out of thc mouth. Thcrc is '^' ^' 
a word, which is truly and spiritually that, wliicli you undcr- 
stand by tlie sound, not being the actual sound. Now who- lic Trin. 
ever can conccivc thc notion of word, as cxisting not only J y,," /,. ^ 
before its sound, but cven hcforc the idca of its sound is 
formcd, may sce enigmatically, and as it wcrc in a ghiss, 
some simihtude of that \Vord of Which it is said, In the be- 
ginnivg icas the IVord. For whcn we givc cxprcssion to somc- 
thing whicli we know, tlic word uscd is ncccssarily dcrivcd 
from the knowledgc thus rctaincd in tlic memory, and mu^t 
bc of thc samc quality with that knowlcdgc. For a word is 
a thouglit formcd from a thing which we know; wliich word 
is spoken in thc heart, being neither Greek nor Latin, nor 
of any hanguagc, though, whcn wc want to commuiiicatc it 
to others, somc sigu is assumcd by which to cxprcss it. . . 

VOL. IV. u 


2 GOSPEL ACCORDING TO CHAP. I. cap. Wherefore tlie word which sounds externally, is a sign of the 

'■^0- (xi.) ^Qj.(j wiiich lies hid within, to which the name of word raore 

truly appertains, For that which is uttered by the mouth 

of our flesh, is the voice of the word ; and is in fact called 

word, with reference to that frora which it is taken, when 

r.asil. it is developed externally. Basil. ThisWord is not a human 

prhic. "^ word. For how was there a human word in the beginning, 

Joan. when man received his being last of all ? There was not 

then any word of raan in the beginning, nor yet of Angels; 

for every creature is within the liraits of tirae, having its be- 

ginning of existence from the Creator. But what says tlie 

Gospel? It calls the Only-Begotten Himsclf thc Word. 

Chrys. Chrys. But why omitting the Father, does he proceed at 

^°'"'.'." once to speak of the Son? Because thc Father was known 

Joan. n. t^ 

[i.] §4. to all; though not as the Father, yet as God; whereas the 

Only-Begotten was not known. As was meet then, he en- 

deavours first of all to inculcate the knowledge of the Son on 

those who knew Ilim not; thougli neither iii discoursing on 

Ilim, is he altogether silcnt on the Father. And inasmuch 

as he was about to teach that the Word was the Only-Be- 

7ra07jTV gotten Son of God, that no one miglit think this a passible 

generation, he raakes mention of the Word in the first place, 

in order to destroy the dangerous suspicion, and shew that 

the Son was from God irapassibly. And a second reason is, 

.Tohn 15, that Hc was to dechire unto us the things of the Father. 

But he does not speak of the Word simply, but with the 

addition of the article, in order to distinguish It from othcr 

words. For Scripture calls God's laws and comraandraents 

words ; but this Word is a certain Substance, or Person, an 

Essence, coraing forth impassibly from the Father Ilimself. 

Ba i!. Basil. Wherefore then Word? Because born irapassibly, the 

prhic*. '" Image of Him that begat, raanifesting all the Father in Him- 

Joan. c. 3. self ; abstracting from Him nothing, but existing perfect in 

Ang. XV. Himself Aug. As our knowledge differs from God's, so 

22. ^xHi.r '^^^^^ °^^' ^ord, which arises from our knowledge, differ from 

that Word of God, which is born of the Father's essence ; 

we raight say, frora the Father's knowledge, the Father'? 

wisdom, or, more correctly, the Father Who is Knowledge, 

the Father Who is Wisdora. The Word of God then, the 

c.2.3 (xiv.) Ouly-Begotten Son of the Father, is in all things like and 

VER. 1. ST. JOHX. 3 

equal to the Fatlier; being altogetlier what the Fathcr is, 
yet not the Father ; because the one is the Sou, the other 
the Father. And thereby He knoweth all things which the 
Father knoweth ; yet Ilis knowledge is from the Father, even 
as is Ilis being : for knowing and being arc the same with 
Ilim ; and so as the Father's being is not from the Son, so 
ncither is Ilis knowing. Wherefore the Father begat the 
Word equal to Ilimsclf in all things as uttering forth Ilim- 
sclf. For had thcre bccn more or less in Ilis Word tlian in 
Ilimself, He would not liavc uttercd Ilimsclf fully and per- 
fcctly. With rcspcct howcver to our own inncr word, which 
we find, iu whatevcr sense, to be likc the Word, let us not 
object to see how very unlike it is also. A word is a forma- cap. 25. 
tion of our mind going to takc placc, but not yet madc, and ^^^'' 
sometliing in our miud which we toss to and fro iu a shppery 
circuitous way, as one thing and anotlier is discovered, or 
occurs to our thoughts. AVhen this, which we toss to and 
fro, has rcached the subjcct of our knowlcdge, and bccn 
formcd tlicrcfrom, wlien it has assumed the most exact like- 
ncss to it, aud tlic conception has quite answered to thc 
thing; thcn we havc a true word. Who may not sce how 
great the differcucc is hcrc from that Word of God, which 
exists in thc Form of God in such wise, that It could not 
havc bccn first going to be formcd, aud aftcrwards formcd, 
nor cau cvcr havc bccn unformcd, beiug a Form absolute, 
and absohitely equal to Ilim from \Vliom It is. "Whcrefore 
in speaking of the Word of God herc nothing is said about 
thouglit in God ; lcst we shoukl tliink thcrc was any thing 
rcvolviiig iu God, which might first rcccivc form in ordcr to 
be a Word, and afterwards lose it, and bc carried round 
and rouud again in an unformcd statc. Auc. Now thc Word 
of God is a Form, not a furmatioii, but thc Form of all ^^^^^' 
forms, a Form unchangcablc, removcd from accident, from Semi. 38. 
failurc, from timc, frora space, surpassing all things, and 
existing in all things as a kind of fuuudation uudcrncath, 
and summit above thcm. Basil. Yet has our outward Basil. 
word some similarity to the Diviue Word. For our word ^°"l' '" 
declarcs the wholc conccption of the mind ; since what weJ"a"'<^'3- 
conccive in thc mind we bring out in word. Indccd our 
heart is as it wcre thc source, and the uttcrcd word the 


chrys. stream wliicli flows therefrora. Chrys. Observe tlie spiritual 

""'"•^' wisdom of the Evangelist. Ile knew tliat men hououred 

most what was most ancient, and that honouring what is be- 

fore every thing else, thcy conceived of it as God. Ou this 

account he mentions first the bednning, saying, In the begin- 

Orig. tom. ning was tJie Word. Origen. There arc many significations 

c le^^eTs"" of this word heyinnimj. For there is a beginning of a jour- 

Prov. 16. ney, and begiuning of a lengtli, according to Proverbs, 

Vulg. jy^g beginning of the right jmth is to do justice. There is 

Job40, 19. a beginning too of a creation, according to Job, Ile is the 

'chiefof, beginning^ of the ivays of God. Nor would it be incor- 

^^•^•^""" rect to say, that God is the Beginning of all things. The 

Vulg. pre-existcnt niaterial again, wlicre supposcd to bc original, 

out of whicli any thing is produced, is considcrcd as thc 

Col. 1, 18. beginning. Tlicrc is a bcginning also iu respect of form : 

as where Christ is the beginniug of those who arc madc 

according to the image of God. And there is a beginning 

Heb. 5,12. of doctrine, according to Hebrews; When for the time ye 

ovght to be teacliers, ye have need that one teach you again 

which be the first principles of the oracles of God. For there 

are two kinds of bcginning of doctrinc : one in itsclf, tlic 

other rehitivc to us; as if we shouhl say that Christ, in that 

He is the Wisdom and Word of God, was in Tlimsclf thc 

beginning of wisdom, but to us, in that Ile was the Word 

c. 22. incarnate. There being so many significations thcn of thc 

word, we may take it as thc Beginning through Whom, i.e. 

the Maker; for Christ is Creator as The Bcginning, in that 

He is Wisdom ; so that the Word is in the bcginning, i.e. 

in Wisdom ; the Saviour being all these cxccllences at oncc. 

As life then is in the Word, so the Word is in the Bcgin- 

ning, that is to say, in Wisdom. Consider then if it be 

possible according to this signification to understand the 

Beginniug, as meaning that all thiugs are madc according to 

Wisdom, and the patterns contained therein; or, inasmuch 

as the Beginning of the Son is the Father, the Beginniiig 

of all creatures and existencies, to understaud by the tcxt, 

Ang. de In the beginning was the Word, tiiat the Son, the Word, was 

o.T'(u!) ^"^ ^^^^ Beginning, tliat is, in the Father. Aug. Or, In the 

i^hfm • ^^^^^^^^^' as if it were said, before all things. Basil. Tiie 

1 rinc. i^oly Ghost foresaw that men would arise, who should envy 


VER. 1. ST. JOHN. 5 

the glory of the Only-Beg:otten, subverting their hearers by 
sophistry ; as if bccause Ile were begotten, IIc was not ; and 
before Ile was begotten, He was not. That none might pre- 
sume then to babble such things, the Iloly Ghost saith, In 
the beyinning was the JVord. IIilauv. Ycars, ccnturies, Hilar. ii. 
ages, are passed over, phacc what beginning tliou wilt in thy c*^!^""' 
imagining, thou graspest it not in time, for lle, from Whom 
it is derived, still was. Chuvs. As tlicn whcn our sliip is Ciirys. 
iicar shore, cities and port pass in survey before us, which 
on the open sea vanish, and lcave nothing whereon to fix the 
eye; so tlie Evangclist lierc, taking us with him in his flight 
above the crcated worhl, leavcs the eye to gazc in vacancy 
on an illimitable expanse. For the words, was in the beyin- 
ninf/, arc significativc of eternal anil infinite essence. Aug. Aue:. 
They say, howcver, if IIc is thc Son, Ile was born. Wc po^,^"^ " 
allow it. Thev reioin: if thc Son was born to thc Fathcr, ^^'■"'- 3«. 


the Father was, beforc tlie Son was born to lliin. This thc ^. a. 
Faith rcjects. Then thcy say, exphiin to us how the Son 
couhl bc borii from the Fatlicr, and yet bc cocval with Ilim 
from wliom Ile is born : for sons are born aftcr their fathers, 
to succ ed tliem on tlieir death. Thcy adducc analogies 
from nature; and we must endcavour likcwise to do the 
.samc for our doctrinc. liut how cau wc find in nature a co- 
eternal, wlicn we cannot find an cternal? Howcvcr, if a thing 
generating and a tliing gcncratcd can bc found any whcre 
coeval, it will bc a liclp to forming a notion of coctcrnals. 
Now \\'is(l()ni licrself is callcd in thc Soriptuics, thc bright- \\'is(i. 7, 
iicss of Evcrlasting Light, thc image of the Fathcr. Hencc " 
then let us take our comparison, and from coevals form 
a notiou of cocternals. Now no onc doubts that brightncss 
])rocecds from fire : fire then we may consider the father of 
thc brightncss. Prescntly, whcn I light a candic, at the 
samc instant with thc firc, brightncss arisctii. (Jivc mc thc 
fire without thc brightness, and I will with thcc bclicve tliat 
the Fathcr was without the Son. An image is produccd by 
a mirror. Tlie image exists as soou as the bcholdcr ap- 
pcars ; yct thc bcholder existed bcforc he cauic to thc niir- 
ror. Lct us suppose thcn a twig, or a bladc of prass which 
has grown up by thc watcr side. Is it not born with its 
image? If thcrc had always becn thc twig, thcrc would 


always have been the iraage proceeding from tlie twig. 

And whatever is from another thing, is born. So thcn that 

which generates may be coexistent from eternity with that 

which is generated from it. But some one will say perhaps, 

Well, I understand now the eternal Father, the coeternal 

Son: yet the Son is like the emitted brightness, which is 

less briUiant than the fire, or the rcflected imagc, which is 

less real than the twi.,'. Not so : there is complete cquahty 

between Father and Son. I do not believc, he says; for 

thou hast found nothing whereto to liken it. Ilowcvcr, pcr- 

haps we can find something in nature by which we may 

understand that the Son is both coetcrnal with thc Fathcr, 

and in no respect inferior also : though wc cannot find any 

one material of comparison that will be suflicicnt singly, and 

must therefore join together two, one of which has bcen era- 

ployed by our advcrsaries, the othcr by ourselvcs. For they 

have drawn their comparison from things which arc prcccded 

in tirae by the things which they spring from, man, for cx- 

ample, from man. Ncverthelcss, man is of the samc sub- 

stancewith man. We have then iu that nativity an cquality 

of nature; an equality of time is wanting. But in the com- 

parison which we havc drawn from the brightncss of firc, and 

the reflexion of a twig, an equahty of uature thou dost not 

find, of time thou dost. In the Godhcad theu there is found 

as a whole, what here exists in single and separate partsj 

and that which is in the creation, existing in a manner suit- 

Gest. able to the Creator. Ex Gestis Concilii Ephesini. Where- 

Eplj/ fore in one place divine Scripture calls Ilim the Son, in 

another the Word, in another the Brightuess of the Father; 

names severaliy raeant to guard against blasphcmy. For, 

forasmuch as thy son is of the same nature with thyself, the 

Scripture wishing to shew that the Substance of the Father 

and the Son is oue, sets forth the Son of the Father, born of 

the Father, the Ouly-Begotten. Next, since the terms birth 

and son, convey the idea of passibleness, therefore it calls 

the Son the Word, declaring by that name the impassibility 

of His Nativity. But inasmuch as a father with us is neccs- 

sarily older than his son, lest thou shouldest think that this 

applied to the Divine uature as well, it calls the Only-Be- 

gotten the Briglitness of the Father; for brightness, though 

VER. 1. ST. JOHN. 7 

arising from tlie sun, is not posterior to it. Understand then 
that Ilri(//itness, as revealiiig the coeternity of the Sou \\\t\\ 
the Father; JVord as proving the impassibihty of Ilis birth, 
and Son as convcying Ilis consubstantiality. CniiYs. But Chrys. 
thev sav tliat In the btninnitui does not absolutelv exnrcss l'*^'"' '" 

' . ' . . J i Joan. lii. 

eternity : for that the same is said of tlie heaven and tlie [ii.] §. 2. 
carth : In the bef/inning God made the heaven and the earth. Ceu. 1, 1. 
But are not made and was, altogether different ? For in like 
manner as tlie word is, when spokcn of man, signifies the 
prcscnt only, but whcn apjjlicd to Ciod, that wliich always 
and ctcrnally is; so too tcafi, predicatcd of our naturc, signi- 
fics thc past, but prcdicated ot God, ctcrnity. Origkn. Tbe Orip. 
vcrb to be, has a double signification, sometimes expressing , '"' ','• 

' . . divers. loc. 

tlie motiuns which takc phice iu timc, as othcr verbs do; 
somctimcs the substance of that one thing of which it is pre- 
dicated, without reference to time. Hence it is also callcd 
a substantive verb. Hilauv. Consider then the worhl, un- Hilar. ii. 
derstaud what is writtcn of it. In the bef/inninf/ God viade V"* 
ihe heaven and the earth. AVhatever thercforc is crcated is 
made in the bcginning, and thou wouhiest contaiu iu tiiuc, 
wliat, as bcing to be madc, is containcd in the bcgiuuiMg. 
liut, lo, for me, an iUitcrate unlcarncd fi^hcrman is in(h"pen- mfus ins- 
deutoftinic, unconfined l)y agcs, advancetli beyond all bc- /j'j'!j\ 
ginnings. For thc ^Vord was, wbat it is, and is uot boundcd 
by any timc, nor comincnccd tlicrcin, sccing It was not 
tnade in the beginning, but icas. Alcuin. To rcfute thosc 
who infcrred from Christ's IHrth in timc, tliat IIc had not 
bcen from cvcriasting, the Evangchst bcgins witli the cter- 
iiity of the Word, sayiug, //* the bfyinniny was the IVord. 

And thc Word was witli God. 

Chrys. Bccause it is an cspccial attributc of God to bc ciiry». 

cternal aud Mithout a bcginning, lic laid tliis duwu Hrst :]'"'"• '"• 

. . . . L""j "• 

then, lcst any onc on hcaring in the beginninf/ was the Word, 

shouhl supposc the Word Unbcgotteu, he instautly guardcd 

against this; saying, And ihe Wordwas mih God. Hilary. niiar. ii. 

From the bcginning IIc is with God : and tliough inde- ^^ *^'^'"* 

pendent of timc, is not indcpcndcnt of an Author. Basil. Basil. 

Again lic rcpcats this, icas, bccausc of mcn biasphemously rinc. 

Joan. §. 1f 


saying, tliat there was a tirae when He was not. Wherc 
then was the TVord? Illimitable things are not containcd 
in space. Whcre was He then? With God. For neither 
is the Father boundcd by place, nor the Son by aught 
Orig. circumscribing. Origen. It is* worth while noting, that, 
Hom. 11. ■^j^gj.gas the Word is said to corae^ [bc madel to some, as 

iri J o^ii* 

c- 1- to Hosea, Isaiah, Jereraiab, with God it is not made, as 

^flgum ^jjQjjgi^ -^ ^gj,g jjQt ^itl^ fjim before. But, the Word having 

came E.T.^QQ^ always with Ilim, it is said, and the fVord was ivith 

God: for from the beginning it was not separate from the 

Chrys. Fathcr. Chrys. He has not said, was in God, but was with 

lloin. 111. QqjJ . gxhibiting to us that eternity which Hc had in accord- 

Theoph. ance with His Person. Theopuyl. Sabellius is ovcrthrowu 

in loco, ijy ^i^jg j.gj^j.^ Yov he asserts that the Father, Son, and Holy 

Ghost are one Person, Who sometimcs appeared as the 

Father, sometimes as the Son, soractimes as the Iloly Ghost. 

But he is manifestly confounded by this text, and the fVord 

was with God ; for here the Evangclist declarcs that the Sou 

is one Person, God the Father anothcr. 



And the Word was God. 

Hilar. ii. HiLARY. Thou wilt say, that a word is the sound of the 
de Trin. voicc, thc cnunciation of a thing, the expression of a thought : 
this Word was in the beginning with God, bccause the 
utterance of thought is eternal, when He who thinketh is 
eterual. But how was that in the beginning, which exists 
no time either before, or after, I doubt even whether in time 
at all ? For speech is neitlier in cxistence before one speaks, 
nor after ; in the very act of speaking it vanishes ; for by 
the time a speech is ended, that frora which it began does 
not exist. But even if the first sentence, in the beginning 
was the Word, was through thy inattention lost upon thee, 
why disputest thou about the next ; and the Word tcas with 
God? Didst thou hear it said, " In God," so that thou 
shouldest understand this Word to be only the expressiou 
of hidden thoughts ? Or did John say ivith by mistake, and 
was not aware of the distinction between being in and being 
iuith, when he said, that what was in the beginning, was not 
in God, but with God? Hear then the nature and name of 

VER. 1. ST. joiiy. 9 

tlie Word ; and ihe IVord loas God. No more then of tlie 

sound of the voice, of the expression of the thought. The 

Word here is a Substance, not a sound; a jVature, not an 

expression; God, not a nonentity. Hilary. But the title is Hilar. vii, 

absolute, and free from the offence of an extraneous subiect. 'j'^ '•"'■iii- c. 
... . ^' p, 10. n. 

To Moses it is said, Ihave given ^ thee for a yod to Pharaoh : Exod. 7,i. 

but is not the reason for the name added, when it is said, to '^!''v% 

' ' esl. > ulg. 

Pharaoh ? !Moses is given for a god to Pharaoli, uhcn he is '"/"'^ 
feared, whcn he is cntrcatcd, whcn he punishes, when he "* 
licals. And it is one thing to bc (jiven for a god, another 
tliing to be God. I rcmcniber too another api^lication of 
the name in the Psalms, / have said, ye are gods. But Ps. 82 
there too it is imphed that the title was but bestowed ; and 
the introduction of, / said, makes it ratlicr tlie phrase of 
tlje Spcakcr, than the name of the thing. But when I hcar 
the Word was God, I not only hear the AVord said to be, 
but perceive It proved to be, God. Basil. Thus cutting off Basil. 
the cavils of bhisphcmers, and those who ask wliat the .""'": '• 

^- 111 priiic. 

AVord is, he repHcs, and the Word icas God. TiiKoriiYL. Joau. c. 4 
Or combine it thus. From thc Word being with God, it 
follows phiinly tliat tlicre are two Pcrsons. Bnt thcsc two 
are of one Naturc; and thcrcforc it procceds, /// ///c Word 
was God : to shew that Father and Son are of Onc Nature, 
l)cing of One Godhcad. Oiugex. AVe must add too, that Ong. 
the "Word illuminatcs the Prophets with Divine wisdom, f'""' "• 
in that He cometh to them ; but tliat with God Ile ever in priuc. 
is, bccause Ile is God ^ For which reason he placed and 
the Word was ivith God, before and the Word was God. 
CniiYS. Not asscrting, as Plato does, one to be intcHi- Chry», 
gence ^ thc othcr soul- ; for tlie Divinc Naturc is vcry dif- r^|°-|"r''[' 

fcrent from this But you say, thc Fathcr is called \ vov%^ 

God with tlie addition of thc article, the Son without it. jy [f,].] 3. 
What say you thcn, whcn thc Apostle writes, The great Tit. 2, 13. 
God and our Savionr Jesus Christ ; and again, IVho is Rom. 9 5. 
over all, God ; and Grace be unto you and peace from God i\om.\, 7. 

» Tlie Greek lias, vph% 5f toi- &ihv eqiially present witli God. S. Thomas 

liQfb^ iffrlTvyx^-vuv^aTTo ruv tlvai TTpus avoids the apparent tautology in the 

al)-t6v, lit. " but with Goil, God is jiru- origiual hy substituting "apnd Deuin 

sent at all tiines, bccau.^^e He is wiih vero est Verbum oblincre ab eo quod 

lliin," i.e. Tiryxaceic and (Ivai are one sit Deus." 
M ith God. The Word, as God, is alway s 

de Trin. 
c. 16. 


our Father ; without the article ? Besides, too, it were super- 
fluous here, to affix what had been affixed just before. So 
that it does not foUow, though the article is not affixed to 
the Son, that He is therefore an inferior God. 

2. The same was in the beginning with God. 

Hilar. ii, HiLARY. "Whcreas he had said, the Word was God, the 

fearfulness, and strangeness of the speech disturbed me; 

the prophets having declarcd that God was One. But, to 

quiet ray apprehensions, the fishcrman reveals the schcme 

of this so great mystery, and refers all to one, without dis- 

honour, without obHterating [the Person], without refer- 

ence to time^ saying, The Same was in the beyhining loith 

God ; with One Unbegotten God, from whom Hc is, the 

Onc Only-begotten God. TnF.opnYL. Again, to stop any 

diabolical suspicion, that the AVord, because Hc was God, 

might have rebelled against His Father, as ccrtain Gcntiles 

fable, or, being separate, have bccome the antagonist of 

the Father Himself, he says, The Same ivas in the bcginning 

with God ; that is to say, this Word of God never existed 

Clirys. separate from God. Chrys. Or, lest hearing that Tn the 

r"^ s^i ^^U^^^^^^d ^^^ ^^^ Word, you shoukl regard It as eternal, 

but yet understand the Father^s Life to have some degree 

of priority, he has introduced the words, The Same was in 

the beginning with God. For God was never solitary, apart 

ibid. 3. from Him, but always God with God. Or forasmuch as he 

said, the Word was God, that no one might think the 

Divinity of tlie Son inferior, he immediately subjoins the 

marks of proper Divinity, in that he both again mentions 

ThZnfii- Eternity, The Same was in the beginning with God; and 

ox/p-ytK V j^jjjg jjjg attribute of Creator, All things were made by Ilim. 

Orig-., Origen. Or thus, the EvangeUst having begun with those 

in Joan. propositions, reunites them into one, saying, The Same was 

<5* *• in the beginning with God. For in the first of the three we 

learnt in what the Word was, that it was in the beginning ; 

in the second, with whom, with God ; in the third who the 

*> Since He was 1. "in the begin- nor 3. inexisting in God only, so as 

niiig," and 2. " God," and 3. " vvith to confound or destroy the PLTionality. 

God," He was 1. not " in time," nor [trom S. Hil. 1. c.] 
'J a word, but The Word, (see p. 8,) 

VER. 3. ST. JOIIX. 11 

TVord was, God. Ilaviiig, then, by the term, The Same, 
sct bcforc us iri a manner God thc Word of Whom hc had 
spoken, hc collccts all into the fourth proposition, viz. Iii 
the he(finning was the Word, and the Word tvas tcith God, 
and the JFord was God ; iuto, the Same was in the be- 
ginning with God. It raay be asked, liowever, why it is not 
said, In the beginning was the Word of God, and the Word 
of God was with God, and the Word of God was God? 
Now wlioevcr will admit that truth is one, must nceds 
admit also that the demonstration of truth, tliat is, wisdom, 
is one. But if trutli is one, and wisdom is onc, the Word 
wliich enunciatcs truth and dcvch)pcs wisdom iu those wlio 
are cnpablc of rcceiving it, must be One also. And thcrc- 
fore it wouhl have bcen out of phice hcrc to have said, thc 
Word of God, as if there wcrc other words bcsidcs that 
of God, a word of angcls, word of men, and so on. Wc 
do not say this, to dcny that It is the Word of God, but 
to shcw the of omitting the word God. John him- 
sclf too in the Apocalypse says, And IJis ^V«me is callcd the Rcv. 19, 
IVord of God. Alcuin. Wherefore does hc usc the sulj- ^'^' 
stantive vcrb, ivas? That you mij;lit uu(h'rstaud that the 
Word, Which is coeternal with God tlie Father, was bcfore 
all tiuic. 

3. All things wcrc madc by Iliiii. 

Alcuin. Aftcr spcaking of tlic naturc of tlie Son, hc 
procecds to llis opcrations, sayiug, All things were made 
bij Him, i. c. evcry thing, w hcther substance or property. 
HiL\UY. Or thus : [It is said], the Word indced was in Hiiar. ii. 
tlie bcginning, but it mav bc that IIc was not bcforc the^^^.V"* 

P ° • c. 17. 

bcgiuuiug. But what saith hc; All things were 7nade by 

Ilim. He is infiuite by Whora every thing, which is, was 

niade : and sincc all things werc madc by Ilim, time is like- 

wise*^. CuiiYs. ]Moscs indccd, in the bcginuiug of tlic Old rhrjF. 

Testament, spcaks to us iu much detail of the uatural world, ['"7/' 

saying, In the bcginni/ig God made the hcavcn and the earth ; 

* That is lo say, The text, All For Ile Wlio made all tliinps, maHc 

things tvete madc by Uim, niakcs iip tiinc, aiid so must have cxistcd bcfore 

for thc words, i;j thv bif^iiiniiif;, shoiild tiiiic, i. e. froiii ctcrnity. 
Ihcse appcar to fall short of etcruity. 


and then relates how that the light, and the firmaraent, 

and the stars, and the various kinds of animals were created. 

But the Evangelist suras up the whole of this in a word, as 

farailiar to his hearers ; and hastens to loftier raatter, making 

the whole of his book to bear not on the works, but on the 

Au?. 1. Maker. Aug. Since all things were made by Ilim, it is evi- 

ad Ht!"" dent that Hght was also, when God said, Let there be light. 

cap. 2. ^^^ jjj likg manner the rest. But if so, that which God 

said, viz. Let there be light, is eternal. For the Word of 

God, God with God, is coeternal with the Father, though the 

world created by Him be teraporal. For whereas our when 

and sometimes are words of time, in the Word of God, on thc 

contrary, when a tliing ought to be raade, is etcrnal ; and 

the thing is then raade, when iu that Word it is that it 

ought to be raadc, wliich Word hath in It ncitlier ichcn, or 

Auo;. at sometime, since It is all ctcriuil. Aug. IIow thcn can thc 

tMct. i.' Word of God be made, when God by tlie AVord made all 

*=• il- things? For if the A\'ord Itsclf wcre niade, by what othcr 

Word was It raade? If you say it was the Word of the Word 

by Which That was raade, that Word I call the Only-Be- 

gotten Son of God. But if thou dost uot call It the Word 

1 Verbum of thc Word \ thcu graut that that Word was not madr, l)v 


ed. Ben. which all tliiugs wcrc made. Aug. Aud if It is not made, 

Dei Aq. j^ jg j^Q^ ^ crcature ; but if It is not a crcaturc, It is of the 

1\ni\. same Substance with thc Fathcr. For cvcry substancc which 

c. 9. (vi.) is y^Q^ Qq^ js 3 crcature; and what is not a crcature is God. 

Theoph. Theophyl. The Arians are wout to say, that all things are 

spoken of as made by the Son, iu the sense in which we 

say a door is made by a saw, viz. as an instrument ; not 

that He was Hiraself the Maker. Aud so they talk of 

the Son as a thing made, as if He were made for this pur- 

pose, that all things might be made by Him. Now we to 

the inventors of this lie reply simply : If, as ye say, the 

Father had created the Son, in order to make use of Him as 

an instrument, it would appear that tlie Son were less honour- 

able than the things made, just as things made by a saw are 

more noble than the saw itself ; the saw having been made for 

their sake. lu like way do they speak of the Father crcating 

the Son for the sake of the thiugs made, as if, had He thought 

good to create the universe, neither would Hc have produccd 

VER. '6. ST. JOIIX. 13 

tlie Son. Wliat can be more insane tlian such langunge? 
Tliey argue, however, why was it not said that the AVord 
made all things, instead of the preposition by ^ being used ? '5ii 
For this reason, that thou mightest not understand an Un- 
begottcn and Unoriginate Sou, a rival God*^. Ciiuvs. If the Chrys. 
preposition bi/ perplcx thec, and tliou wouldest learn fi"oni j^°'"" ^" 
Scripture tliat tlie Word Itse/f va^de all thiugs, hear David, [iv.] c 2. 
Thou, Lord, in tlie beyinniny hust laid the foundation of the Ps. 101. 
earth, and the heavcns are the ivork of Thy hands. That he 
spoke this of thc Only-Begottcn, you lcarn froni thc Apostle, 
wlio in tlie Epistlc to the Ileljrews applics thcse words to the 
Son. CiiuYs. lUxt if you say that tlie prophet spoke this of Chrys. 
the Father, and that Paul appHed it to tlie Son, it comes to '' ^"a^' 
the sanie thing. For he would not have mentioned that as 
applical)le to tlie Son, unlcss he fully considcrcd that the 
Father and the Scju werc of equal dignity. If again thou 
drcani that in the prcposition bi/ any suljjcction is iniplicd, 
wliy docs Paul usc it of the Fathcr? as, God is faithfnl, bij \ Cor. 
iriiotn ye were callcd into the fellowshij) <f llis Son ; and .,'/,* 
again, Tanl an Ajiostle by the xcill of God. Oiugen. Ilcrc l. l. 
too Valcntinus errs, saying, that thc Word sui^plicd to thc jj (![ g. 
Crcator thc cause of tiie crcation of thc world '^ . If this 
intcrprctation is true, it should have becn writtcn that all 
things had their cxistcnce from tlie Word through the Crea- 
tor, not contrariwisc, throu^h the Word froni thc Crcator. 

Aiul witliout Illin was not any thinij inadc. 

CnuYS. That you may not supposc, whcn lie says, All Chrya 

things ivere inade by Jlini, that hc mcant only the things i„',^i'„c\ 

Moses liad spokeu of, he seasonably brings in, And tvithout 
Ilim was not any thinf/ made, nothing, that is, cognizable 
eithcr by the scnscs, or the undcrstanding. Or thus; Lcst 
you should suspcct the scntcncc, All things ivere made by 
Ilim, to rcfcr to tlie miracles which thc other Evangclists had 
rclatcd, he adds, and without Ilim was not any thiny made. 
IliLAKY. Or thus; That all Ihinr/s were made bi/ Ilim, is j)ro- Hilar. 
nounciug too much, it inav bc said. There is au Unbegotten J, "' „ 

"* Tlie text of Aiig. lias "et Dci con- " rhv tV aXTirtv vapfxoyra rrjs yfv4- 

ditoreiii," perh.ips it shoiild he, ' et fftois rov koctixov r<Lhriiji.iovp-fi. ()rij;cn 

l)co contrariuin,' (as bcfore " Patri is speakin^ of llcracleon, a disciple of 

conlrariuin.") iiieoph. has avridiov. Valcniiuus. 


Who is made of none, and tliere is tlie Son Himself begotten 

from Ilim Who is Unbegotten. The Evangelist however 

again implies the Author, when he speaks of Him as Asso- 

ciated ; saying, withoid Him ivas not any thing made. This, 

that nothing was made without Him, I understand to mean 

the Son's not being alone, for ' by whom' is one thing, ' not 

Orig. without whora' another. Oiugen. Or thus, that thou mightest 

iV> d"v."oc. not think that the things made by the Word had a separate 

existence, and were not contained in the Word, he says, 

and without Him was not any thing made : that is, not any 

thing was made externally of Ilim ; for He encircles all 

Aug. things, as the Preserver of all things. Aug. Or, by saying, 

Te"sL N.v. without Hlm was not any thing made, he tells us not to 

qu. 97. suspect Him in any sense to be a thing made. For how 

can He be a thing made, when God, it is said, made notliing 

Orig. in without Him ? Origen. If all things were made by the Word, 

ii°c 7°.'" ^^^ ^"^ ^^^^ number of all tliings is wickedness, and the whole 

influx of sin, tliese too were made by the Word ; which is 

false. Now 'nothing' and *a thing which is not,' raean the 

same. And the Apostle seems to call wicked things, things 

Rom.4,17. which are not, God calleth ihose things which be not, as 

though they were. All wickedness then is called nothing, 

forasmuch as it is made without the Word. Those who say 

however that the devil is not a creature of God, err. In so 

far as he is the devil, he is not a creature of God ; but he, 

whose character it is to be the devil, is a creature of God. 

It is as if we should say a murderer is not a creature of God, 

Aug. in when, so far as he is a man, he is a crcature of God. Aug. 

i. c. 13. FoJ' sin was not made by Ilim ; for it is manifest that sin is 

nothing, and that men become nothing when they sin. Nor 

was an idol niade by the Word. It has indeed a sort of form 

of man, and man himself was made by the Word ; but the 

form of man in an idol was not made by the Word : for it 

1 Cor, 8, 4. is written, we know that an idol is nothiiig. These then were 

not made by the Word ; but whatever things were made 

naturally, the whole universe, were; every creature from an 

Orig. tora. angel to a worm. Origen. Valentinus excludcs frora the 

tliings made by the Word, all that were made in the ages 

which he believes to have existed before the Word. This is 

plainly false; inasmuch as the things wliich he accounts 

VER. 4. ST. joiiy. 15 

diviue are tlius excluded from tlie " all tliings," and wliat he 
deeras wliolly corrupt are properly ' all thiugs !' Aug. 
folly of tliose men is not to be listened to, who think nothing boni"'c!25 
is to be understood herc as sometliing, bccause it is placed at 
the end of the sentence ^ : as if it made any difference whe- ^ Vulgate 
ther it was said, without Ilim nothing was made, or, without 
Ilim was raade nothing. Orfgen. If 'the word' be taken Orig. tom. 
for that whicli is in each man, inasrauch as it was iraplanted "* ^' 
m each by the ]Vord, which was in the beginning, then also, 
we coramit notliing without this * word' [reason] takiug this 
word 'nothing' in a popuhir sense. For the Apostle says 
tliat sin was dead without the law, but when the comniaud- 
raent camc, sin revivcd ; fur siu is not imputed when thrre 
is no law. But ucither was tlicre siu, wiicn there was no 
Word, for our Lord says, If I had not come and spoken /o jolm 15, 
them, they hud not had sin. For evcry cxcuse is withdrawn -- 
frora the sinuer, if, with the Word preseut, and enjoiuing 
what is to be donc, he refuses to obcy II im. Nur is the 
Word to be bhamed on this account ; any raorc thau a mas- 
ter, whose discipline leaves no excuse open to a dclinqucnt 
pupil on the grouud of ignorance. All thiuj^s thcn were 
made by tlie Word, not only the natural worUl, but also 
whatever is done by those acling wilhout rcasou. Vul?. 

quod fic- 
tum est n 

4. Iii lliiii was life. ipsovita 


Bede. The Evangclist having said that cvcry crcature was Bedc in 
madc by the AVord, lcst pcrchauce any oue might tiiiuk that • ^°^- 
Ilis will was chaugcable, as though Ile willed on a sudden 
to make a crcature, which frora etcruity IIc had not made; 
Ile took care to shew that, though a crcature was made in 
tirae, in the Wisdoni of the Creator it had beeu frora eteruity 
arrangcd what and whcn Ile should creatc. Aug. The pas- Ang. in 
sage can be read thus : What was made in IJim was ^(A'^- ^"'jjj^^iy" 
Thcrcfore the whole uuiverse is life: for what was there not i Vulg. 
made in Ilini? lle is the AVisdora of God, as is said, /n Ps. lO*. 
IVisdom hast Thou made them all. All things thcrcfore are 
raade in Ilim, evcn as thcy are by Ilim. IJut, if whatcvcr 
w;is madc in Ilim is life, the earth is life, a stoue is life. \Vc 
must not iuterpret it so unsoundly, lcst the scct of the 


Manicliseans creep in upon us, and say, tliat a stone has life, 
and that a wall has life ; for they do insanely assert so, and 
when reprehended or refuted, appeal as though to Scripture, 
and ask, why was it said, That which ivas made in Him 
was life ? Read the passage then thus : make the stop after 
What was made, and then proceed, In Ilitn was life. The 
earth was made; but, tlie earth itself which was made is 
not life. In the Wisdom of God however there is spiritually 
a certain Reason after which the earth is made. This is 
Life^ A chest in workmanship is not life, a chest in art 
is, iuasmuch as the mind of the workman lives whercin that 
originai pattern exists. And in this sense the AVisdom of 
God, by Which all things are made, containeth in art 'all 
things which are made, according to that art.' And therefore 
whatever is madc, is not in itself life, but is life in Ilim. 
Origen. Origen. It may also be divided thus : That which was 

Hom.ii.m y^g^g i^ Him ; and then, was life ; thc sense being, that all 

div. loc. _ ... ... 

ante nied. things that wcrc made by II im and in Ilim, are life in Ilim, 
and are one in Ilim. They were, tliat is, in Ilim; they c.xist 
as the cause, bcfore thcy exist iu themselvcs as cffccts. If 
thou ask how and in what manner all things «hich were madc 
by the Word subsist in Him vitally, immutably, causally, 
take some examples from the created world. See how that 
all things within the arch of the world of sense have thcir 
causes simultancously and harmouiously subsisting in that 
sun which is the greatcst luminary of the world : how multi- 
tudinous crops of herbs and fruits are contained in single 
seeds : how the most complex variety of rules, in the art of 
the artificer, and the mind of the director, are a living unit, 
how an infinite numbcr of lines coexist in onc point. Con- 
template these several instances, and thou wilt be able as it 
were on the wings of physical science, to pcnetrate with tliy 
intellectual eye the secrets of the Word, and as far as is 
allowed to a human understanding, to see how all things 

The passafre continues thus in the ence by workmanship. The chest is 

Tract. "Iwill explain my mcaning. then first in workmanship ; but does it 

A workman niakes a chest. He first cease to be in art ? there it remains 

lias that chest in liis art; for otherwise still, and there it will continue, the 

he could not make it. The chest how- pattern of other chests, when the first 

ever does not exist in his art, as a visible one lias rotted. Mark the dis- 

visible chest; it exists there invisibly, tinction between a chest in avt, and a 

and is tlien brought into visihle exibt- chest in workmansliip. A cliest," &-c. 

VER. 4. ST. JOHN. 1 7 

which were made by the "Word, live in Him, and were made 
in Him. Hii^^ry. Or it can be understood thus. In that he 
had said, without Ilim was not any thing made, one might have 
been perplexed, and have asked, Was then any thing made by 
another, which yet was not made without Him ? if so, tlien 
though nothing is made without, all things are not made by 
Him : it being one thing to make, another to be with the 
maker. On this accouut the Evangelist declares what it was 
wliich was not made without Him, viz. what was made in 
Him. This then it was which was not made without Him, 
viz. what was made in Him. And that which was raade in 
Him, was also made by Hira. For all things were created in 
Him and by Him, Now things were made in Him, because 
He was born God tlie Crcator. And for this reason also 
tliings that were made in Hira, were not made without Hira, 
viz. that God, in that He was born, was life, and He wlio 
tcas life, was not made life aftcr being born. Nothing then 
which was made in Hira, was made without Him, bccause 
He was life, iu AVhom they were made ; because God Who 
was born of God was God, not aftcr, but in that He was 
born^. CiiRYS. Or to give another cxphination. We will CIirvR. 
not put the stop at without Ilim was not any thing made, as rj" -]';„' 
the heretics do. For tliey wishing to prove the Holy Ghost Joan. 
a crcature, read, That which was mnde in Ilim, was life. But 
tliis cannot be so undcrstood. For first, tliis was uot tlie 
place for making mention of the Holy Ghost. But let us Bup- 
pose it was ; lct us take the passagc for tlie prcsent accord- 
ing to thcir rcading, we shall sce that it leads to a difhculty. 
For when it is said, That which was made in Him, was life ; 
tliey say the life spokcn of is the Holy Gliost. But this Hfe 
is also light ; for the Evaugclist procccds, The /ife 7vas the 
light of men. Whercfore according to tlicm, lie calls the 
Holy Ghost tlie light of all men. But the Word mentioned 
above, is what he here calls consccutivcly, God, and Life, 
and Light. Now the JVord was made flesh. It follows that 
the Holy Ghost is incarnate, not the Son. Dismissing tlien 
this rcadiug, we adopt a more suitable one, with the foUow- 

*" i.e. the Son ever being wliat He Creator, in that He was, and always 

is, in that He is, " Living of Living, equally the Creator, and so of all tliings, 

Perfect of Perfect," not [as man] re- because what He was, He was always, 

ceiving subsequently, He was tiie in that He was. 



ing meaning : AU ihings were made by Him, and without 
Him was not any thing made ichich was made : theie we 
make a stop, and begin a fresh sentence : In Eim was life. 
-yevtirhv Without Him was not any thing made which was made ; i.e. 
which could be made. You see how by this short addition, 
he removes any difBculty which might foUow. For by intro- ' 
ducing without Him ivas not any thing made, and adding, 
which was made, he iucludes all things invisible, and excepts 
srifxiovp. the Holy Spirit : for the Spirit cannot be made. To the 
'^'"^ mention of creation, succeeds that of providence. In Him 

was life^. As a fountain which produces vast dcpths of 
water, and yet is nothing diminished at the fountain head ; 
so worketh the Only-Begotten. How great soever His crea- 
tions be, He Himself is none the less for them. By the word 
life here is meant not only creation, but that providence by 
which the things created are preserved. But when you are 
told that in Him icas life, do not suppose Him compouuded ; 
John 5, 26. for, as the Father hath life in Himself, so hath He given to 
the Son to have life in Himself. As then you would not call 
the Father compounded, so neither should you the Son. 
Ori?. t.ii. Origen. Or thi^s i Our Saviour is said to be some things 
*^' not for Himself, but for others ; others again, both for Him- 

self and others. When it is said then, That which was made 
in Him was life ; we must enquire whether the life is for 
Himself and others, or for others only ; and if for others, for 
whom ? Now the Life and the Light are both the same 
Person : He is the light of men : He is therefore their Hfe. 
The Saviour is called Life here, not to Himself, but to 
others; whose Light He also is. This life is insepa- 
rable from the Word, from the time it is added on to it. 
For Reason or the Word must exist before in the soul, 
cleansing it from sin, till it is pure enough to receive the 
life, which is thus ingrafted or inborn in every one who 
renders himself fit to receive the Word of God. Hence ob- 
serve, that though the Word itself in the beginning was not 
made, the Beginning never having been without the Word ; 
yet the Ufe of men was not always in the Word. This life 

' rbj' irepl t^s ■jrpovoias \6yov. Life, might not be incredulous as to so 
he says. The Hom. coiitinues: " Life, many things having conie from Him 
the Evangelist says, in order that we For as, &c." 

VER. 4. ST. JOHN. 19 

of men was made, in that It was the light of men ; and this 
light of men could not be before man was; the light of men 
being understood rclatively to men ''. And therefore he says, 
That which was made in the Word was life ; not Tliat which 
was in the "Word was life. Some copies read, not araiss, 
" That which was made, in Ilim is life." If we understand 
the life in the Word, to bc He who says below, ' I aw the John n, 
life,' we shall confcss that nonc who believe not iu Christ ' ' ' 
live, and that all who live not iu God, are dead. 

And thc life was thc light of men. 

Theopiiyl. Ile had said, In Ilim icas life, that you might Theopii. 
not suppose that the "Word was without hfe. Now he shews '" '^^' 
that that hfe is spiritual, and the light of all reasonable crea- 
tures. And the life icas the lii/ht ofmen: i.e. not sensible, 
but intcllcctuul hglit, illuminatiiig the vcry souh Aug. Life Aup. in 
of itsclf givcs illuminatiou to mcn, but to cattlc not : for j °J" ^^' 
they have not rational souls, by wliich to disccru wisdom ; 
whcreas man, bcing made iu the image of God, has a 
rational soul, by which he cau discern wisdom. IIcucc that 
life, by which all things are made, is hght, not howcver of 
all animals whatsoevcr, but of mcn. Theophyl. Ile saith 
not, the Light of the Jcws ouly, but of all mcn : for all of 
us, in so far as we have received intellcct aud reason, from 
that AVord wliicli crcatcd us, arc said to bc ilhiminatcd by 
llim. Tor thc rcason which is givcn to us, and which con- 
stitutes us the rcasonablc bcings we arc, is a hght dirccting 
us what to do, and what not to do. Oiugen. Wc must not orip:. 
orait to noticc, that hc puts the life bcfore the liyht of men. "°" ""• 
For it would be a contradiction to suppose a being without 
life to be illuminatcd ; as if hfe wcre an addition to illu- 
mination. But to procced : if the life was the liyht of men, tom. ii. 
mcaning men only, Christ is the hght and the lifc of meu '^' 
only ; an heretical supposition. It does not follow then, 
whcn a thing is predicated of any, that it is predicatcd of 
those only ; for of God it is writtcn, that Ile is the God of 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob ; aud yct Ile is not the God 
of thosc fathcrs only. In thc same way, the li(jht of men is c. 17. 
not excludcd from bcing the hght of others as wclh Some 

*" ToC (puTOi Tuv &i'0pu>n(a)i' KaTo, T^v TTphi avdpwiTots a^tdLV vooviiivou. 

c 2 


Gen.1.26. moreover contend from Genesis, Let us make man after our 
image, that man means whatever is made after the image 
and similitude of God. If so, the light of men is the light 
of any rational creature whatever. 

5. And the light shineth in darkness. 

Aug. Tr. AuG. Whereas that hfe is the Hght of men, but fooHsh 

^- "^- ^^- hearts cannot receive that hght being so encumbered with 

sins that they cannot see it ; for this cause lest any should 

think there is no Hght near them, because they cannot see it, 

he continues : And the light shineth in darkness, and the 

darkness comprehended it not. For suppose a bHnd man 

standing in the sun, the sun is present to him, but he is ab- 

sent from the sun. In Hke manner, every fool is bhnd, and 

wisdom is present to him ; but, though present, absent from 

his sight, forasrauch as sight is goue : the truth being, not 

that she is absent from him, but that he is absent from her. 

Orig. in Origen. This kind of darkness however is not in men by na- 

fiT'i4 ^^^^> according to the text in the Ephesians, Ye were some- 

F.nh.5, 8. time darkness, buf now are ye light in the Lord^. Origen. 

iiom. il. Oj' thus, The light shineth in the darkness of faithful souls, 

iiiaiv. loc. 1 j^icolai, for this passage wliich is IVe were sometime darhiess, but now 

incorrectly given, substitutes the ibl- light in the Lord ; although we be in 

lowing. (Origeu, tom. ii. c. 13. in some degree holy and spiritual. Who- 

Joh.) " Now if the Hfe is one with the soever was sometime darkness, did, as 

light of men, none who is in darkness Paul, become darkness, altliough being 

lives, and none who lives is in dark- capable and framed such as to be made 

ness; since every one who lives is also light in the Lord. And again, The 

in light, and conversely, whoever is in light of men is our Lord Jesus Clirist, 

light, also Hves. Again, as in thus dis- Who manifested Himself in human na- 

coursing on contraries, we may under- ture to every rational and intelligent 

stand the contraries to them which are creature, and opened to the hearts of 

omitted, and life, and the light of men, the laitlifui tlie mysteries of His Di- 

are the subjects of our discourse; and vinity, in Which He is equaj to the 

the contrary of life is death, and the Fatlier ; according to the Apostle's 

contrary of the light of men is thedark- saying, (Eph. 5, 8,) Ye were some- 

ness of men : we may perceive, that time darkness, but now are ye light 

whoever is in darkness, is also in death, in the Lord. Hence the Hght shineth 

and he who does the works of death, is in darkness, because tlie wlioie human 

certainly in darkness; whereas he wlio race, not by iiature but as the desert 

does the things which are of the Hght, of original sin, was in the darkness of 

that is, he whose works shine before ignorance of Ihe trutli ; but after His 

men, and who is mindful of God, is Birth of the Virgin, Clirist shineth in 

not in death, as we read in Ps. vi. He the hearts of those who discern Him. 

is not in death who remembereth Thee. But because there are some who still 

[Vulg. Quoniam non est in morte qui abide in the most profound darkness 

niemor sit tui. Eng. T., In death no of impiety and deceit, the EvangeHst 

nian remembereth Thee.] But whether adds, And the darkness coinprehended 

men's darkness and death are so byna- it not ; as though he would say, The 

ture or not, is another consideration. Light," &c. 

VER. 5. ST. JOHN. 21 

begimnng froin faith, and drawiugonwards to liope ; but the 

deceit and ignorance of undisciplined souls did not com- 

prehend the light of the Word of God shining in the flesh. 

That however is an ethical meaning. The metaphysical 

signification of the words is as follows. Huraan nature, evea 

tliough it sinned not, could not shine by its owu strength 

siraply; for it is not naturally light, but only a recipicnt 

of it; it is capable of containing wisdom, but is not wisdom 

itself. As the air, of itself, shineth not, but is called by the 

aarae of darkness, even so is our nature, considered in itself, 

a dark substance, which however adraits of and is made par- 

takcr of the light of wisdora. And as whcn tlie air receives 

the sun's rays, it is not said to shine of itself, but the sun'3 

radiance to be apparcnt in it; so tlie reasonable part of our 

nature, while posscssing the presence of the Word of God, 

does not of itself understand God, and intellectual things, 

but by raeans of the divine light irapLinted in it. Thus, 

The liyht shineth in darkness : for the Word of God, the life 

and the light of raen, ceaseth not to shine in our nature ; 

though regarded in itself, that nature is without form and 

darkness. And forasrauch as pure light cannot be corapre- 

heudcd by any crcaturc, hcnce the tcxt : The darkness com- 

prehended it not. Chrys. Or thus : throughout the whole ciiryR. 

foregoiug passage hc had bcen spcaking of crcation ; then nvTc.* 

he racntions thc spiritual bcncfits which the Word brought 

with it : And the life was thc liyht of men. 11 e saith not, 

the light of Jcws, but of all racn without cxccption; for not 

thc Jews only, but thc Gcntilcs also havc conic to this know- 

lcdge. The Angels he omits, for he is speaking of humau 

nature, to whora the Word carac briugiug glad tidiugs. 

OiuGEN. But thcy ask, why is not tlic Word Itsclf callcd Orip. 

the light of raeu, instead of the life which is in the Word? J"'')'^"^^ 

\Ve reply, that the life hcre spoken of is not that which ra- c lu, 

tional and irrational aniraals havc in coraraon, but tliat whicli 

is anncxed to the Word which is within us through partici- 

pation of the primaeval Word. For we must distinguish the 

cxternal and false lifc, frora the desirable and true. Wc are 

first madc partakcrs of life : and this Ufe with sorae is hght 

poteutially only, not in act ; with those, viz. who are not 

eager to search out thc thiugs which appertain to know- 


ledge: witli others it is actual ligbt, those who, as the 
Apostle saith, covet earnestly the best gifts, that is to say, 
the word of wisdom. {U^ the life and the light of men are 
the same, whoso is in darkness is proved not to live, and 
none who liveth abideth in darkness.) Chrys.* Life having 
come to us, the empire of death is dissolved ; a light having 
shone upon us, there is darkness no longer : but there re- 
maineth ever a life which death, a light which darkness 
cannot overcome. Whence he continues, And the light 
shineth in darkness : by darkness meaning death and error, 
for sensible Hght does not shine in darkness, but darkness 
must be removed first; vvhereas the preaching of Christ 
shone forth amidst the reign of error, and caused it to 
disappear, and Christ by dying changed death into life, so 
overcoming it, that those who were already in its grasp 
were brought back again. Forasmuch then as neither dcath 
nor error hath overcome His light, which is every where 
conspicuous, shining forth by its own strength; thercfore 
he adds, And the darkness comprehended it not^. Origex. 
As the light of men is a word expressing two spiritual things, 
so is darkness aLo. To one who possesses the light, we 
attribute both the doing the deeds of the light, and also true 
understanding, inasmuch as he is illuminated by the light 
of knowledge : and on the other hand, the term darkness 
we apply both to uulawful acts, and also to that knowledge, 
which seems such, but is not. Now as the Tather is light, 
and in Ilim is no darkness at all, so is the Saviour also. 
Yet, inasmuch as He underwent the similitude of our sin- 
ful flesh, it is not incorrectly said of Him, that in Him there 
was some darkness ; for He took our darkncss upon Him- 
self, in order that He might dissipate it. This Light there- 
fore, which was made the life of man, shines in the darkness 
of our hearts, when the prince of this darkness wars with the 
human race. This Light the darkuess persecuted, as is clear 

'' Nicolai omits this clause, as not that life which is received by creation, 

being Origen's, nor fittiiig in with but that perpetual and immortal life 

what precedes and substitutes, " which which is prepared for us by the Provi- 

is afterwards followed by the word of dence of God." Life having, &c. 

knowledge, &c." " i. e. could not get hold of it ; for 

' Nicolai inserts from S. Chrys., in Chrysostom adds, " it is too strong to 

order to make the connection clear, be contended with." 
" The word ' life ' means here not only 

VER. 6 — 8. ST. JOHN. 23 

from Tvhat our Saviour and His children suffcr ; the dark- 

ness fighting against the children of light. But, forasrauch 

as God takes up the cause, they do not prevail ; nor do they 

apprehend the light, for thcy are either of too slow a nature 

to overtake the light's quick course, or, waiting for it to 

come up to tliem, they are put to flight at its approach. 

We should bear in mind, however, that darkness is uot 

ahvays uscd in a bad sense, but sometiracs in a good, as in 

Psalm xvii. He made durkness Ilis secret place : the things Ps. 18, 11. 

of God being unknown and incomprehcnsible. This dark- 

ness thcn I will call praiscwortliy, siuce it tends toward light, 

and lays hold on it : for, tliough it wcre darkucss bcfore, 

while it was not known, yet it is turned to light and know- 

ledge in him who has learned. Auo. A ccrtaiu Platonist Aup:. 

... de Civit. 

once said, that the beginning of this Gospel ought to be 13^1, 1. x. 
copied in letters of gold, and phiccd in the most conspicuous '^: ^^- 
place in every cliurch. Bede. Tlie other Evangehsts de- ikde, 
scribc Christ as born in time ; John witnesseth that Ile was '" °*^" 
in the bcginning, saying, In the beginniny was t/ie Jford. 
The othcrs describe Ilis sudden appcarance among men ; 
he witnesscth that Ile was evcr with God, saying, And the 
irord was wilh (Jod. Thc othcrs provc llim vcry man ; he 
very God, saying, And tlie Uord icas God. Thc others 
cxhibit Ilim as man conversing with mcn for a season ; he 
prououuccs llira God abidiug with God in the begiuning, 
saying, The Same was in the bcginning ivith God. The 
othcrs rclate the grcat dccds wliich IIc did amongst men ; 
he tliat God the Fatlicr made evcry creature tlirough Ilim, 
saying, All things were made by Ilini, and without Ilini was 
not a)nj thi/tf/ niade. 

6. Thcre was a man scnt from God, whose name 
was John. 

7. The same came for a witness, to bear witncss of 
the Light, that all mcn tlu-ough him niight bclieve. 

8. He was not that Light, but was sent to bcar 
witness of that Light. 

AuG. What is said abovc, rcfcrs to the Divinity of Christ. Aup. Tr. 
He camc to us iu thc form of man, but mau in such scnsc, as "" ^' 


that the Godhead was concealed within Him. And therefore 
there was sent before a great man, to declare by his witness 
that He was more than man. And who was this ? He was 
a man. Theophyl. Not an Angel, as many have held, The 

Aug. Evangelist here refutes such a notion. Aug. And how could 

'^'^*"' he declare the truth concerning God^ uuless he were sent 

Chrys. from God. Chrys. After this esteera nothing that he says 

?°!|^" ^V as human ; for he speaketh not his own, but His that sent 
him. And therefore the Prophet calls him a messenger, 1 

Mal. 3, 1. send My messenger, for it is the excellence of a messenger, to 
say nothing of his own. But the expression, was sent, does 

Isai. 6, 1. not mean his entrance into life, but to his office. As Esaias 
was sent on his commission, not from any place out of the 
world, but frora where he saw the Lord sitting upon His high 
and lofty throne ; in like manner John was sent from the 

John },33. desert to baptize ; for he says, He that sent me to baptize 
with water, the same said unto me, JJpon Whom thou shalt 
see the Spirit descending, and remaining on Ilim, the same 

Aug:. is He which baptizeth with the Holij Ghost. Aug. What 
was he called ? whose name icas John ? Alcuin. That is, 
the grace of God, or one in wliora is grace, who by his tes- 
tiraony first raade known to the world the grace of the 
New Testraent, that is, Christ. Or John may be taken to 
meau to whom it is given : because that through the grace 
of God, to him it was givcn, not only to herald, but also 

Aug. Tr. to baptize the King of kings. Aug. Wherefore came he ? 
The same came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light. 

Oriir. t. ii. Origen. Somc try to undo the testiraonies of the Prophets 
to Christ, by saying that the Son of God had no need of 
such witnesses ; the wholesorae words which He uttered 
and His miraculous acts being sufficient to produce belief ; 
just as Moses deserved belief for his speech and goodness, 
and wanted no previous witnesses. To this we may reply, 
that, where there are a number of reasons to make people 
beUeve, persons are often impressed by one kind of proof, 
and not by auother, and God, Who for the sake of all men 
became man, can give them many reasons for belief in 
Him. And with respect to the doctrine of the Incarnation, 
certain it is that some have been forced by the Prophetical 
writings into an adrairatiou of Christ by the fact of so 

VER. G — 8. ST. JOHX. 25 

many prophets having, before His Advent, fixed the place 
of Ilis uativity; and by other proofs of the sarae kind. 
It is to be remembered too, that, though the display of 
miraculous powers might stimulate the faith of those who 
lived in the same age with Christ, they miglit, in the lapse 
of time, fail to do so; as some of them might even get 
to be regarded as fabulous. Prophecy and miracles to- 
gether are more convincing than simply past miracles by 
themselves. We must rccollect too that meu receivc honour 
themselves from the witness which they bear to God. He 
deprives the Prophetical choir of immcasuraljle honour, who- 
ever denies that it was their office to bear witness to Clirist 
John when he comes to bear witness to thc light, follows in 
the train of tliose who went before him. Ciirys, Not be- C.rys. 
cause the light wanted the testimony, but for the reason (-v^t";,,*'' 
which John himsclf gives, viz. that all mijht believe on Ilim. Joh. c i. 
For as He put on flesh to save all men from death ; so He 
sent before II im a human preacher, that thc sound of a voice 
like their own, might the rcadier draw men to Ilim. Beue. Bede 
Ile saith not, that all men should believe in him ; for curserf j" ^ °*j'7 §_ 
be the man that trusteth in man ; but, that all men throuijh hhn 
might believe ; i. e. by his tcstimony bclievc in tlic Liglit. 
Theophyl. Though some however might uot bclieve, he is 
not accountable for them. When a man shuts himself up 
in a dark room, so as to reccive no light Irom the sun's rays, 
he is the cause of the deprivation, not the sun. In like 
manner John was sent, that all meu might believe ; but if 
no such result followed, he is not the cause of tlie failure. 
Chrys. Forasmuch howcver as with us, the one wlio wit- Chrys, 
nesses, is commonly a morc iraportant, a raorc trustworthy injoj,^'* 
pcrson, than tlie one to whora he bears witness, to do away c. 1. 
with any such notion in thc present case thc Evangelist pro- 
cceds ; Ile was not that Li(/ht, but was sent to bear witness of 
that Liyht. If this were not his intcntion, in repeating the 
words, to bear witness of the Liyht, the addition would be 
supcrfluous, and rather a vcrbal repetition, than the explana- 
tiou of a truth. Theophyl. But it will bc said, that we do 
not allow Joiin or any of the saints to be or ever to have 
heeu light. The diffcrence is this : if we call any of the 
saiuts light, wc put light «ithout thc aiticlc. So if askcd 


whether John is light, without the article, thou mayest allow 
without hesitation that he is : if with the article, thou allow 
it not. For he is not very, original, Hght, but is only called 
so, on account of his partaking of the light, which cometh 
from the true Light. 

9. That was the true Light. which lighteth every 
man that cometh iiito the world. 

Aug. AuG. What Light it is to which John bears witness, he 

in Joan. ghews himself, saying, That was the true Light. Chrys. Or 

chrys. thus ; having said above that John had come, and was sent, 

Hoin. in ^Q jjgg^j. witness of the Light, lest any from the recent coming 

[vi.j 1. of the witness, should infer the same of Him who is wit- 

nessed to, the Evangehst takes us back to that existence 

which is beyond all beginning, saying, That ivas the true 

Aug, Light. AuG. Wherefore is there added, true ? Because man 

/ii^^Job" enhghtened is called hght, but tlie true Light is that which 

§ 7. hghtens. For our eyes are called hghts, and yet without 

a lamp at niglit, or the sun by day, these hghts are open 

to no purpose. ^Vherefore he adds : which lighteneth every 

man : but if every mau, then John himself. He Himself 

then enHghtened the person, by whom He wislied Himself 

to be pointed out. And just as we may often, from the re- 

flexiou of the sun's rays on some objcct, know the sun to 

be risen, though we cannot look at the sun itself ; as even 

feeble eyes can look at an illuminated wall, or some object 

of that kind : even so, those to whom Christ came, beinir 

too weak to behold Him, He threw His rays upon John ; 

John confessed the illumination, and so the Illuminator Him- 

self was discovered. It is said, that cometh into the world. 

Had man not departed from Him, he had not had to be 

enhghtened; but therefore is he to be here enhghtened, 

because he departed thence, when he might have been en- 

ThLopi). hghtened. Theophyl. Let the Manichsean blush, who pro- 

in loc. nounces us the creatures of a dark and mahgnant creator : 

for we should never be enhghtened, were we not the chikh-en 

Cbrys. of the true Light. Chrys. Where are those too, who deny 

^■^'c. 2. -^^"^ ^^ ^® ^^"^y ^^^ "^ ^e see here that Ile is called very 

Light. But if He hghteneth every man that cometli into 

VER. 10. ST. JOHN. 27 

the world, how is it that so many have gone on without 

light? For all have not known the worship of Christ. 

The answer is : He only enlighteneth every man, so far as 

pertains to Him. If men shut their eyes, and will not re- 

ceive the rays of this light, their darkness arises not from 

the fault of the light, but from their owu wickedness, inns- 

much as they voluntarily deprive themselves of the gift of 

grace. For grace is poured out upon all ; and they, who 

will not enjoy the gift, may impute it to their own bhndness. 

AuG. Or the words, Ughteneth every man, may be understood .\\.\g. de 

to mean, not that there is no one who is not enlightened, pt^Kemiss! 

but that no one is enlightened except by Him. Bede. In- >• ^- x^v. 

cluding both natural and divine wisdom ; for as no one can 

exist of himself, so no one can be wise of himself. Ohigen. OHg. 

Or thus : we must not uuderstand the words, lighicnelh every i,j°j"v\ jqc 

man tliat cometh into the tcorld, of the growth from hidden 

seeds to organizcd bodies, but of the entrance into the in- 

visible worhl, by the spiritual rcgcneration and gracc, which 

is given in Baptism, Those theu the true Light lighteneth, 

who come into the world of goodness, not those who rush 

iiito the world of sin. Theophyl. Or thus : the intellect Thoopii. 

whicli is givcn in us for our dircction, and wliich is callcd '" 

natural reason, is said here to be a light given us by God. 

But some by the ill usc of their rcason havc darkcncd 


10. He was in thc world, and the world was made 
by Him, and thc world kncw Ilim not. 

AuG. The Light which lighteneth every raan that cometh Aug. Tr. 

in Joan 
ii. c. 8. 

into the worhl, came hcre in tlie flcsh ; bccause wliile lle 1|' "'"^" 

was hcre in His Uivinity alone, the foolish, bhud, and un- 
rigliteous could not discern Him ; those of whora it is said 
above, The darkness comprehended it not. Hence the text ; 
Jle was in the ivor/d. Origen. For as, whcn a person lcaves q^- 
off speaking, his voice ceases to be, and vanishes ; so if the Hom. 2, 
ircavcnly Fatlicr sliouhl cease to speak His Word, the effect 
ot that Word, i.e. the universe which is created in the Word, 
shall cease to exist. Auo. You raust not suppose, however, Aug. Tr. 
that lie was in the world in the same sense in which the "• '^- ^^* 


earth, cattle, men, are in the world; but in the sense in 

which an artificer controls his own work; whence the text, 

And the world was made by Him. Nor agaiu did He make 

it after the mauner of an artificer ; for whereas an artificer 

is external to what he fabricates, God pervades the workl, 

carrying on the work of creation in every part, and uever 

abseut from any part; by the presence of Ilis Majesty He 

both makes aud coutrols what is made. Thus He was in the 

Ciirys. world, as He by Whom the world was made. Chrys. And 

•^*Joan agaiu, because He was in the world, but not coeval with the 

viii. c. 1. world, for this cause he introduced the words, and the world 

was made by Him : thus taking you back again to the eternal 

existence of the Only-Begotten. For when we are told that 

the whole of creation was made by Him, we must be very 

dull not to acknovvledge that the Maker existed before the 

Theoph. work. Theoph YL. Hcre hc ovcrthrows at oucc thc iusaue no- 

'" "'^* tion of the Mauichsean", who says that the world is the work 

of a maliguaut creature, aud the opiuion of the Arian, that 

Au^. Tr the Son of God is a creature. Aug. But what meaneth this, 

ii! c. 11. ^^^^ world was made by Him ? The earth, sky, and sea, and 

all that are therein, are called the world. But in another 

sense, the lovers of the world are called the world, of whom 

he says, And the world knew Him not. For did the sky, or 

Augels, not know their Creator, Whom the very devils con- 

fess, Whom the whole universe has borne witness to? Who 

then did uot know Him ? Those who, from their love of the 

world, are called the world ; for such live in heart in the 

world, wliile those who do not love it, have their body in the 

Phil.3,20. world, but their heart in heaven; as saith the Apostle, our 

conversation is in heaven. By their love of the world, such 

men merit being called by the name of the place where they 

live. And just as in speaking of a bad house, or good house, 

we do not mean praise or blanie to the walls, but to the 

inhabitants ; so when we talk of the world, we mean those 

Chrys. ^ho livc therc in the love of it. Chrys. But they who were 

c. 8. 5Q. ' the friends of God, kuew Him eveu before His presence in 

the body ; whence Christ saith below, Your father Abraham 

rejoiced to see My day. When the Gentiles then interrupt 

us with the question, Why has He come in these last time& 

" So Theoph. Other copies have " of Marcion." 

VER. 11 — 13. ST. JOHN. 29 

to work our salvation, having neglected us so long ? we reply, 
that He was in ihe world before, superintending what He had 
made, and was known to all who were worthy of Him ; and 
that, if the world knew Him not, those of whom the world 
was not worthy knew Him. The reason foUows, why the 
world knew Him not. The Evangelist calls those men the 
world, who are tied to the world, and savour of worldly 
things; for there is nothing that disturbs the mind so 
much, as this melting with the love of present things. 

11. He came unto His own, and His own received 
Him not. 

12. But as many as received Him, to them gave He 
power to become the sons of God, even to them that 
believe on His name : 

13. Which were born, not of blood, nor of the w^ill 
of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 

Chrys. When he said that the world knew Him not, Chrys. 

Hom. i 

he referred to the times of the old dispcnsation, but what ^°'"- '" 

follows lias reference to the tirae of His preaching ; Ile came 
unto His own. Aug. Because all things were made by Him. Aug. in 
Theophyl. By Ilis oivn, understand either the workl, or ■^°''"' 
Judffia, which Ile had clioscn for His iuheritance. Chrys. chrys. 
Ile came then uuto His own, not for His own good, but for J^°'I'v^- 
the good of others. But whence did HeWho fills all things, 
and is every where present, come ? Ile carae out of conde- 
scension to us, though in reahty He had been in the world 
all along. But the world not secing Ilim, because it knew 
Him not, He deigned to put on flesh. And this manifes- 
tation and condescension is called His advent. But the 
merciful God so contrives His dispensations, that we may 
shine forth in proportion to our goodncss, and therefore Ile 
will not compel, but invites men, by persuasion and kind- 
ness, to come of their own accord : and so when He came, 
some received Ilim, and others received Ilira not. He 
desires not an unwilUng and forced service ; for no one who 
comes unwilUngly devotes Himself wholly to Ilim. Whence 
what follows, And Ilis own received Him not. He here calls Hom. ix. 

[viii.] 1. 

ii. 12, 


the Jews His own, as being His peculiar people ; as indeed 

are all raen in some sense, being made by Him. And as 

above, to the shame of our common nature he said, that the 

world which was made by Him, knew not its Maker; so 

here again, indignant at the ingratitude of the Jews, he 

brings a heavier charge, viz. that His own received Him not. 

Aug. Tr. AuG. But if none at all received, none will be saved. For 

no one will be saved, but he who received Christ at His 

coming; and therefore he adds, As many as received Him. 

Ciirys. Chrys. Whcther they be bond or free, Greek or Barbarian, 

Joan x" ^^^^ o^ unwise, women or men, the young or the aged, all 

[ix.] 2. are made meet for the honour, which the Evangelist now 

proceeds to mention. To them gave He power to become 

Aug. Tr. the sons of God. Aug. O amazing goodness ! He was born 

"' ' the Only Son, yet would not remain so ; but grudged not to 

admit joiut heirs to His inheritance. Nor was this narrowed 

Chrys. by raany partaking of it. Chrys. He saith not that He made 

rixl 2^^ them the sons of God, but gave them power to become the 

sons of God : shewing that there is need of much care, to 

preserve the image, which is formed by our adoptioa in 

Baptism, untarnished : and shewing at the same time also 

that no one can take this power from us, except we rob our- 

selves of it. Now, if the delegates of worldly governments 

have often nearly as much power as those governments them- 

selves, much more is this the case with us, who derive our 

dignity from God. But at the same time the Evangelist 

wishes to shew that this grace coraes to us of our own will 

and endeavour : that, in short, the operation of grace being 

supposed, it is in the power of our free will to make us the 

sons of God. Theophyl. Or the meaning is, that the most 

perfect sonship will only be attained at the resurrection, as 

Rom. 8, saith the Apostle, JFaiting for the adoption, to wit, the re- 

demption of our hody. He tlierefore gave us the power to 

become the sons of God, i.e. the power of obtaining this 

Chrys. grace at some future time. Chrys. And because in the 

^"'•'^" ' matter of these ineffable benefits, the giving of grace belongs 

to God, but the extending of faith to man, He subjoins, 

even to those who believe on His name. Why then declarest 

thou not, John, the punishment of those who received Him 

not ? Is it because there is no greater punishment than that, 

VER. 14. ST. JOHN. 31 

wlien the power of becoming the sous of God is ofFered to 

men, they should not beconie such, but voluntarily deprive 

themselves of the dignity? But besides this, inextinguish- 

able fire awaits all such, as will appear clearly fartlier on. 

AuG. To be made then the sons of God, and brothers of Aug. Tr. 

Christ, they must of course be born ; for if thcy are not "' ^*' 

born, how can they be sons? Now the sons of men are born 

of flcsli and blood, and the will of man, and the embrace of 

wcdlock; but how tJicse are born, the next words dcclare: 

Not of bloods ^ ; that is, the male's and the female's. Bloods i i^ alfia- 

is not correct Latin, but as it is plural in the Greek, the "^"^ 

translator preferred to put it so, though it be not strictly 

grammatical, at the same time explaining the word in order 

not to offend thc weakncss of onc's hearers. Bede. It shoukl 

be understood that in holy Scripture, blood in the plural 

uumber, has the signific:ition of sin: thus in thc Psalms, i»s. 51, ii. 

Deliver mefrom blooduuiltiness^. Auo. In that whicli follows, Aug. Tr 

Nor of the ivill of the flesh, nor of the will of man, the flcsh "' ' 

is put for thc fciuale ; bccause, when she was made out of 

the rib, Adam said, This is now bune of my bone, and flesh of Gcn. 2,23. 

nuj flcsh. The flesh thcrcfore is j^ut for thc wife, as the 

spirit somctimcs is for the husband ; bccause that thc one 

ouglit to govcrn, thc otlicr to obey. For what is there worse 

tlian an house, whcre the woman hath rulc ovcr tlic man ? 

But tliese that we spcak of are born ncithcr of the will of the 

flcsh, nor the will of man, but of God. Bepe. The carnal 

birth of men dcrivcs its origin from the embracc of wcdlock, 

but the spiritual is dispeuscd by tlie gracc of the Iloly 

Spirit. CiiKYS. Tlic Evangchst makcs this dcchxration, that Chrys. 

being taught the vileness and iufcriority of our former birth, nxi 3* 

which is through blood, and thc will of the flcsli, and undcr- 

standing the loftiucss aud uoblcucss of tiie sccoud, which 

is through gracc, we might hence receive great knowledge, 

worthy of bciug bcstowcd by Ilim who bcgat us, and aftcr 

this slicw forth luuch zcal. 

14. And the Word was madc flesb, and dwelt 
among us. 

AuG. Ilaving said, Born of God ; to prevent surprisc and Aug. Tr 

ii 15 
P Plur. in the Vulg. as in tlie Heb. 


trepidation at so great, so apparently incredible a grace, 
as that men should be born of God; to assure us, he says, 
And the IVord was made flesh. Why marvellest thou then 
that men are born of God? Know that God Himself was 
Chrys. born of man. Chrys. Or thus, after saying that they were 
flcTi.'"' born of God, who received Ilira, he sets forth the cause of 
this honour, viz. the Word being made flesh, God's own 
Son was made the Son of Man, that He might make the sons 
of men the sons of God. Now when thou hearest that the 
Word ivas made flesh, be not disturbed, for He did not 
change His substance into flesh, which it were indeed im- 
pious to supposej but remaining what He was, took upon 
Him the form of a servant. But as there are some who say, 
that the whole of the incarnation was only iu appearance, 
to refute such a blasphemy, he used the expression was 
made, meaning to represent not a conversion of substance, 
but an assumption of real flesh. But if they say, God is 
omnipotent; why then could He not be changed into flesh? 
we reply, that a change frora an unchangeable nature is 
Aug. de a contradiction. Aug. As our word i becomes the bodily 
^ "^on" ^^- \ voice, by its assamption of that voice, as a means of de- 

C. 20. (XI.) ' J r > 

veloping itself externally ; so the Word of God was made 

flesh, by assuming flesh, as a means of manifcsting Itself 

to the world. And as our word is made voice, yet is not 

turned into voice ; so the Word of God was made flesh, but 

never turned into flesh. It is by assuming another nature, 

not by consuming theraselves in it, that our word is made 

P. iii. voice, and the Word, flesh. Ex Gestis Conc. Eph. The dis- 

Theod. course which we utter, which we use in conversation with 

Ancyr. each othcr, is incorporeal, imperceptible, impalpable; but 

Dom. clothed in letters and characters, it becomes material, per- 

ceptible, tangible. So too the Word of God, which was 

naturally invisible, bccomes visible, and that comes before 

us in tangible form, which was by nature incorporeal. 

in Joan. Alcuin. Whcn wc think how the incorporeal soul is joined 

^' ^- to the body, so as that of two is made one raan, we too shall 

the raore easily receive the notion of the incorporeal Divine 

substance being joined to the soul in the body, in unity ot 

person; so as that the Word is not turned into flesh, nor 

1 See above, p. 1—3. 

VER. 13. ST. JOHN". 33 

tlie flesh into the "Word; just as the soul is not turned iuto 
body, nor the body into soul. 

Theophyl. Apollinarius of Laodicea raised a heresy upon Thenph. 
this text ; saying, that Christ had flesh only, not a rational ^" 
soul ; in the place of which His divinity directed aud con- 
trollcd His body. Aug. If men are disturbed however by its Au». con. 
bcing said that the IVord ivas made flesh, without meution Ari.!n. 
of a soul ; let them know that the flesh is put for the wliole ^- ^- C^-) 
man, the part for thc whole, by a figure of speech ; as in the 
Psalms, Unto Thee shall all flesh come ; and again in Romans, Ps. G.5, 2. 
By the dceds of the law there shall no flesh be justifled. In Rom. 3, 
tlie same sense it is said here that the Word was made flesh ; 
meaning that the Word was made man. Theophyl. The Theopii. 
EvangeUst intends by making mcntion of the flesh, to shew 
the unspeakable condcscension of God, and lcad us to admire 
His compassion, in assuming for our salvation, what was so 
opposite and incongenial to His nature, as the flesh : for tlie 
soul has some propinquity to God. If the Word, however, 
was madc fle.oh, and assuraed not at the same time a human 
soul, our souls, it would follow, would not be yet rcstorcd : 
for what He did not assume, He could not sanctify. "SVhat 
a mockcry thcn, when thc soul first sinned, to assume and 
sanctify the flesh only, leaving the weakest part untouched ! 
Tliis tcxt ovcrthrows Nestorius, who assertcd that it was not 
the vcry Word, even God, Who the Sclf-sarac was made 
man, being conceived of the sacred blood of the Airgin : but 
that the Virgin brouglit forth a man cndowcd with cvery 
kind of virtue, aud that the Word of God was unitcd to 
him : thus making out two sons, one born of the Virgin, i.e. 
man, the othcr born of God, that is, the Son of God, united 
to that man by grace, and relation, and lovc "■. In opposition 
to him the Evangehst dcclarcs, that the very Word was made 
!Man, not that the Word fixing upon a rightcous man united 
Himself to him. Cyril. The Word uniting to Himself a body Cyril. ad 
of flcsh animated with a rational soul, substantially, was in- 

' The union of the two Natures in to describe a "nearness" of tlie Man- 

our Lord, Kara (tx*'''"'. or ffxeTifci) hood, as united cxlerually, by dignity, 

avv&(peia, in the Nestorian heresy, or likeness of honour, or unity of will, 

stands opposed to tlie belief of their or good pleasure, or love, or aflcction, 

"natural" tVoiais (pvaiKi] in one Per- or power, instead of being " taken info 

8on. ffxfcris is used for " relation, God." See Petav. de lucarn. iii. 3. 
cognafeness, affection, conjunction," 



effably and incoraprehensibly made Man, and called the Son 
of man, and that not according to the will only, or good- 
pleasure, nor again by the assumption of the Person alone. 
The natures are different indeed which are brought into true 
union, but He Who is of both, Christ the Son, is One ; the 
difference of the natures, on the other hand, not being de- 

Theopli. stroyed in consequence of this coalition. Theophyl. From 

in V. 14. ^^g ^g^^^ j,^^ Word was made flesh, we learn this farther, 
that the Word Itself is man, and being the Son of God was 
made the Son of a woman, who is rightly called the Mother 

Hil. X. of God, as having given birth to God in the flesh. Hilary. 

c.^21^2'2. Some, however, who think God the Only-Begotten, God the 
Word, Who was in the bcginning with God, not to be God 
substantially, but a Word sent forth, the Son being to God 
the Father, what a word is to one who utters it, these men, 
in order to disprove that the Word, bcing substantially God, 
and abiding in the form of God, was born the Man Christ, 
argue subtilly, that, wliereas that Man (they say) derivcd 
His life rather from human origin than from the mystcry of 
a spiritual conccption, God the W^ord did not make Himself 
Man of the womb of thc Virgin ; but that the Word of God 
was in Jesus, as the spirit of prophecy iu the Prophets. And 
they are accustomed to charge us with hokling, that Christ 
was born a Man, not^ of our body and soul; wlicreas we 
preach the Word made flcsh, and after our likeness born 
Man, so that He Who is truly Son of God, was truly born 
Son of man ; and that, as by His own act IIc took upon 
Him a body of the Virgin, so of Himself He took a soul also, 
which in no case is derivcd frora man by mere parental 
origin. And seeing He, The Self-same, is the Son of man, 
how absurd were it, besides the Son of God, Who is the 
Word, to make Him another person besides, a sort of pro- 
phet, inspired by the Word of God ; whereas our Lord Jesus 

Chrys. Christ is both the Son of God, and the Son of man, Chrys. 

Joan.xi! ^*^^^ from it being said, however, that the Word was made 

[x.] 2. flesh, you should infer improperly a change of His incor- 
ruptible nature, he subjoins, And dwelt among us. For that 
which inhabits is not the same, but different from the habit- 

' 'Non'is omittedin sorneMSS.; but throughout guards against Sabellian- 
S. Hilary in writing against the Arians, ism. — Ben. 

VER. 14. 6T. JOHN. 35 

ation : different, I say, in nature ; though as to uuion and 
conjunctiou, God the Word aud the flcsh are ouc, without 
coufusion or extiuction of substaucc. Alcuin. Or, dwelt 
among us, means, lived amougst men. 

14. And we saw His glory, the glory as of the only 
begotten of the Father, fuU of grace and truth. 

CuRYS. Ilaving said that we are madc thc sons of God, ciirjs. 
and in no other way than because the Word was made flesh ; r^""]'"!'^"' 
he mentions another gift, A?id we saw His ghry. AViiich 
glory wc should uot have scen, had Ile uot, by Ilis alliaucc 
with humauity, bccorac visible to us. For if thcy could not 
endure to look on the glorified face of Moses, but there was 
nccd of a vcil, how could soilcd and earthly creaturcs, hke 
ourselves, have borue thc sight of uudisguiscd Divinity, which 
is not vouchsafed even to the higher powers themselves. Aug. Aug. in 
Or thus; iu that the IVord was made JJesJi and dwelt among :'."■''"• ^*"' 
us, Ilis birth bccame a kiud of oiutraeut to anoint thc eyes 
of our heart, that we might through His humanity disceru 
Ilis majesty ; aud thcrcforc it follows, And ive saw Ilis glort/. 
No oue could sce Ilis glory, who was not hcalcd by the hu- 
raiHty of the flesh. For there had flown upon man's eye as 
it were dust from thc earth : the eye had bcen diseascd, aud 
earth was scnt to hcal it agaiu ; the flcsh liad bhndcd thcc, 
the flcsh rcstorcs thee. The soul by couscutiug to carual 
afi^ections had become carnal ; heuce the eye of the miud 
had bccn blindcd : thcn the physiciau madc for thce oint- 
mcnt. Ile camc iu such wise, as that by thc flcsli IIc de- 
stroyed the corruptiou of the flesh. Aud thus the JFord 
WdS made flesh, that thou mightcst bc aljlc to say, We saw 
Jlis glory. Cukvs. Ile subjuius, As of the Only-Begotten o/chrys. 
the Father : for many prophets, as ]\Ioses, Ehjah, and others, j o°"'^?j 
workcrs of miracles, had becu glorified, and Angcls also who [xi.J l 
appcared uuto men, shiuiug with the brightncss belougiug 
to thcir naturc ; Chcrubim aud Seraphim too, who wcrc seeu 
in glorious array by the prophets. But the Evangelist with- 
drawiug our minds from tlicse, and raising thcra above all 
uature, aud evcry pre-emiueuce of fellow-servauts, lcads us 
up to the summit Himself; as if lie said, Not of prophct, or 



of any other man, or of Angel, or Archangel, or any of the 
higher powers, is the glory which we beheld ; but as that of 
the very Lord, very King, very and true Only-Begotten Son. 
Greg. In Scripture language as, and as it were, are some- 
times put not for likeness but reality ; whence the expression, 
As of the Only-Begotten of the Father. Chrys. As if he said : 
We saw His glory, such as it was becoming and proper for 
the Only-Begotten and true Son to have. We have a form 
of speech, like it, derived from our seeing kings always 
splendidly robed. When the dignity of a maa's carriage is 
beyond description, we say, In sliort, he went as a king. 
So too John says, We saw His glory, the glory as of the Only- 
Begotten of the Father. For Angels, whcn they appeared, 
did every thing as servants who had a Lord, but He as 
the Lord appearing in humble form. Yet did all creatures 
recognise their Lord, the star calHng the Magi, the Angels 
the shepherds, the child leaping in the womb acknowledgcd 
Him : yea the Father bore witness to Him from heaven, and 
the Paraclete descending upon Him : and the very universe 
itself shouted louder than any trumpet, that the King of 
heaven had come. For devils fled, diseascs were healed, 
the graves gave up the dead, and souls were brought out 
of wickedness, to the utmost height of virtue. What shall 
one say of the wisdom of precepts, of the virtue of heavenly 

Origen. laws, of thc cxcellent institution of the angclical life ? Ori- 

Hom. 2. gj,jj p^ii QJ' gyace and truth. Of this the meaning is two- 
fold. For it may be understood of the Humanity, and the 
Divinity of the Incarnate Word, so that the fulness of grace 
has reference to the Humanity, according to which Christ is 
the Head of the Church, and the first-born of every creature : 
for the greatest and original example of grace, by which 
man, with no preceding merits, is made God, is manifesteci 
primarily in Him. The fulness of the grace of Christ may 
also be understood of the Holy Spirit, whose sevenfold opera- 

Is, 11,2. tion filled Christ's Humanity. The fulness of truth applies 

to the Divinity But if you had rather understand 

the fulness of grace and truth of the New Testament, you 
may with propriety pronounce the fulness of the grace of 
the New Testament to be given by Christ, and the truth of 

VoTSc ^^^^ ^^o^^ ^IV^^ to have been fulfiUed in Him. Theophyl. 

VER. 15. ST. JOHN. 37 

Or, full of grace, inasmuch as His word was gracious, as 
saith David, FuU of yrace are Thy lips ; and truth, because Ps. 45, 3. 
what Moses and the Prophets spoke or did in figure, Christ 
did in reaUty. 

15. John bare witness of Him, and cried, saying, 
This was He, of whom I spake, He that cometh after 
me is preferred before me, for He was before me. 

Alcuin. He had said before that there was a man sent to 
bear witness; now He gives definitely the forerunner's own 
tcstimony, which plaiiily declarcd tlie exccUence of Ilis 
Iluman Nature and the Eternity of His Godhead. John 
bare witness of Him. Chrys. Or He introduces this, as Chrys, 
if to sav, Do not suppose that we bear wituess to this out .^""'' 
of gratitudc, because we were with Him a long time, and xiii. [xii.] 

.12 3 

partook of Ilis table ; for John who had never seen Ilira ' ' 
before, nor tarried with Him, bare witness to Him. The 
Evangchst repeats John's testimony many tiracs herc and 
there, because lie was hcld in such adrairatiou l)y thc Jcws. 
Other Evangehsts refer to the old prophets, and say, This 
was done that it ini(j}it be fulfilkd ivhich was spoken hy the 
prophet. But he iutroduces a loftier, and later witness, not 
intending to make the servant vouch for the master, but 
only condesccnding to thc weakness of his liearcrs. For as 
Christ would not have bcen so readily reccived, liad Ile not 
taken upon Hira tlie forra of a servant ; so if Ile had not 
excited the attention of servants by the voice of a fcllow- 
scrvaut bcforchand, tliere wouhl not have been raany Jews 
crabracing the word of Christ. It follows, And cried ; that 
is, preached with openness, with freedora, without reservation. 
He did not howcvcr begin with assertiiig that this one was 
the natural only-bcgotten Son of God, but criecl, saying, This 
was He of whom I spake, Ue that cometh after me is pre- 
ferred hefore me, for Ile tcas before me. For as birds do not 
teach thcir young all at once to fly, but first draw thcm 
outside the nest, and afterwards try them with a quicker 
motion ; so John did not immediately lead the Jews to high 
things, but began with lesscr flights, saying, that Christ was 
bcttcr than hc ; which in the mean time was no httlc ad- 


vance. And observe how prudently he introduces his testi- 
raony ; he not only points to Christ when He appears, but 
preaches Hini beforehand ; as, This is He of whom I spake. 
This would prepare men's minds for Christ^s coming; so 
that when He did come, the humility of His garb would be 
no impediraent to His being received. For Christ adopted 
so hurable and coramon an appearance, that if men had seen 
Hira without first hearing John's testimony to His great- 
ness, none of the things spoken of Him would have had any 
effect. Theophyl. He saith, Who cometh after me, that is, 
as to the time of His birth. John was six raonths before 
Clirys, Christ, according to His humanity. Chrys, Or this does 
Hom. xiii. ^Q^ ^g^j, ^^ ^j^g birth frora ]Mary ; for Christ was born, when 

|_XU.J t>. 

this was said by John ; but to His coming for the work of 

preaching. He then saith, is made * before me ; that is, is 

raore illustrious, raore honourable ; as if he said, Do not 

suppose rae greater than He, because I came first to preach. 

Theopli. Theophyl. The Arians infer from this woid ^, that the 

iV^-ywe»' ^o^ ^^ ^°^ ^^ "^^ bcgotten of the Fathcr, but madc like 

Aug. any other creature. Aug. It does not raean — He was made 

in Joan. j r -r itt- pi f^ 

Tr. 3, before I was macle; but iJe is preterred to rae. Chrys. 
^}^^y^- ... If the words, made before me, referred to His coraing into 

Hom, xni, . , 

[xii.] 3. being, it was superfluous to add, For Ile was before me. 
For who would be so foolish as not to know, that if He was 
made before him, Ile was before him. It would have been 
more correct to say, He was before me, because He was 
raade before me. The expression then, He was made before 
me, must be taken in the sense of honour : only that which 
was to take place, he speaks of as having taken place already, 
after the style of the old Prophets, who commonly talk of 
the future as the past. 

16. And of His fulness have all we received, and 
grace for grace. 

17. For the law was given by Moses, but grace 
and truth came by Jesus Christ. 

Oiig, Origen. This is to be considered a continuation of the 

t"vi. s"' ^^Pt^sfs testimony to Christ, a point which has escaped 

' 'yi-yoviv. Vulg., factus : Eng, T., preferred. 

VER. 16, 17. ST. JOHN. 39 

the attention of many, who think that from this to, He v. i8. 
hath declared Him, St. John the Apostle is speaking. But 
the idea that on a sudden, and, as it would seem, unseason- 
ably, the discourse of the Baptist shoukl be interrupted by 
a speech of the disciple's, is inadmissible. And any one, 
able to follow the passage, will discern a very obvious con- 
nexion hcre. For having said, He is preferred before me,for 
Ile ivas before me, he proceeds, From this I know that Ile is 
bcfore me, bccausc I aud the Prophets wlio preceded me 
have received of Ilis fuluess, and grace for grace, (the second 
grace for the first.) For they too by the Spirit penetrated 
beyond the figure to the contemplation of the truth. And 
hence rcceiving, as we have done, of Ilis fuluess, we judgc 
that the law was givcn by Moses, but that grace and truth 
were made ^, by Jesus Christ — made, not giveu ; the Father » iyivfro: 
gave the law by Moses, but made grace and truth by Jesus. y^''^^ 
But if it is Jesus who says bclow, / am the Trutlt, how is caino. 
truth made by Jesus? We must understand however that °'" ' ' 
the vcry substautial Truth'-', from which First Truth and Its 2 „1-70- 
Image mauy truths are engravcn on those who trcat of tlie "^'J^**» 
truth, was not made through Jcsus Christ, or through any 
one; but only thc truth which is in individuals, such as in 
raul, e. g. or the other Apostlcs, was made through Jesus 
Christ. CiiRYS. Or thus ; John the Evangelist herc adds chrys, 
his tcstimony to that of John thc Baptist, sayiug, And of '" '"'■*": 
Ilis fidness have ive all received. Thcse arc not the words [xiii.J 1. 
of the forcruuncr, but of the disciplc ; as if he mcant to say, 
AVe also the twclvc, and thc wholc body of the faithful, 
both prcscnt and to come, liavc reccivcd of Ilis fulness. 
AuG. But what have ye rcccivcd? Grace for grace. So Aup. 
that wc arc to understand that we have rcceived a certain 1^"^ j"* * 
something from Ilis fulncss, and ovcr aud above this, grace l- 8. 
for grace ; that we have first rcccivcd of Ilis fulncss, first 
grace ; and again, we have received gracc for gracc. What 
grace did we first rcceive ? Faith : which is callcd grace, 
bccause it is givcn freely '\ This is tlie first gracc thcn which ^ gratis 
the sinncr rcccivcs, the rcmission of his sins. Agaiu, wc 
have grace for grace ; i. e. instead of that grace in which we 
live by faith, wc are to reccive another, viz. life etcrnal : for 
life etcrual is as it weru thc \va<ies of faith. Aiul thus as 


faith itself is a good grace, so life eternal is grace for grace. 
There was not grace in the Old Testament ; for the law 
threatened, but assisted not, commandedj but healed not, 
shewed our weakness, but reheved it not. It prepared the 
way however for a Physician who was about to corae, with 
the gifts of grace and truth : whence the sentence which 
follows : For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth 
were made by Jesus Christ. The death of thy Lord hath de- 
stroyed death, both temporal and eternal; that is, the grace 

Chrys. which was promised, but not contained, in the law. Curys. 

^""V ... -, Or we have received grace for grace ; that is, the ncw in the 

xi V. 1X1111 

sparsim. placc of thc old. For as there is a justice and a justice bc- 
sides, an adoption and another adoption, a circumcision and 
another circumcision ; so is there a grace and anothcr grace ; 
only the one being a type, the other a reality. Ile brings 
in the words to shew that the Jews as well as ourselves are 
saved by grace : it being of mercy and grace that they re- 
ceived the law. Next, after he has said, Grace for grace, 
he adds something to sheAV the magnitude of the gift ; For 
the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth were made 
by Jesus Christ. John whcn comparing himself with Clirist 
above had said, He is preferred before me : but the Evan- 
gehst draws a comparison between Christ, and one much 
more in admiration with the Jews than John, viz, Moses. 
And observe his wisdom. He does not draw the comparison 
between the persons, but the things, contrasting gracc and 
truth to the law : the latter of which he says was given, 
a word only applying to an administrator; the former madc, 
as we should speak of a king, who does every thing by iiis 
power : though in this King it would be with grace also, be- 
cause that with power He remitted all sins. Now His grace 
is shewn in His gift of Baptism, and our adoption by the 
Holy Spirit, and many other things ; but to have a better 
insight into what the truth is, we should study the figures of 
the old law : for what was to be accomplished in tlie New 
Testament, is prefigured in the Old, Christ at His Coming 
filhng up the figure. Thus was the figure given by Moses, 
Aiipr. but the truth made by Christ, Aug, Or, we may refer grace 
^^.j '^'"' to knowledge, truth to wisdom, Amongst the events of 
2 1. [xix. ] time the highest grace is the uniting of man to God in One 

VER. 18. ST. JOHN 41 

Person ; in the eternal world the highest truth pertaias to 
God the AVord. 

18. No man hath seen God at any time ; the only 
bcgotten Son, which is in thc bosom of the Father, 
IIc hath dcclared Him. 

Origex. Heracleon asserts, that this is a declaration oforifr. 

„ , _. . , , .,• iii Joan. 

the disciple, not of the Baptist : an uureasonablc supposition ; ^ ^.j ^ ^. 
for if the words, 0/ Jlis fulness have ive all reccivcd, are thc 
Baptist's, does not the connection run naturaliy, that he re- 
ceiving of the gracc of Christ, thc sccond iu thc placc of the 
first grace, and confessing that the hiw was givcu by Moses, 
but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ; understood hcre 
that uo man had seen God at any time, aud that the Ouly- 
BcgottcUjWho was in thc bosom of thcFathcr,had committed 
this dcchiration of Ilimself to Johu, aud all who with him 
had received of liis fulness? For John was uot the first 
who dcchircd Ilim ; for IIc Ilimself AVho was hcforc Abra- 
ham, tclls us, that Abraham rcjoiced to scc Ilis glory. Chrys. Chrys. 
Or thus; the Evangelist after shcwing the great superiority y]„'„"^ ' 
of Christ's gifts, comparcd witli those dispcnscd by Moses, [*'''•] 
wishcs in thc uext placc to supply an adcquate reason for 
the diffcreucc. Tlic ouc being a servant was made a miuistcr 
of a lesser dispensation : but the othcr Who was Lord, and 
Son of the King, brouglit us far hi^hcr tliings, beiug evcr 
co-existcnt with tlic Fatiicr, aud /w/ioldinr/ Ilim. Tlieu fol- 
lows, Ko inon /laih seeii God at any time, ^-c. Auo. What is Aug;. En. 
that tiicu whicli Jacob said, / havc scen Godfacc to face ; aud (°;p''\','7f 
that which is writtcu of Moscs, he tal/<ed with God face /o [n2.J c. 
face; and that which thc propiict Isaiah saith of himself, Oen. 32. 
/ saw the Lord sitting upon a t/irone? Gui:o. It is plainly \'^^^q' 
giveu us to uudcrstaud hcrc, that whilc we arc iu this mortal Grcg. 
state, we can see God only through the mediura of certam jiorai. 
imases, not in the reahtv of Ilis own nature. A soul in- c. s*. 
flucuccd by thc gracc of tlie Spirit may see God through ccr- rcc 28. 
tain ligurcs, but cauuot pcuetrate into His absolute esscnce. 
Aud heuce it is that Jacob, who testifies tliat he saw God, 
saw nothing but an Augel : aud that Moscs, who talkcd 
witli God facc to facc, says, Stiew me T/nj waij, i/iai 1 may V.xai. 




Hom. XV. 

12, 10. 

Au<r. Ep. 
to Paulina 
Matt. 5, 8. 
1 Jolin 


Aug. xii. 
on Gen. 
ad litte- 
ram c. 27. 

2 Cor, 
12, 2. 




c. Si. 90. 



Aug. to 
Paul. c. iv, 

know Thee : meaning that he ardently desired to see in the 
brightness of His own infinite Nature, Hira Whom he had 
only as yet seen reflected in images. Chrys. If the old 
fathers had seen That very Nature, they would not have 
contemplated It so variously, for It is in Itself simple and 
without shape ; It sits not, It walks not ; these are the 
qualities of bodies. Whence He saith through the Prophet, 
/ have multiplied visions, and used simiUtudes, by the ministry 
ofthe Prophets : i.e. I have condescended to thera, I appeared 
that which I was not. For inasmuch as the Son of God was 
about to manifest Himself to us in actual flesh, men were 
at first raised to the sight of God, in such ways as allowed 
of their seeing Him. Aug. Now it is said, Blessed are the 
pure in heart, for they shall see God ; and again, When He 
shall appear, we shall be like unto Him, for we shall see Him 
as He is. What is the meaning then of the words here : No 
man hath seen God at any time ? The reply is easy : those 
passages speak of God, as to be seen, not as already seen. 
They shall see God, it is said, not, they have seen Him : nor 
is it, we have seen Him, but, we shall see Uim as He is. For, 
No man hath seea God at any time, neither in this life, nor 
yet in the Angelic, as He is ; in thc sarae way in which 
sensible things are perceived by the bodily vision. Greg. 
If however any, while inhabiting this corruptible flesh, can 
advance to such an imraeasurable height of virtue, as to 
be able to discern by the contemplative vision, the eternal 
brightness of God, their case aff^ects not what we say, For 
whoever seeth wisdora, that is, God, is dead wholly to this 
life, being no longer occupied by the love of it. Aug. For 
unless any in sorae scnse die to this life, either by leaving 
the body altogether, or by being so withdrawn and alienated 
frora carnal perceptions, that he may well not know, as the 
Apostle says, whether he be in the body or out of the body, he 
cannot be carried away, and borne aloft to that vision, Greg. 
Sorae hold that in the place of bliss, God is visible in His 
brightness, but not in His nature. This is to indulge in over 
rauch subtlety. For in that siraple and unchangeable es- 
sence, no division can be made betvveen the nature and the 
brightness. Aug. If we say, that the text, No one " hath seen 

" ouSeJs: Vulg,, nemo: E. T., no man. 

VER. 18. ST. JOHN. 43 

God at any time, applies only to meu ; so that, as the Apo- 
stle raore plainly interprets it, IVhom no inan hath seen nor i Tim. 
can see, no one is to be undcrstood here to mean, no one o/ ' ' 
men : the question may be solved in a way not to contradict 
what our Lord says, Their Angels do always behold iheface Matt. 
of My Father ; so that we must believe that Angels sec, what ^' ^^* 
no one, i.e. of men, hath ever scen. Greg. Some however Greg. 
there are who conceive that not even the Angels see God. w'"', 

o Moral. 

CiiRYs. That very existcucc which is God, ncithcr Prophets, c. 54. 
nor cven Angels, nor yet Archangcls, have seen. For en- xxxviul * 
quire of the Angels ; they say nothing concerning His Sub- t^iTys. 
stance; but sing, Glury to God in the hiyhesf, and Peace on (xiv.) 1, ' 
earth to men of good will. Nay, ask even Cherubim and Luke 2, 1. 
Seraphim ; thou wilt hear only in reply the mystic melody of 
devotion, and that hcaven and earth are full of His glory. is. 6, 3. 
AuG. Which indccd is true so far, that no bodily or evcn Auo:. to 
mental vision of man hath cver embraced the fuhicss of God ; c. 7. 
for it is one thing to see, another to embrace the whole of 
what thou secst. A thing is secn, if only the sight of it bc 
caught ; but we only scc a thing fully, when we havc no 
part of it unseen, wlicn we see round its extreme limits. 
Chrvs. In this completc scnsc only the Son and tlie Holy Chrys. 
Ghost scc thc Fathcr. For how can crcated nature sce that Hom! xV. 
which is uncreated ? So tlien no man knoweth the Father as t^'^-3 *• 
the Son knowcth Him : and licnce what follows, The Only- 
Begotten Son, 11' ho is in tlie bosom of the Father, Ile hath 
declared Ilim. That we might not be led by the identity of 
the namc, to confound Him with the sons made so by grace, 
thc articlc is anncxcd in the first placc ; and thcn, to put 
an cnd to all doubt, the name Only-Bcgotten is introduccd. 
HiLARY. Thc Truth of His Nature did not sccm sufficiently H'.'- ''« 
cxplaincd by thc name of Son, uulcss, in addition, its pccu- ^d. 
liar force as propcr to Him were cxpresscd, so signifying 
its distinctness frora all beside. For in that, besides Son, 
hc calleth Hira also the Only-Begotten, he cut off altogether 
all suspicion of adoption, the Nature of the Only-Begotten 
guarautccing the truth of the name. Curys. He adds, Chrys. 
(fhich is in the bosom of the Father. To dwell in thcr^jyjgr 
bosom is much more than simply to see. For he who sees 
simply, hath not thc knowlcdge thoroughly of tluit which 


he sees ; but he who dwells in the bosom, knoweth every 
thing. When you hear then that no one knoweth the 
Father save the Son, do not by any means suppose that He 
only knows the Father more than any other, and does not 
know Him fully. For the Evangelist sets forth His residiug 
in the bosora of the Father on this very account: viz. to 
shew us the intimate converse of the Only-Begotteu, and His 
Aug. in coeternity with the Father. Aug. In the bosom of tlie Father, 
Joan. Tr. • -^ ^j^^ sccrct Presencc ^ of the Father : for God hath not 

111. c. 17. 

* secreto thc fold ^ on the bosom, as we have ; nor must be imagined 
to sit, as we do ; nor is He bound with a girdle, so as to have 
a fold : but from the fact of our l)osom being placed inner- 
raost, the secret Presence of the Father is callcd the bosom 
of the Father. He then who, in the secret Presencc of the 
Father, knew the Father, the same hath declared what He saw. 

Chrys, Chrys. But what hath He declared ? That God is one. But 

rx*iv i 3^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ Prophcts and Moses proclaim : what else 
have we learnt from the Son Who was in the bosom of the 
Father? lu the.first place, that those very truths, which the 
others declared, were declared through the operation of the 
Only-Bcgottcn : in the next place, we have received a far 
greater doctrine frora the Only-Begottcn ; viz. that God is 
a Spirit, and those who worship Hira raust worship Him in 
spirit and in truth ; and that God is the Father of thc Only- 

Bede Begottcu. Bede. Farthcr, if the word declared have reference 
to the past, it must be considered that He, being made man, 
declared the doctrine of the Trinity in unity, and how, and by 
what acts we should prepare ourselves for the contemplation 
of it. If it have reference to the future, then it means that 
Ile will declare Him, when He shall introduce His elect to 

Aug. Tr. the vision of Ilis brightness. Aug. Yet have there been men, 
who, deceived by the vanity of their hearts, maintained that 
the Father is invisible, the Son visible. Now if they call the 
Son visible, with respect to His connection with the flesh, we 
object not ; it is the CathoHc doctrine. But it is madness in 
them to say He was so before His incarnation ; i.e. if it be 
true that Christ is the Wisdora of God, and the Power of 
God. The Wisdora of God cannot be seen by the eye. If 
the huraan word cannot be seen by the eye, how can the 

" KoXnhs, sinus, bosom, mean ofteu, 'fold of the garment on the bosom.* 

c. 18. 

VER. 19—23. ST. JOHN. 45 

Word of God? Ciirys. The text then, No man hath seen Chrys. 
God at any iime, appHes not to the Father only, but also to [^xv."'iV'' 
the Son : for Ile, as Paul saith, is the Image of the invisible 
God ; but He who is the Iraage of the Invisible, must Him- 
self also be invisible. 

19. And this is the record of John, whcn the Jews 
sent priests and Levites from Jerusalem to ask him, 
Who art thou ? 

20. And hc confessed, and denied not ; but con- 
fcssed, I am not the Christ. 

21. And they asked him, AVhat then ? Art thou 
EHas ? And he saith, I am not. Art thou that pro- 
phet ? And he answered, No. 

22. Then said they unto him, Who art thou? that 
we may give an answer to them that sent us. Wliat 
sayest thou of thyself ? 

23. He said, I am the voice of onc crying in the 
wildcrness, Makc straight the way of the Lord, as said 
thc prophet Esaias. 

Origen. This is thc sccond testimony of John the Baptist orig. 
to Christ, the first began with, This is Ile of whom I spake ; ;j,;J°^"* 
and ended with, He hafh declarcd Ilim. Tiieophvl. Or, c. 29. 
aftcr the introduction above of John's tcstiraony to Ciirist, is i^ loc. 
preferred before me, the Evangehst now adds when the above 
testimony was given, And this is the record of John, when the 
Jews scnt priests and Levites from Jerusalem. Oiugkn. Thc Orig. 
Jews of Jerusalem, as beiug of kin to the Baptist, who was ^" Y* 
of the priestly stock, scnd Pricsts and Lcvitcs to ask him 
who he is; that is, men considcred to hold a supcrior rank c. 6. 
to the rest of their ordcr, by God's election, and coming from 
that favoured above all cities, Jerusak-ra. Such is the rcver- 
ential way in which thcy interrogatc John. We read of 
no such procccding towards Christ : but what the Jews did 
to John, John iii turn does to Christ, when he asks Ilim, 
through his disciplcs, Art thou Ile that should come, or look Luke 
wefor another? Chrys. Such confidcnce liad they in John, chrvs. 
that thev were rcady to bchcve him ou his owu wurds :'"•'"■"'• . 

^ «^ Honi. XVI. 



Aug. Tr. witness liow it is said, To ask him, Who art thou ? Aug. They 

"■ * would not have sent, unless they had been impressed by his 

Orig. lofty exercise of authority, in daring to baptize. Origen. 

tom.°vi. John, as it appears, saw from the question, that the Prieste 

^- ^- and Levites had doubts whether it might not be the Christ, 

who was baptizing; which doubts however they were afraid 

to profess openly, for fear of incurring the charge of credulity. 

He wisely deterraines therefore first to correct their mis- 

take, and then to proclaim the truth. Accordingly, he first 

of all shews that he is not the Christ : And he confessed, 

and denied not ; but confessed, I am not the Christ. We may 

add here, that at this time the people had already begun to 

be impressed with the idea that Christ's advcnt was at hand, 

in consequence of the interpretations which the lawyers had 

collected out of the sacred writings to that efifect. Thus 

Theudas had been enabled to coUect togcther a considerable 

body, on the strength of his pretending to be the Christ ; 

and after him Judas, in the days of the taxation, had done 

Acts 5. the same. Such being the strong expectation of Chrisfs 

advent then prevalent, the Jews send to John, intending by 

the question, Who art thou? to extract from him whethcr 

Greg. he were the Christ. Greg. He denied directly being what 

vii. iii he was not, but he did not deny what he was : thus, by his 

Evang. speaking truth, becoming a true member of Him Whose 

Chrys. namc he had not dishonestly usurped. Chrys. Or take this 

xvl" explanation : The Jews were influenced by a kind of human 

[xv.] 1, sympathy for John, whom they were reluctant to see made 

subordinate to Christ, on account of the many marks of 

greatness about him ; his illustrious descent in the first place, 

he being the son of a chief priest; in the next, his hard 

training, and his contempt of the world. Whereas in Christ 

the contrary were apparent ; a humble birth, for which they 

Mat. 13, reproach Him ; Is not this the carpenter's son? an ordinary 

way of living; a dress such as every one else wore. As John 

then was constantly sending to Christ, they send to him, 

with the view of having him for their master, and thiuking 

to induce hira, by blandishraents, to confess himself Christ. 

They do not therefore send inferior persons to him, ministers 

and Herodians, as they did to Christ, but Priests and Levites ; 

and not of these an indiscrimiuate party, but those of Jeru- 


VER. 19 — 23. ST. JOHN. 47 

salem, i. e. tlie more honourablc ones ; but tlicy send tliem 
with this question, to ask, JVho art thou 7 not from a wish 
to be informed, but in order to induce him to do what I have 
said. John replies then to their intention, not to their inter- 
rogation : And he confessed, and denied not ; but confessed, I 
am not the Christ. And observe the wisdom of the Evangelist : 
he rcpeats the same thing threc timcs, to shcw John's virtue, 
and the malicc and madncss of the Jews. For it is thc cha- 
ractcr of a devotcd scrvant, not only to forbear taking to him- 
self his lord's glory, but even, when numbers offer it to him, 
to rcject it. Thc multitude indecd believcd from ignorancc 
that John was thc Christ, but in thcse it was raahcc; and in 
this spirit they put thc qucstion to hira, thinking, by their 
blandishments to bring him ovcr to their wishes. For unless 
this had bccn thcir design, when he rcphed, / am not the 
Christ, they would have said, We did not suspect this ; we 
did not corac to ask this. AVhen caught, howevcr, aud dis- 
covercd in thcir purpose, they proceed to anothcr qucstion ; 
And they asked him, What then ? Art thou Elias ? Aug. Ang. in 
For thcy knew that EHas was to preach Christ ; the name jy*^^"'^/' 
of Christ not being unknown to any among the Jcws ; but 
thcy did not tliiuk that Ue our Lord was the Christ : and 
yet did not altogcther imagine that there was no Christ 
about to come. In this way, whilc looking forward to thc 
futurc, thcy raistook at tlic prcscnt. 

And he said, I am not. * Gueg. These words gave risc to Oreg. 
a vcry diffcrcnt qucstion. In anothcr placc, our Lord, when ^jj"™' ,^ 
asked by Ilis disciplcs conccrning tlie coming of EUas, re- 
plied, If ye will receive it, this is Elias. But John says, Matt. 
/ am not Elias. IIow is he thcn a prcaclier of the truth, if ' 
he agrees not with what that very Truth dcclarcs? Outgen. Orip-. in 
Some one will say that John was ignorant that he was EUas ; Jpan. tom. 

•^ ® . VI. c. 7. 

as those say, who maintain, from this passage, thc doctrine 
of a second incorporation, as though the soul took up a new 
body, after lcaviug its old one. For thc Jcws, it is said, 
asking John by the Levites and Priests, whether he is Elias, 
suppose the doctrine of a sccond body to be alrcady ccrtain j 
as though it rcstcd upon traditiou, and wcrc part of thcir 
secret system. To which question, however, John repUcs, 
/ am not EUas ; not being acquainted with his own prior 


existence. But how is it reasouable to imagine, if John 

were a prophet enlightened by the Spirit, and had revealed 

so much concerning the Father, and the Only-Begotten, 

that he could be so in the dark as to hiraself, as not to 

Oreg. know that his own soul had once belonged to Elias ? Greg. 

in°Evan". But if wc examinc the truth accurately, that which sounds 

c- *• inconsistent, will be found not really so. The Angel told 

Luke Zacharias concerning John, He shall go before Him in the 

' ' spirit and power of Elias. As Elias then will preach the 

second advent of our Lord, so John preached Ilis first ; as 

the former will come as the precursor of the Judge, so the 

latter was made the precursor of the Redeemer. John was 

Elias in spirit, not in person : and what our Lord affirms 

of the spirit, John denies of the Person : thcre being a kind 

of propriety in this ; viz. that our Lord to His disciples 

should speak spiritually of John, and that John, in answering 

the carnal multitude, should speak of liis body, not of his 

Orig. in spirit. Origen. He answers then the Levites and Priests, 

yW^T, ' I am not, conjecturing what their question meant ; for the 

purport of their examination was to discover, not whether 

the spirit in both was the same, but whether John was that 

very EHas, who was taken up, now appearing again, as the 

Jews expected, without another birthJ'. But he whom we 

mentioned above as holding this doctrine of a re-incorpora- 

tion, will say that it is not consistent that the Priests and 

Levites should be ignorant of the birth of the son of so dig- 

nified a priest as Zacharias, who was born too in his father's 

old age, and contrary to all human probabilities : especially 

Luke when Luke declares, that fear came on all ihat dwelt round 

*' ^^' about them. But perhaps, since Elias was expected to ap- 

pear before the coming of Christ near the end, they may 

seem to put the question figuratively, Art thou he who an- 

nouncest the comiug of Christ at the end of the world ? to 

which he answers, / am not. But there i» in fact nothing 

strange in supposing that John's birth might not have been 

known to alh For as in the case of our Saviour many knew 

Him to be born of Mary, and yet some wrongly imagined 

_ y Origen argues again against the re- Apol. pro Orig. c. 10, pp. 45 46 ed 
incorporation from tliis sanie passage, de ia Kue. rtr , • • 

in Matt. 1. vii. and xiii. § \. See Pampli. 

VER. 19 — 23. ST. JOHN. 49 

that He was Jolm the Baptist^ or Elias, or one of the Pro- 
hhets ; so in the case of John, sorae were not unacquainted 
with the fact of his being son of Zacharias, and yet some 
may have been in doubt whether he were not the Elias 
who was expected. Again, inasmuch as raany prophets had 
arisen in Israel, but one was especially looked forward to, of 
whom Moses had prophesied, The Lord thy God will raise up Deut 
nnto tliee a Prophet froin the midst of thee, of thy bretliren, lile ' "^" 
unio me ; unto Ilim shall ye hearken : they ask him in tlie 
tliird place, not simply whethcr he is a prophet, but with 
tlie article prcfixed, Art thou that Prophit ? For every one 
of the projihets in succession had signified to the pcople of 
Isracl that he was not the one whom Moses had prophesicd 
of; who, like Moses, was to stand in the midst betweeu 
God and man, and dcliver a testament, sent from God to 
Ilis disciples. Tlicy did not however apply this name to 
Clirist, but thought tliat Ile was to be a diflFereut person ; 
wliercas Jolin knew that Christ was that Prophet, and there- 
fore to this questiou, he ansicered, No. Aug. Or because Ang-. in 
John was more than a prophet : for that the prophets f^'!- iv.^c.s/' 
nounccd Ilim afar off, but John pointcd Ilim out actually 

Tlien said they nnto Jnm, JJlio art thon 7 that loe may 
yive an anstver to them that sent us. What saycst thou of 
thyself? CiiiiYS. You scc thcra here pressing hira still more ciirys. 
strongly with their qucstions, Mhile he on the other haud rxTi 2^^'* 
quietly puts down tlicir suspicions, where they are untrue, 
and establishes the truth in their pLice : saying, / am the 
voice of one crying in the wihlerness. Aug. So spoke Esaias : Aug. Tr. 
tlie prophecy was fulfillcd in John thc Baptist. Greg. Ye '^*^^^' 
know that the only-bcgottcn Son is callcd the AVord of the Hom. vii. 
Father. Now we know, in the case of our own uttcrancc, ^' ' 
the voice first sounds, and then the word is hcard. Thus 
John declares himself to bc the voicc, i.c. bccause he prc- 
cedes the AYord, and, through his ministry, the Word of the 
Father is heard by man. Origen. Ileracleon, in his dis- Orig. in 
cussion on John and the Prophcts, infers that because the^j°^"'i2. 
Saviour was the "SYord, and John the voice, thercfore the 
whole of the prophetic ordcr was only sound. To which we 
reply, that, if the trumpet gives an uncertain sound, who 




sliall prepare hiraself for the battle? If tlie voice of pro- 

pliecy is notliing but sound, why does the Saviour seiid us 

John 5, to it, saying, Search the Scriptures ? But John calls himself 

the voice, not that crieth, but of one that crieth in the wilder- 

Jnhn 7, ness : viz. of Him Who stood and cried, If any mayi thirst, 

let hini come unto Me and drink. He cries, in order that 

those at a distance may hear him, and understand from the 

loudness of the sound, the vastness of the thing spoken of. 

in loc. Theophyl. Or because he declared the truth phiinly, while 

Greg. all who were under the law spoke obscurely. Greg. John 

inTv.^"' crieth in the wilderness, because it is to forsaken and desti- 

^' 2- tute Judsea that he bears the consolatory tidings of a Re- 

o ig. deemer. Origen. There is nced of the voice crying in the 

!°ToYi. wildei-ness, that the soul, forsaken l)y God, raay be recalled 

to making straight the way of the Lord, following no more 

the crooked paths of the serpent. This has reference both 

to the coiitemplative hfe, as enlightened by truth, without 

mixture of falsehood, and to the practical, as following up 

tlie correct perception by the suitable action. Wherefore he 

adds, Make straiyht tJie ivay of the Lord, as saith the pro- 

^"^^S- phei Esaias. Gpeg. The way of the Lord is made straight 
Hom. ^ . 

vp. in to the heart, when the word of truth is heard with humi- 
kwing, j^-|.y . ^i^g ^^^^y ^^ ^ijg Lord is made straight to the heart, when 
the life is formed upon the precept. 

24. And they which were sent were of the Pharisees. 

25. And they asked him, and said unto him, Why 
baptizest thou then, if thou be not that Christ, nor 
Elias, neither that prophet ? 

26. John answcred them, saying, I baptize with 
water : but there standeth one among you, whom ye 
know not ; 

27. He it is, who coming after me is preferred 
before me, whose shoe's latchet I am not worthy 
to unloose. 

28. These things were done in Bethabara beyond 
Jordan, where John was baptizing. 

Orig. in 

VI. 0. 13. ' Origen. The questions of the priests and Levites being 

VER. 2i— 28. ST. JOHN. 51 

auswered, another mission comes from the Pliarisees : And 
tJiey that were sent were of the Pharisees. So far as it is 
allowable to form a conjecture from the discourse itself here, 
I should say that it was the third occasion of John's giviug 
liis witness. Observe the raildness of the former question, so 
bcfitting the priestly and levitical character, Who art thou ? 
There is nothing arrogant or disrespectful, but ouly what 
becomes true miuisters of God. The Pharisees however, 
being a sectarian body, as their name implies, addresses the 
Baptist in an importunate and contumelious way. And they 
said, Why baptizest thou then, if thou be not that Christ, 
neither Elias, neither that Prophet? not caring about in- 
formation, but only wishiug to prevent liim baptizing. Yet 
the very next thing they did, was to corae to John's baptism. 
The solution of this is, that they came not in faith, but hypo- 
critically, because they feared the pcople. Chkys. Or, those Clirys. 
very samc pricsts and Levites were of the Pharisees, and, ^""xvY^l 
bccause they could not undermine him by blandishments, 
began accusiug, after they had compelled him to say what 
he was not. And they asked him, sayiug, irhy baptizest 
thou then, if thou art not the Christ, neither Elias, neither 
ihat Prophet? As if it were aa act of audacity iu him to 
baptize, when he was neither the Clirist, nor His precursor, 
nor Ilis proclaimer, i. e. that Prophet. Greg. A saint, even Greg. 
when pcrvcrsely qucstioncd, is never diverted from the pur- vi[""n 
suit of gooclness. Thus Johu to thc words of envy opposes Evang. 
the words of life : Jolin answered theni, saying, I indeed 
baptize ivith iraier. Ouigex. For how would the questiou, Oiig. 
JVh?/ then bapiizest thou, be rcpHcd to in any other way, thau to,„.°vi." 
by setting forth the carnal nature of his own baptisni? c. 15. 
Greg. John baptizeth not with the Spirit, but with water; Greg. 
not being able to rerait sins, he washcs the bodies of the ^- j^ 
baptizcd with water, but not their souls with pardon. Why Evang. 
then doth he baptize, when he doth not remit sins by 
baptism? To maintain his character of forerunner. As his 
birth preceded our Lord's, so doth his baptism precede our 
Lord's baptism. And he who was the forerunner of Christ 
iu Ilis preaching, is forerunuer also in Ilis baptism, which 
was the imitation of that Saciaraent. Aud withal he au- 
nounces the mystery of our rcdemption, saying that He, the 


in Joan 
toin. vi 


Hedeemer, is standing in the midst of men, and tlicy kuow it 
not : There standeth one among you, ivhom ye know not ; for 
our Lord, wlien He appeared in the flesh, was visible in body, 
Chrys. but in majesty invisible. Chrys. One among you. It was 
^^'' ^' fitting that Christ should mix with the people, and be one of 
the many, shewing every where His huraility. Whom ye 
know not; i. e. not, in the most absolute and certain sense; 
An<r. Tr. not, who Hc is, and whence He is. Aug. Tn His low estate 
iv. c. 9. j.jg ^^g ^q|. ggg^.j . g^^(j therefore the candle was lighted. 
in loc. TiiEOPHYL. Or it was, that our Lord was in the midst of the 
Pharisees; and they not knowing Him. For they thought 
that they knew the Scriptures, and therefore, inasrauch as 
our Lord was pointed out there, He was in the midst of them, 
i, e. in their hearts. But they knew Him not, inasrauch as 
they understood not the Scriptures. Or take another inter- 
pretation. He was in the midst of them, as mediator be- 
tween God and maii, wishing to bring them, the Pharisees, 
Orig. to God. But they knew Hira not. Ortgex. Or thus; 
Having said, / indeed bnptize ivith ivater, in answer to the 
15. question, IJliy baptizest thou then .?— to the ncxt, Jf thou be 
not Christ? he replics by decharing thc pre-existent sub- 
stance of Christ; thatit was of such virtue, that though His 
Godhead was invisible, He was present to evcry one, and per- 
vaded the wholc workl ; as is conveyed in the words, There 
standeth one among you. For He it is, Who hath diffused 
Himself throngh the whole system of nature, insorauch that 
every thing which is created, is created by Hira ; all things 
were made by Ilim. 'Whence it is evident that even those 
who enquired of John, Vlnj baptizest thou then ? had Him 
among them. Or, the words, There standeth one among you, 
are to be understood of mankind generally. Por, from our 
character as rational beings, it follows that the word ^ cxists 
in the centre of us, because the heart, which is the spriug 
of motion within us, is situated iu the centre of the body. 
Those then who carry the word within them, but are igno- 
rant of its nature, and the source and beginning and the way 
in which it resides in them ; these, hearing the word within 
them, know it not. But John recognised Hira, and re- 

* i. e. the ^.0705 eV afdpdoirois, reason j tlie word which is the image of the 

VER. 24 28. ST. JOHN. 53 

proaclied the Pharisees, saying, WTiom ye know not. For, 

though expecting Christ's coming, the Pharisees had formed 

no lofty conception of Him, but supposed that IJe would 

only be a holy man : wherefore he briefly refutes their igno- 

rance, and the fal>e idcas tliat they had of Ilis excellence. 

He saith, standeth ; for as the Father standeth, i. e. exists 

without variation or change, so staudeth the Word ever ia 

the work of salvation, though It assume flesh, though It be 

iu the midst of men, though It staud invisible. Lest any 

one however slioukl think that the iuvisible One Who cometh 

to all men, and to the uuiversal world, is diifeieut froiu 

Ilim Wlio was made man, and appearcd on the carth, he 

adds, Ile tJiat cometh after me, i. e. Who will appear after 

me. The after howevcr here has not the same meaning that 

it has, whcn Christ calls us after Ilim ; for thcre we are told 

to follow after Him, that by treadiug iu His steps, we may 

attain to tlie Fathcr; but hcre the word is used to intimate 

what shoukl foUow upou Johu's teachiug; for he came that 

all may bekcve, having by his ministry beeu fittcd gradually 

by lcsser thiugs, for the receptiou of thc pcrfcct Word. 

Therefore he saith, Ile it is IFho cometh aftcr me. Chrys. chrys. 

As if he said, Do not tliink that cverv thiuj' is coutaiucd in J^!'"^- ^/'/ 

my baptism ; for if my baptism wcrc perfcct, auothcr would 

not comc aftcr mc with auother baptism. This baptism of 

minc is but an iutioductiuu to tiie other, aud will soou 

pass away, Hlce a slu\do\v, or an image. Thcrc is one coming 

after me to cstablish the truth : aud therefore this is not 

a perfcct baptisiu ; for, if it were, tiiere would be no room 

for a secoud : and thcreforc he adds, Who is made before 

mc : i. e. is more honourable, more lofty. Gkeg. Made be- Gre^j. 

fore me, i. e. preferrcd bcfore mc. Ile comes after me, that .^'°'V' ^"* 

. . / in Lv. 

is, Ile is born aftcr mc ; He is madc before me, that is, He c 3. 
is prcfcrred to rae. Chkys. But lest thou shouklest thiuk chrys. 
this to bc tlie result of comparison, hc immediately shews ,^,"'"" V^' 
it to be a superiority beyond all comparison ; Whose shoe's 
latchet I am not ivorthy to unloose : as if hc said, He is so 
much bcfore me, that I am unworthy to be numbcrcd among 
thc lowest of Ilis attendauts : the unloosiug of the sandal 
being the very lowest kiud of scrvice. Auo. To have ^ug. 
prouounced himself worthy cvcu of uuloosing His shoe's '^^' '^* 


latchet, he would have been thinking too much of hiraself. 

Greg. Or thus : It was a law of the old dispensation, that, 

if a man refused to take the woman, who of right came to 

him, to wife, he who by right of relationship came next to 

be the husband, should unloose his shoe. Now in what cha- 

racter did Christ appear in the world, but as Spouse of the 

John 3, Holy Church ? John then very properly pronounced him- 

self unworthy to unloose this shoe's latchet : as if he said, 

I cannot uncover the feet of the Redeemer, for I claira not 

the title of spouse, which I have no right to. Or the passage 

may be explained in another way. We know that shoes are 

made out of dead animals. Our Lord then, when Ile came 

in the flesh, put on, as it were, shoes ; because in His Divinity 

He took the flesh of our corruption, whercin we had of our- 

selves perished. And the latchet of the shoe, is the seal 

upon the mystery. John is not able to unloose the shoe's 

latchet; i. e. even he cannot penetrate into the mystery of 

the Incarnation. So he seems to say : What wonder that 

He is prcferred before me, Whom, being born after me, I 

contemplate, yet the mystery of Whose birth I comprehend 

Orig. not. Orig. The place has becn understood not amiss thns 

inJoan. ^J ^ certaiu person^; I am not of such importance, as thnt 

' Hera- for my sake He should descend from this high abode, and 

Chrys. ^^^^® ^esh upon Him, as it were a shoe. Chrys. Jolin hav- 

Hom. ing preached the thing concerning Christ publicly and with 

xvi.')i'.' becoming hberty, the Evangelist mentions the place of Ilis 

in Joan. preaching : T/iese things were done in Bethany heijond Jordan, 

where John was baptiziug. For it was in no housc or corner 

that John preached Christ, but beyond Jordan, in the raidst 

of a multitude, and in the presence of all whom he had 

baptized. Some copies read more correctly Bethabara : for 

Bethany was not beyond Joidan, or in the desert, but near 

Jerusalera. Gloss. Or we raust suppose two Bethanies; 

one over Jordan, the other on this side, not far frora Jeru- 

salera, the Bethany where Lazarus was raised frora the dead. 

Ciirys. Chrys. Hc racutions this too for another reason. viz. that 
Honj. xvii. i , .. ,.,,,, , ■, 

as tie was relating events which had only recently happened, 

he raight, by a reference to the place, appeal to the testi- 

mony of those who were present and saw thera. Alcuin. 

The meaning of Bethany is, house of obedience; by which 

VER. 29—31. ST. JOHN. 55 

it is intimated to us, that all must approach to baptism, 
through the obedience of faith. Orig. Bethabara means On>. 
house of preparation ; which agreeth with the baptism of J,"'^^'''" 
Him, who was making ready a people prepared for the Lord. 
Jordan, again, means, " their descent." Now what is this c. 25. 
river but our Saviour, through Whom coming into this earth ^ ^*^^" 
all must be cleansed, in that He came down not for His own 
sake, but for theirs. This river it is which separateth the 
lots givcn by Moses, from those given by Jesus ; its streams 
makc glad the city of God. As the serpent lies hid in thc c 29. 
Egyptian river, so doth God in thisj for the Father is in 
the Son. Whcrefore whosoever go thither to wash them- 
selves, lay aside the rcproach of Egypt, are made meet to .josima 
receive the iuheritance, are cleansed from leprosy, are made "^' " 
capable of a doublc portion of grace, and ready to receive 2 Kings 
the lioly Spirit; nor doth the spiritual dove light upon any ^^K^ngs 
other river. John again baptizes beijond Jordan, as the 2, 9. 
prccursor of Hira Who came not to call the rightcous, but 
siuners to repcntance. 

29. The next day John seeth Jcsus coming to hiin, 
and saith, Bchold thc Lanib of God, which takcth 
avvay the sin of the world. 

30. This is he of whom I said, After me comcth 
a man which is preferred before me : for He was be- 
fore rae. 

3L And I knew Llim not : biit that He should be 
made manifcst to Isracl, thcrcfore am I come bap- 
tizing with water. 

Origen. After this testimouy, Jesus is seen coming to Orig. 



John, not only persevering in his confession, but also advanced °'"' ^'" 
in goodness : as is intimated by the second day. Wherefore 
it is said, Tlie next da\j John seeth Jesus coming to hhn. Long 
before this, the Mothcr of Jesus, as soon as she had con- 
ceived Him, went to see the niother of John then pregnant ; 
and as soon as the sound of ]\Iary's salutation reachcd the 
ears of Ehsabeth, John leaped in the womb : but now the 
Baptist himself after his testimony seeth Jesus comiug. Men 


are first prepared by hearing from others, and then see with 
their own eyes. The example of Mary going to see EUsabeth 
her inferior, and the Son of God going to see the Baptist, 
should teach us modesty and fervent charity to our inferiors. 
What place the Saviour came frora when Ile carae to tlie 
Baptist we are not told here ; but we find it in INIatthew, 
Matt. 3, Then cometh Jesus from GaVilee to Jordan unto John to 
(fiir s ^^ haptized of him. Chrys. Or; Matthew rclates directly 
Hom. xvii. Christ's coming to Ilis baptism, John Ilis coraing a second 
time subsequent to His baptism, as appears frora what fol- 
lows: I saiv the Spirit descending, ^c. The Evangclists have 
divided the periods of the history between thera ; Matthew 
passing over the part before John's iraprisonment, and has- 
tening to that event; John chiefly dwelHng on what took 
place before the imprisonraent. Thus he says, TJie next daij 
John seeth Jesus coming to him. But why did Ile comc to 
him the next day after His baptism? Having been baptized 
with tlie multitude, IIc wished to prevcnt any from thinking 
that He came to John for the same rcason that others did, 
viz. to confess His sins, and be washcd in tlic river unto rc- 
pentance. He cumes thcrefore to give Jolin an opportunity 
of correcting this mistake; which John accordingly did 
correct ; viz. by those words, Behold the Lamb of God, which 
taketh away the sin of ihe world. For He Who was so pure, 
as to be able to absolve other raen's sins, evidently could not 
have corae thither for the sake of confessing His own; but 
only to give John an opportunity of speaking of Hira. He 
came too the next day, that those who liad heard the former 
testimonics of John, miglit hear them again more plainly ; 
and other besides. Eor he saith, Behold the Lamb of God, 
signifyiug that He was the one of old sought after, and re- 
minding thera of the prophecy of Isaiah, and of the shadows 
of the Mosaic law, in order that through the figure he might 
Aiig. Tr. the easier lead them to the substance. Auo. If the Lamb 

iv. c. 10. c rt ri • • 

01 uod is innocent, and John is the lamb, must he not be 
innocent ? But all men come of that stock of which David 
Ps. 51, 5. sings sorrowing, Behold, L ivas conceived in wickedness. He 
then alone -was the Lamb, who was not thus conceived ;, 
for He was not conceived in wickedness, nor in sin did His 
mother bear Ilira in her womb, Whom a virgin conceived, 

VER. 29 — 3]. ST. JOTIX. 57 

a virgin brought forth, because that in faith she conceived, 
and in faith received. Origen. Biit whcreas five kinds Orig'. 
of auimals are offered in the teraple, threo beasts of the ^."'s.,^'* 
fiehl, a calf, a sliecp, and a goat ; and two fovrls of the air, et seq. 
a turtle dove aud a pigeou; and of the sheep kiud three are 
introduced, the ram, the ewe, the larab ; of these three he 
mentions only the larab ; the laml), as we know, being offered 
in the daily sacrifice, one in the morning, and one in the 
evening. But what other daily offering can there be, that 
can be meant to be offered by a reasonable nature, except 
the perfect Word, typically called the Larab ? This sacrifice, 
wliich is offered up as soon as the soul begins to be enlight- 
encd, shall be accouuted as a morning sacrifice, rcferring to 
the frequent exercisc of the mind iu divine thiugs; for thc 
soul cannot continually apply to tlie higlicst objccts bccausc 
of its union with an earthly and gross body. By tliis Word 
too, Wliich is Christ the Larab, we shall be able to reason on 
many things, and shall in a manncr attain to Ilim in thc 
cvening, while cngagcd with things of the body *. But He 
Who offered the lamb for a sacrifice, was God hid in liuman 
form, the grcat Priest, He who saitli bclow, Ko man tahtth \t Jolm lo, 
{}hj lift) from Me, but I luy it down of Mi/self: whcnce this ^^' 
name, the Lamb of God: for ITe carrying our sorrows, and isaiah 
taking away the sins of the whole world, hath uudcrgone ^^[yl[ 9 
death, as it were baptism. ¥or God sufVcis no fault to pass 2+. 
uncorrcctcd; but punishcs it by the sharpest disciplinc. 50 ^ ' 
THEoriivL. Ile is called the Lamb of God, because God the in loc. 
Fathcr accepted ITis dcatli for our salvation, or, in othcr 
words, bccause IIc dclivcrcd Ilim up to dcath for our sakes. 
For just as wc say, Tiiis is the offcring of such a man, mcau- 
iug the offcring raade by hiai ; in the sarae scnse Clirist is 

' Christ the AVord is our real da'Iy up spiritual thoughts, and this is still 

sacrifice. Hecarries oii wiihin us what continued in ihe Clirislian, even al- 

is outwardly typificd hy tlie Mosaic though by reason of tlie infirmity of the 

rituah As in the Jewish temple the flesli, iie cainiot always ahicie in inedi- 

day bep:an with the one conlinual sacri- tation on the Divinest things, yet is, 

fice wliicli was carried oii by othcrs in in Clirist, eiigaged on niany uscfi:! 

thciriii'"'! flirougli thc day, (vid. Orig. tliings; and so also when Ile conies 

vi. c. 34,) tiil at last the evening sacri- even to the tliings of tiic body, in them- 

fice put a close to all sacred services : selves a sort of evening and niglit to 

so in our minds a sacrifice is ofTered up the soul, still doing them also in Christ, 

to God wiien tlic Word (from Wlioin lie closes all in Clirist. 
otir word, i. e. reason, is derived) liglits 

viii. c. 


called the Lamb of God Who gave His Son to die for our 
salvation, And whereas that typical lamb did not take away 
any man's sin, this one hath taken away the sin of the whole 
world, rescuing it from the danger it vvas in from the wratli 

' Vuig. of God, Behold Him ^ H^ho taketh aivay the sin ofthe ivorld : 

^ atecl^' he saith not, who will take, but, Who taketh away tlie sin of 
the world; as if He were always doing this. For He did not 
then only take it away when He suffered, but from that time 
to the present, He taketh it away; not by being always cru- 
cified, for He made one sacrifice for sins, but by ever wasli- 

Greg, ing it by means of that sacrifice, Greg, But then only will 
32 sin be entirely taken away from the liumau race, when our 
corruption has been turned to a glorious incorruptiou. We 
cannot be frec from sin, so long as we are hcld iu the death 

Theoph, of tlic body. Theophyl. "Why does he say the sin of the 
world, not sins? Because he wished to express sin uni- 
versally : just as we say comraonly, that raan was cast out of 
paradise; raeaning the whole huraan race. Gloss, Or by 
the sin of the workl is raeant original sin, which is common 
to the whole workl : which original sin, as well as the sins of 

Aug, Tr. every one individually, Christ by His grace remits, Aug. 

l{' ' For He Who took not sin from our nature, Ile it is Wlio 
taketh away our sin, Some say, We takc away the sins of 
men, because wc are holy ; for if he, who baptizes, is not 
holy, how can he take away the other's sin, seeing he him- 
self is fuU of sin ? Against these reasoners let us point to 
the text ; Behold Nim Who taketh away the sin of the ivorld ; 
in order to do away with such presuraption in raan towards 

Orig, man. Origen. As there was a conuection between the 

c. 36. other sacrifices of the law, and the daily sacrifice of the 
lamb, in the sarae way the sacrifice of this Larab has its 
reflexion in the pouring out of the blood of the Martyrs, 
by whose patience, confession, and zeal for goodness, the 

Theoph. machinations of the ungodly are frustrated. Theophyl. 
John having said above to those who carae frora the Pha- 
risees, that there stood one araong them whora they knew 
not, he here poiuts Hira out to the persons thus ignorant : 
This is He of wliom I said, After me cometh a man which is . 
preferred before me. Our Lord is called a man, in reference 
to His mature age, being thirty years old when He was bap- 

VER. 29 31. ST. JOHN. 59 

tized : or in a spiritual sense, as tlie Spousc of the Church ; 

in which scnse St. Paul speaks, / have espoused yon to onc 2 Cor. 

husbancl, that I may jjresent you as a chaste virgin to Christ. 

AuG. He cometh after me, because He was born after rae : He Aug. 

is made before me, because He is preferred to rae. Greg. Hc q^' 

explains tlie reason of this superiority, in what follows : For Hom- vii. 

He was before me ; as if his meaning was; And this is thc; ^. 3. ' 

rcason of His being superior to me, though born after me, 

viz. that He is not circumscribed by the tirae of His nativity. 

Hc Who was born of His mother in time, was bcgotten of 

His Father out of time. TnEOPUYL. Attcnd, O Arius. Hc Theoph. 

saith not, He was creatcd bcfore rac, but Ile was before mc. 

Let the false scct of Paul of Saraosata attend. Thcy will 

see that He did not derive His original existence frora ^lary ; 

for if Hc derivcd thc bcgiuning of His being frora the Yirgin, 

how could He have been bcfore His precursor? it bcing 

cvident that the precursor preceded Christ by six raonths, 

according to the huraan birth. CniiYs. That he might not Chrys. 

seera howcvcr to give his testiraony irora any motive 01 (al. xvi.) 2. 

friendship or kindred, in consequencc of his beiug related to 

our Lord according to thc flcsh, lic says, I hnew Ilim not. 

John could not of coursc know Him, having lived in tlie 

dcsert. And the miraonlous cvcnts of Christ's childhood, 

the journcy of thc ^lagi, and such likc, wcrc now a long tinic 

past ; John liaving bcen qnite an infait, whcn thcy liap- 

pcned. And throughout tlie whole of the intcrval, He had 

bccn absolutcly unknown : insomuch that John procceds, 

But that Ile should be made manifest to Isracl, thei^efore am 

I «ome baptizing with ivater. (And hencc it is clcar that the 

miracles said to havc been performed by Christ in His child- 

hood, arc false and fictitious. For if Jesus had performed 

miracles at tliis early age, hc woukl not havc bccn unknown 

to Jolin, nor would thc multitudc have wantcd a tcachcr to 

point Him out.) Christ Hiraself thcn did uot Mant bap- 

tism ; nor was tliat washing for any othcr reason, than to 

give a sign bcforchand of faith in Christ. For John saith 

not, in ordcr to change raen, and deliver from sin, but, that 

Ile should be made manifed in Israel, havc I come baptizing. 

But woukl it not have been lawful for him to preach, and 

bring crowds together, without baptizing? Yes: but this 


was the easier way, for he would not have colleeted such num- 

Aug. Tr. bers, had he preached without baptizing. Aug. Now whcu 

13 '^' ^^' our Lord became known, it was unnecessary to prepare a way 

for Him; for to those who knew Him, He became His own 

way. And therefore John^s baptism did not last loiig, but 

Tr. V. c. 5. only so long as to shew our Lord's humihty. Our Lord 

received baptism from a servant, in order to give us such 

a lesson of humihty as might prepare us for receiving tlic 

grace of baptism. And that the servanfs baptism miglit 

not be set before the Lord's, others were baptized with it ; 

who after receiving it, liad to rcccive our Lord's baptisni : 

whereas those who first rcccived our Lord's baptism, diJ 

not receive the servant's after. 

32. And John bare rccord, saying, I saw the Spirit 
descending from hcaven like a dove, and it abodc 
upon Him. 

33. And I knew Him not : but He that sent me to 
baptize with water, the same said unto me, Upon 
whom thou shalt see tbe Spirit descending, and re- 
maining on Him, the same is He which baptizetli 
with the Holy Ghost. 

34. And I saw, and bare record that this is the 
Son of God. 

Chrys. Chrys. John having made a declaration, so astonishing 

(aUxVn^'. ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ hearers, viz. that He, whom he poiuted out, did of 

Himself take away the sins of the world, confirms it by 

a reference to tlie Father and the Holy Spirit. For John 

might be asked, How did you knovv Him ? Wherefore hc 

rephes beforehand, By the descent of the Holy Spirit : And 

John bare record, saying, I saw the Spirit descending from 

Aug. de heaven like a dove, and it abode upon Him. Aug. This was 

c. 46. (g!) ^^^ however the first occasion of Christ's receiving the 

unction of the Holy Spirit : viz. Its descent upom Him at 

His baptism ; wherein He condescended to prefigure His 

body, the Church, wherein those who are baptized receive 

pre-eminently the Holy Spirit. For it would be absurd to 

suppose that at thirty years old, (which was His age, when 

VER. 32 — 34. ST. JOHN. 61 

Ile was baptized by John,) He received for the first tirae the 
Iloly Spirit : and that, when Ile came to that baptism, as He 
was without sin, so was He without the Holy Spirit. For if 
even of His servant and forerunner John it is written, He 
shall be filled loith the Holy Ghost, even from his mother's 
XDomh ; if he, though sprung from his father's seed, yet 
reccived the Holy Ghost, when as yet he was only formed 
in the womb ; what ought we to think and believe of Clirist, 
whose very flcsh had not a cariial but spiritual conception ? 
AuG. We do not attribute to Christ only the possession of Aug. d» 
a real body, and say that the Iloly Spirit assumed a false rf""' 
appearance to men's eyes : for the Holy Spirit could no tiano, c. 
more, in consistency with Ilis nature, deceive men, than coukl 
the Son of God. The Almighty God, Who made every 
creature out of nothing, could as easily form a real body of 
a dovc, without tlie instrumcntality of othcr doves, as Ile 
made a rcal body in the womb of the Virgin, without tlie 
seed of tlic male. Aug. The Iloly Ghost was made to ap- Ano:. 
pear visibly in two ways : as a dove, upon our Lord at Ilis j^" yj*"' 
baptism ; and as a flanic upon His disciples, when they were sparsim. 
met togethcr : the former shape denoting simplicity, the 
latter fervcncy. The dove intimates tliat souls sanctificd 
by the Spirit should have no guile ; the fire, that in that 
simplicity thcre should not be coldness. Nor let it disturb 
tlice, that the tongues are clovcn ; fear no division ; unity is 
assurcd to us in thc dove. It was meet thcn that thc Iloly 
Spirit should be thus manifcsted descending upon our Lord ; 
iu order that cvcry one who had thc Spiiit raight know, that 
hc ought to bc simple as a dove, and be in sinceic pcace 
with the brethren. Tlie kisscs of dovcs rcpresent this peace. 
llavens kiss, but they tear also; but thc nature of tiie dove is 
most alicn to tearing. Ravens feed on thc dcad, but the 
dove eats nothing but the fruits of the earth. If doves 
moan iu their love, marvcl not that IIc Wlio appcared in the 
likcness of a dove, thc Iloly Spirit, mnheth intercession for Rom. 8, 
us ivith groanings that cannot be uttered. The Holy Spirit '^^' 
however groaneth not in Ilirasclf, but in us : Ile maketh us 
to groan. And he who groancth, as knowing that, so long 
as he is undcr thc burdcu of this mortality, he is abseut from 
thc Lord, groaueth wcll : it is the Spirit tliat hath taught him 


to groan. But many groan because of eavthly calamities; 

because of losses which disquiet them, or bodily sicknesses 

which weigh heavily on them : they groan not, as doth the 

dove. What then could more fitly represent the Holy 

Spirit, the Spirit of unity, than the dove ? as He saith 

Cant. 6, 9. Himself to His reconciled Church, My dove is one. What 

could better express humility, than the simplicity and 

moaning of a dove? Wherefore on this occasion it was 

that there appeared the very most Holy Trinity, the Father 

in the voice which said, Thou art My heloved Son; the 

Matt. 28, Holy Spirit in the likeness of the dove. In that Trinity the 

^■'' Apostles were sent to baptize, i.e. in the name of the Father, 

Greg. and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Greg. He saith, 

lil^Tgb) ^^ode vpon Him : for the Holy Spirit visits all the faithful. ; 

but on the Mediator alone does He abide for ever in a pe- 

culiar manner; never leaving the Son's Humanity, even as 

He proceeds Himsclf from the Son's Divinity. But when 

John 14, the disciples are told of the same Spirit, He shall dwcll with 

^^* you, how is thc abiding of the Spirit a peculiar sign of 

Christ? This will appcar if we distinguish between tlie 

different gifts of the Spirit. As regards those gifts which 

are necessary for attaining to life, the Holy Spirit ever abides 

in all the elect ; such are gentlcness, humility, faith, hope, 

charity : but with respect to those, which have for thcir 

object, not our own salvation, but that of others, He does not 

always abide, but sometimes withdraws, and ceases to exhibit 

thera ; that men may be more humble in the possession of 

His gifts. But Christ had all the gifts of the Spirit, un- 

Clirys. interruptedly always. Chrys. Should any however think that 

(!i xvn^' Christ really wanted the Holy Spirit, in the way that we do, 

ii) Joan. he corrects this notion also, by iuforming us that the descent 

of the Holy Ghost took place only for the purpose of mani- 

festing Christ : And I knevj Him not : but He that sent me to 

baptise with water, the same said ujito me, Upon whom Ihou 

shalt see the Spirit descending, and remaining on Him, the 

Aiig. Tr. same is He which baptizeth with the Holy Ghost. Aug, 

V. c. 1. j^^^^ ^^I^Q ggj^^ John? K we say the Father, we say true; if 

we say the Son, we say true. But it would be truer to say, 

the Father and the Son. How then knew he not Him, by 

Whom he M^as scnt ? For if he knew not Him, by Whom he 

v!:r. 3.2—34. ST. john. 63 

wished to be baptizcd, it 'vvas rash in hitn to say, I have 
need to be baptized bij Tliee. So then he knew Ilim ; aud why 
saith he, I knew Rim not? Chrys. Whea he saith, I knew chrys. 
Him not, he is speakinor of time past, not of the time of his f^o""-x^'i'- 

' ^ ° . (al.xvi.)c. 

baptism, when he forbad nim, saying, / have need to be bap- 3. in Joan. 
tized ofThee, Aug. Let us turn to the other Evangehsts, who Aug. Tr. 
relate the raatter more clearly, and we shall find most satis- ^^-^ '^_ 
fiictorily, that thc dove descended when our Lord ascended sim. 
from the water. If then the dove descended after baptism, 
but John said before the baptisra, / have need to be baptized 
of Thee, he knew Ilim before Ilis baptism also, How then 
said he, / knew Ilim not, but He ivhich sent me to baptize ? 
"Was this the first revelation made to John of Chrisfs per- 
son, or was it not rathcr a fullcr disclosiire of what had 
bcen ah'eady revealcd ? Jolm knew the Lord to be the Son 
of God, knew that He would baptize with the Iloly Ghost : 
for before Clirist came to the rivcr, many having comc 
to;^etlier to hear John, he said uuto tliem, He that cometh Matt. 3. 
after me is migJitier than I: He shaJl baptize you with the 
Iloly Ghost and with fire. Wliat then ? He did not know 
that our Lord (lest Paul or Peter might say, my baptism, as 
wc fiud Paul did say, my Go.spel,) woukl have and rctain to 
Ilimself the power of baptism, the ministering of it however 
passiug to good and bad indiscrimiuately ^Yhat hindraucc 
is the badncss of the ministcr, wheu the Lord is good? So 
tlicn wc baptize again after John's baptism ; after a homicide's 
wc baplize not : because Johu gave his owu baptism, the 
liomicide gives Christ's ; wliich is so holy a sacramcut, that 
not even a horaicide's ministration can polhitc it. Our Lord 
could, had Ile so willcd, have givcu povvcr to auy servant of 
llis to give baptisra as it wcre in His own stead; aud to the 
baptisra, thus transferred to the servant, have imparted the 
same power, that it would have had, when given by Hiraself. 
J)Ut this Hc did uot choose to do ; that thc hope of thc bap- 
tized raight be directed to Him, Who had baptized them ; Ile 
wished not the servant to place hope in the servant. And 
aprain, had He given this power to servauts, tliere woukl 
have beeu as mauy baptisms as servauts ; as there liad bccn 
tlie baptism of John, so should we have had the baptism of 
Paul and of Pcter. It is by this power then, which Christ re- 


tains in His own possession exclusively, tliat tlie unity of tlie 
Cant. 6, 9. Church is established ; of which it is said, My dove is one. 
A man may have a baptisra besides the dove ; but that any 
Chrys. besides the dove should profit, is impossible. Chrys. The 
ur' '^3 ^^^^^^^ having sent forth a voice proclairaing the Son, the 
Holy Spirit came besides, bringing the voice upon the head 
of Christ, in order that uo one present might think that 
what was said of Christ, was said of John. But it will be 
asked : How was it that the Jews beheved not, if they saw 
the Spirit ? Such sights however require the mental vision, 
rather than the bodily. If those who saw Christ working 
miracles were so drunken wdth malice, tliat thcy dcnied 
what their own eyes had seen, how could the appearanco of 
the Holy Spirit in the forra of a dove overcome tiieir incre- 
duhty? Some say however that the sight was not visible 
to all, but only to John, and the more devotional part. But 
even if the descent of the Spirit, as a dove, was visible to the 
outward eye, it does not foUow that bccause all saw it, all 
understood it. Zacharias himself, Daniel, Ezechiel, and Moses 
saw many things, appearing to their senses, which no one 
else saw : and therefore John adds, And I saw and bare record 
that this is the Son of God. He had called Him the Lamb 
before, and said that He would baptize with the Spirit ; but 
Au^. Tr. 1^6 had nowhere called Him the Son before. Aug. It was 
necessary that the Ouly Son of God should baptize, not an 
adopted son. Adopted sons are ministers of the Only Son : 
but thougli they have the ministration, the Only oue alone 
has the power. 

35. Again the next day after John stood, and two 
of his disciples ; 

36. And looking upon Jesus as He walked, he 
saith, Behold the Lamb of God ! 

(.,,^yg_ CuRYS. Many not having attended to John's words at 

lioin. first, he rouses them a second time : Again the next day 
xvii.)i. " o/^^^ John stood, and two of his disciples. Bede. John 
Eede. stood, bccause he had ascended that citadel of all excel- 
Vi^crii. s. ^snces, from which no temptations could cast him down : his 
A.ud. disciples stood with him, as stout-hearted followers of tlicir 

vii. in 

V£R 35, oG. ST. JOHN. 65 

master. Curys. But wherefore went lie not all about, Chrys. 
preaching in every place of JudBea; instead of standiug near xviii. (ai. 
the river, waiting for His coming, that he might poiut Ilim ^^'''•) '^- ^- 
out ? Because he wished this to be done by the works of 
Christ Ilimsclf. And observe how much greater an effort 
M'as produced ; he struck a small spark, and suddeuly it 
rose into a flarae. Again, if John liad gone about and 
preached, it would have seemed hke human paitiahty, and 
great suspicion would have been excited. Xow the Pro- 
phets and Apostles all preached Christ absent ; the former 
before Ilis appearance in the flesh, the latter after His as- 
sumption. But He was to be pointcd out by the eye, not 
by the voice only ; and therefore it follows : And looking 
upon Jesus as He walked, he saith, Behold the Lamb of God ! 
Theophyl. Looking he saith, as if signifyiug by his looks 
his love aud admiration for Christ. Aug. John was tlie Ang. 
friend of the Bridegroom; he sought not his own glory, but J^'^^^' 
bare witucss to tlic truth. And therefore he wished uot 
his disciples to remain with him, to the hiudrance of their 
duty to follow tlie Lord ; but rather shewed tliem whom 
they should follow, sayiug, Behold Ihe Lamb of God. Chkys. Chrj's. 
He makes not a long discourse, having only one object be- ^^ylJ"']. 
fore him, to bring them and join them to Christ; knowing in Joan. 
that they would not any further need his witness. Johu c. 2. 
does not howevcr speak to his disciplcs alone, but publicly 
in thc prcscnce of aU. And so, undertaking to follow Christ, 
through this instruction common to all, thcy remaiucd 
thenccforth firm, foUowing Christ for tlicir own advuntagc, 
not as an act of favour to their master ^. John docs not 
exhort : he simply gazes in admiration on Christ, pointing 
out the gift >■ Ile came to bestow, the cleansing from sin : 
and the mode in which this would be accomplishcd : both 
of which the word Lanib testifies to. Lamb has the article 
afiixed to it, as a sign of pre-eminence. Auo. Tor He aloue Aug. Tr. 
and singly is the Lamb without spot, without sin ; uot be- 
cause His spots are wiped off, but because He never had 

* rhv SiS&(TKa\oi/, i. e. Jolin. In the rhv rpSwov rov Kadapfj.ov. The Cat. has 

Cat. is substituted "propter gratiam " pr.Tparationem propter quam venit 

Christi." et mocium preparaiionis." Perhaps it 

'' t))v Scupeav i(p' %v avveytvtTo Ka\ should be "purgationis." 



a spot. He alone is the Lamb of God, for by His blood 

c. 6. alone can men be redeemed. This is the Lamb whom the 

wolves fear; even the slain Lamb, by whom the lion was 

Bede. slain. Bede. The Lamb therefore he calls Him ; for that 

He was about to give us freely His fieece, that we might 

make of it a wedding garment ; i. e. would leave us an 

example of Hfe, by which we should be warmed into love. 

Alcuin. John stands in a mystical sense, the Law having 

ceased, and Jesus comes, bringiug the grace of the Gospel, 

to which that same Law bears testimony. Jesus ivalks, to 

Bede. collect disciples. Bede. The walking of Jesus has a refer- 

ywA ^" ^'^'^® ^*^ ^^^® economy of the Incarnation, by means of which 

s.And. He has condescended to come to us, aud give us a pat- 

tern of life. 

37. And the two disciples heard him speak, and 
they followed Jesus. 

38. Tlien Jesus turned, and saw them following, 
and saith unto thcm, What seek ye ? They said unto 
Him, Rabbi, (which is to say, bcing interpreted, 
Master,) where dwellest Thou ? 

39. He saith unto them, Come and see. They 
came and saw where He dwelt, and abode with Him 
that day : for it was about the tenth hour. 

40. One of the two which heard John speak, and 
followed Him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother. 

Alcuin. John having borne witness that Jesus was the 

Lamb of God, the disciples who had been hitherto with him, 

in obedience to his command, followed Jesus : And the two 

Chrys. disciples heard him speak, and they follovjed Jesus. Chrys. 

^^°I"* Observe ; when he said, He that cometh qfter me is made 

1 et sq. bejore me, and, Whose shoe's latcliet I am not worthy to un- 

loose, he gaiued over noae ; but when he made mention of 

the economy, and gave liis discourse a humbler turn, saymg, 

Behold the Lamb of God, then his disciples followed Christ. 

For many persous are less influenced by the thoughts of, 

God's greatness and majesty, than when they hear of His 

being man's Helper aud Friend ; or anything pertaining to 

YER. 37 — 40. ST. JOHN. 67 

the salvation of men. Observe too, when Johu says, Behold 
the Lamb of God, Clirist says nothing. The Bridegroom 
stands by in silence; others introduce Him, and deliver the 
Bride iuto llis hands ; Ile receives her, and so treats her 
that she no longer remerabers those who gave her in mar- 
riage. Thus Christ came to unite to Ilimself the Church ; 
Ile said nothing Himself; but John, the friend of the Bride- 
groom, came forth, and put the Bride's right liand in His; 
i.e. by his preaching delivered into His hands raen's souls, 
whom receiving He so disposed of, that tliey returued no 
more to John. And observe farther ; As at a marriage the 
maiden goes not to meet the bridcgroom, (eveu though it be 
a king's son who weds a humble handmaid,) but he hasteus 
to her; so is it here. For human nature ascended not iuto 
heaven, but the Son of God came down to huuiau natme, 
and took her to Ilis Father's house. Agaiu ; there wei*e 
disciplcs of John who not ouly did not follow Clirist, but 
were even enviously disposed toward Iliin ; i)ut the better 
part hcard, and followed; not from coutcnipt of their for- 
mcr master, but hj his persuasion ; bccause he proniiscd 
them that Christ would baptize with the Holy Ghost. Aud 
see with what modesty their zeal was accompauied. They 
did not straightway go aud interrogate Jesus ou great 
and neccssary doctrines, nor in public, but sought private 
converse with Ilim ; for we are told that Jesus tunied, and 
saiv them followinff, and saith unto them, What seek ye? 
Heuce we lcarn, that whcn wc once bcgin to forra good 
resolutions, God gives us opportunities enough of improve- 
ment. Clirist asks the questiou, not because Ile nceded to 
be told, but in order to encouragc familiarity aud confidcuce, 
and shew that He thought them worthy of Ilis iustructious. 
Theophyl. Observe thcn, tliat it was upon thosc who fol- '" 1°*^ 
lowcd Ilim, that our Lord turned Ilis face and looked upon 
them. Unless thou by thy good works follow Him, thou 
shalt never be permittcd to see Ilis face, or entcr iuto Ilis 
dwelling. Alcuin. The disciples follovved behind Ilis back, 
in order to see Him, aud did not see His face. So Ile turus 
rouud, and, as it were, lowers His majcsty, that they might 
be enabled to behold Ilis face. Origen. Pcrhaps it is not ^"S- 1°'"- 

• 1 1 /» • • • T 1 u. c. 29. 

without a reason, that after six testimomes Johu ceases to 




CHAP. 1. 

iri Joan. 

tom. ii. 
c. 29. 
xviii. (al. 
xvii.) 3. 

Matt. 8, 



bear witness, and Jesus asks seventhly, What seek ye ? 
Chrys. And besides following Hira, their qnestions shewed 
their love for Christ ; They said unto Him, Rabbi, {which is, 
being interpreted, Master,) where dwellest Thou ? They call 
Hira, Master, before they have learnt anything from Hira ; 
thus encouraging themselves in their resolution to become 
disciples, and to shew the reason why they followed. Ori- 
GEN. An avowal, befitting persons who came from hearing 
John's testimony. They put themselves under Chrisfs 
teaching, and express their desire to see the dwelling of 
the Son of God. Alcuix. They do not wish to be uiider 
His teaching for a time only, but enquire where He abides; 
wishing an immediate initiation iu the secrets of His word, 
and afterwards meaning often to visit Hira, and obtain 
fuller instruction. And, in a raystical sense too, they wish 
to lcnow in whom Christ dwells, that profiting by their ex- 
araple they may theraselves becorae fit to be His dweUing. 
Or, their seeing Jesus walking, and straightway enquiring 
where He resides, is an intimatiou to us, that we should, 
remembering His Incarnation, earnestly entreat Hira to 
shew us our eternal habitation. The request being so good 
a one, Christ promises a free and fuU disclosure. Ue saith 
unto them, Come and see : that is to say, My dwelling is not 
to be uuderstood by words, but by works; come, therefore, 
by beUeving and working, and then see by understauding. 
Origen. Or perhaps come, is an iuvitation to action ; see, to 
contemplation. Chrys. Christ does uot describe His house 
and situation, but briugs them after Hira, shewing that He 
liad ab-eady accepted them as His own. He says not, It is 
not the time now, to-morrow ye shall hear if ye wish to 
learn ; but addresses them familiarly, as Mends who had 
hved with Hira a long time. But how is it that He saith in 
another place, The Son o/ Man hath not where to lay His 
head ? when liere He says, Come and see where I live ? His 
not having where to lay His head, could only have meant 
that He had no dwelHng of His own, not that He did not 
live in a house at all : for the next words are, They came 
and saiv where He dwelt, and abode with Him that day. 
Why they stayed the EvangeUst does not say : it being ob- 
viously for the sake of His teachiug. Aug. What a blessed 

VER. 41, 42. ST, JOHN. 69 

day and night was tliat ! Let us too build up in our hearts 
within, and make Him an house, whither He may come 
and teach us. Theophyl. A7id it ivas about the tenth hour. 
The Evangelist mentions the time of day purposely, as 
a hint both to teachers and learners, not to let tirae inter- 
fere with their work. Chrys. It shewed a strong desire to chrvs. 
hear Him, since even at sunset they did not turn from Him. ""!!'• 
To sensual persons the time after meals is unsuitable for aiiy 
grave employment, their bodies being overloaded with food. 
But John, whuse disciples these were, was not such an oue. 
His evening was a more abstemious one than our mornings. 
AuG. The number liere signifies the law, wliicli was com- Auct. Tr. 
posed of ten commandments. The tinie liad come wlien the ^'"- '^- ^^- 
law was to be fulfilled by love, the Jews, who acted from 
fear, having been unable to fulfil it, and therefore was it at 
the tenth liour that our Lord heard Himself called, Rabbi ; 
none but the giver of the law is the teacher ^ of the law. i magis- 
Chrys. One of tlie two which heard John speak and foUowed t^"' 
Uim was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother. Why is the other Hom!* 
name left out ? Some say, because this Evangelist himself ^viii. 3. 
was that other. Others, tliat it was a disciple of no cmi- 
nence, and that therc was no use in telling his narae any 
more than tliose of thc sevcnty-two, wliich are omittccl. 
Alcuin. Or it wouhl sccm that the two disciples who fol- 
lowed Jcsus wcre Andrew and Philip. 

41. Ile first tindcth his own brother Simon, and 
saith unto bim, We havc found the Messias, which 
is, being interprctcd, the Christ. 

42. And he brouc:ht bim to Jesus. And when 
Jesus behcld him, lle said, Thou art Simon the son 
of Jona : thou shalt be called Cephas, which is by 
interpretation, A stone. 

Chrys. Andrew kept not our Lord's words to liimsclf; chrys. 

but ran in haste to his brother, to report the good tidings : '!""'• 

Jle Jirst jindeth his oivn brother Simon, and saith unto him, 

We have found the Messias, ivhich is, being interpreted, the 

Christ. Bede. This is truly to find the Lord; viz. to have Bede. 

fervent love for Him, togethcr with a care for our brothcr's |;J°'"- '" 
' ° Vig. s. 



Chrys. salvation. Chrys. The Evangelist does not mention what 

^xTal Christ said to those who foUowed Tlim ; but we raay infer it 

xviii.) 1*. frotn what follovvs. Andrew declares in few words what he 

had learnt, discloses the power of that Master Who had 

persuaded them, and his own previous longings after Hira. 

For this exclamation, JFe havefound, expresses a longing for 

His coming, turned to exultation, now that He was really 

Aug. Tr. come. AuG. Messias in Hehrew, Christus in Greek, TJnctus 

vii. c. 13. -j^ Latin. Chrism is unction, and He had a special unction, 

which from Him extended to all Christians, as appears in 

Ps. 44 the Psalm, God, even Thy God, hath anointcd Thee with the 

'^Vrtici- °^^ ^/ g^f^dness above Thy feliows ^ All holy persons are 

pibus partakers with Him ; but He is specially the Holy of Hohes, 

Chrys. specially anointed. Chrys. And therefore he said not Mes- 

Ho^m. XIX. ^-^g^ 1^^^ ^^g Messias. ^lark the obedience of Peter from 

the very first ; he went iraraediately without delay, as ap- 

pears from the next words : And he brought him to Jesus. 

Nor let us blame him as too yielding, becausc he did not 

ask many questions, before he received the word. It is 

reasonable to suppose that his brother had told him all, and 

sufficiently fully ; but the Evangelists oftcn raake oraissions 

for the sake of brevity. But, bcsides this, it is not absolutely 

said that he did beheve, but only, He took him to Jesus ; 

i.e. to learn frora the mouth of Jesus Ilimself, what Andrew 

had reported. Our Lord begins now Ilimself to reveal the 

things of His Divinity, and to exhibit them gradually by 

prophecy. For prophecies are no less pcrsuasive than mi- 

racles ; inasrauch as they are pre-eminently God^s work, and 

are beyond the power of devils to imitate, while miracles 

may be phantasy or appearance : the foretelling future events 

with certainty is an attribute of the incorruptible nature 

alone : And ivhen Jesus beheld him, He said, Thou art 

Simon the son of Jonas ; thou shalt be called Cephas, which 

Bede. ^^ ^y interpretation, A stone. Bede. He beheld him not 

Hom. i. vvith His natural eye onlv, but by the insight of His God- 

Hier. in head discerned from eternity the simpUcity and greatness of 

his soul, for which he was to be elevated above the whole 

Church. In the word Peter, we must not look for any- 

additional meaning, as though it were of Hebrew or Syriac 

derivation; for the Greek and Latin word Peter, has the 

Vig. s 

VER. 41, 42. ST. JOHX. 71 

same nneaning as Cephfis ; being in both languages derived 
froni petra. He is called Peter on account of the firmness 
of his faithj in cleaving to that Rock, of which the Apostle 
speaks, And that Rock ivas Christ ; which secures those who l Cor. 
trust in it from the snares of the enemy, and dispenses ' 
streams of spiritual gifts. Aug. There was nothing very Aug. Tr. 
great in our Lord saying whose son he was, for our Lord ^"' ^' ' 
knew the names of all Ilis saints, having predestinated them 
before the foundation of the world. But it was a great thing 
for our Lord to change his name from Simon to Peter. 
Pcter is from petra, rock, which rock is the Church : so 
that the name of Peter represents the Church. And who 
is safc, unless he build upon a rock ? Our Lord here rouses 
our attention : for had he bcen callcd Peter bcfore, we 
should not have seen the mystery of the Rock, and should 
havc thought that he was called so by chancc, and not pro- 
videntially. God tlicrefore made him to be called by another 
name before, that the change of that name might give vivid- 
ness to the mystery. Ciirys. Ile clianged thc name too to Chr^-s. 
sliew that He was the same wlio had done so before in the yr^^^i^\ 
Old Testament; who had called Abram Abraham, Sarai xviii. 2.) 
Sarah, Jacob Israel. Many He had named from their birth, 
as Isaac and Samson ; others again after bcing namcd by 
their parents, as were Peter, aud the sons of Zebcdee. 
Those whose virtue was to be emincnt from the first, have 
names given them from the first ; those who were to be ex- 
jiltcd aftcrwards, are named aftcrwards. AiG. The account Aug. 
here of the two disciples on tlie Jordan, who follow Christ Evang. c. 
(l)cfore he had gone into Galilcc) in obcdience to Jolm's 1- i'- 
testimony ; viz. of Andrew bringing his brother Simon to 
Jesus, who gave him, on this occasion, the name of Peter ; 
di>>agrccs considerably with tlie accouut of the other Evan- 
gehsts, viz. that our Lord found these two, Simon and 
Andrew, fishing in Galilee, and then bid them follow Him : 
unless wx understand that they did not regularly join our 
Lord when they saw Him on the Jordan ; but only dis- 
covercd who Ile was, and fuU of wonder, then returned to 
their occupations. Nor must we think that Peter first rc- 
ceived his namc on the occasion mentioncd in Matthew, 
when our Lord says, Thou art Peter, and upon this rock uitl Matt. 

16, 18. 


/ build My Church ; but rather when our Lord says, Thou 
shalt be called Cephas, which is by interpretation, A stone. 
Alcuin. Or perhaps He does not actually give him the 
name now, but only fixes beforehand what He afterwards 
gave him when He said, Thou art Peter, and upon this rock 
will I build My Church. And while about to change his 
name, Christ wishes to shew that even that which his 
parents had given him, was not without a meaning. For 
Simon signifies obedience, Joanna grace, Jona a dove : as 
if the meauing was ; Thou art an obedient son of grace, or 
of the dove, i.e. the Holy Spirit ; for thou hast received of 
the Holy Spirit the humihty, to desire, at Andrew's call, 
to see Me. The elder disdained not to foUow the younger ; 
for where there is meritorious faith, there is uo order of 

43. The day following Jesus would go forth into 
Galilee, and findeth Philip, and saith unto him, 
Follow Mc. 

44. Now Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of 
Andrew and Peter. 

45. Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, 
We have found Him, of whom Moses in the law, and 
the prophets, did writc, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of 

46. And Nathanacl said unto him, Can there any 
good thing come out of Nazareth ? Philip saith unto 
him, Come and see. 

Chrys. Chrys. After gaining these disciples, Christ proceeded to 

Hom. xix. convert others, viz. Phihp and Nathanael : The day folloiv- 
ing, Jesus would go forth into Galilee. Alcuin. Leaving, 
that is, Judsea, where John vvas baptizing, out of respect to 
the Baptist, and not to appear to lower his office, as long as 
it continued. He was going to call a disciple, and wished 
to go forth into Galilee, i. e. to a place of " transition" or 
" revelation,^^ that is to say, that as He Himself increased in 
wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man, aud as 
He suffered aud rose again, and eutered iuto His glory : so 

viiR. 43— 4G. ST. JOHN. 73 

Ile would teach His followers to go fortJt, and increase in 
virtue, and pass tlirough suffering to joy. Uefindeth Philip, 
and saith unto Jdm, Follow Me. Evcry one follows Jesus 
who imitatcs Ilis humihty and suffcring, in order to be 
partaker of Ilis resurrection aud ascension. Chrys. Ob- Chrys. 
serve, He did not call them, beforc sorae bad of their own xx. i! 
accord joined Ilim: for had Ile invited thcm, bcfore any 
had joined Ilim, perhaps they woukl have started back : but 
now having determined to follow of their own free choicCj 
tliey reraain firm ever after. Ile calls Philip, however, be- 
cause he would be known to Him, from hving in GaHlee. 
But what made rhibp fullow Christ ? Andrew heard froia 
John the Baptist, and Petcr from Andrew ; he had heard 
from no one ; and yct on Christ saying, Follow Me, was 
persuaded instantly. It is not improbabie that Phihp may 
have hcard Juhn : and yet it may iiave been tlie mere voice 
of Christ which produced this cffect. Tiidophyl. For the 
voicc of Christ sounded not like a coiiiraou vuice to some, 
that is, the faithful, but kiudled in thcir iuraost soul the 
love of Hira. PhiHp having bccn continually racditating on 
Christ, and rcading the books of Moses, so confidentiy ex- 
pectcd Him, that the instant he saw, he beheved. Pcrhaps 
too he had hcard of Him from Andrew and Peter, coraing 
from tlic sarac district ; an cxphiiiation wiiich the Evangelist 
sccms to liint at, wlicu hc adds, Now Philip was of BetJisaida, 
tJie citij of Andreio und Peter. Cuuys. The powcr of Christ Ciirys. 
appcars by Ilis gatlicring fruit out of a barren country. ^^""j" 
Fur frum tliat Galilcc, out of wliich thcre arisetli no pro- 
plict, Ile tidvcs Ilis most distinguislied disciples. Alcuix. 
Bethsaida means house of liuntcrs. The Evangclist intro- 
duces tlie name of tliis placc by way of allusion to the cha- 
racters of Pliilip, Peter, and Andrew, and their future office, 
i. e. catching and saving souis. Chrys. Pliihp is not only ciirys. 
persuadcd hirasclf, but begins preaching to others : PJillip ^^^'"j] 
findeth NatJianael, and saith unto Jiini, JFe havc found Him 
of ivJioni Jloses in tJie Laiv, and the PropJiets, did writc, Jesus 
of Nazureth, iJie Son of Joseph. See how zcalous lie is, and 
liow constantly he is meditating on the books of ]Moscs, aiid 
lool<ing for Cluist's coraing. That Christ was coraing he 
had knowu bcfore ; but he did not know that this was the 


Christ, of whom Moses and tlie Pi'ophets dkl write : lie saj^s 
tliis to give credibility to his preaching, and to shew his zeal 
for the Lavv aud the Prophets, and how that he had ex- 
amined them attentively. Be not disturbed at his calling 
our Lord the Son of Joseph ; this was what He was sup- 
Aug. Tr. posed to be. Aug. The person to whom our Lord's mother 
had been betrotlied. The Christians know from the Gospel, 
that He was conceived and born of an undefiled mother. 
He adds the place too, of Nazareth. Theophyl. He was bred 
up there : the place of His birth could not have been known 
generally, but all knew that He was bred up in Nazareth. 
And Nathanael said unto Him, Can there any good thing 
Aug. Tr. come out of Nazareth. Aug. However you may understand 
16 17. ' these words, Philip's answer will suit. You may read it 
either as affirmatory, Something good can come out of Naz- 
areth ; to wliich the other says, Come and see : or you may 
read it as a question, implying doul)t on Nathanael's part, 
Can any good thing come out of Nazareth ? Come and see. 
Since either way of reading agrees equally with what follows, 
we must enquire the meaning of the passage. Nathanael 
was well read in the Law, and therefore the word Nazareth 
(Philip having said that he had found Jesus of Nazareth) 
immediately raises his hopes, and he exclaims, Soniething 
good can come out of Nazareth. He had searched the Scrip- 
tures, and knew, wliat the Scribes and Pharisees could not, 
that the Saviour was to be expected thence. Alcuin. He 
Who alone is absolutely holy, harmless, undefiled ; of Whom 
Tsniah the Prophet saith, There shall come forth a rod out of the 
stem of Jesse, and a branch {Nazarceus) shall grow out of 
his roots. Or the words may be taken as expressing doubt, 
Chrys. and asking the question. Chrys. Nathanael knew from the 
] 2. ' ^' Scriptures, that Christ was to come from Bethlehem, accord- 
Micahs 2. iug to the prophccy of Micah, And thou, Bethlehem, in the 
land of Judah, — out of thee shall come a Governor, that shall 
rule My people Israel. On hearing of Nazareth, then, he 
doubted, and was not able to reconcile Philip's ddings with 
prophecy. For the Prophets call Him a Nazarene, only in 
reference to His education and mode of life. Observe, how- 
ever, the discretion and gentleness with which he commu- 
nicates his doubts. He does not say, Thou deceivest me. 

VER. 47 — 51. ST. JOHN. 75 

Philip ; biit simply asks the question, Can any good thiny 
come out of Nazureth ? Pliilip too in turn is equally discrete. 
Ile is not confounded by the question, but dwells upon it, 
and Hngers in the hope of bringing hiin to Christ : Philip 
saith unto him, Come and see. He takes him to Christ, know- 
ing that when he had once tasted of Ilis words and doctrine, 
he will make no murc resistance. 

47. Jesus saw Nathanael coming to Ilim, and saith 
of him, Behold an Israelite indecd, in whom is no 
guile ! 

48. Nathanael saith unto Him, Whence knowest 
Thou me ? Jesus answered and said unto him, Before 
that Philip called thee, when thou wast under the fig 
tree, I saw thee. 

49. Nathanael answered and saith unto Him, Babbi, 
Thou artthe Son of God ; Thou art the King of Israel. 

50. Jcsus answered and said unto him, Because I 
said unto thce, I saw thec undcr the fig trcc, believest 
thou ? thou shalt see grcatcr thinLi;s than thcse. 

51. And he saith unto him, Vcrily, verily, I say 
unto you, Ilercafter ye shall sce heaven open, and 
the angcls of God asccnding and descending upon 
the Son of man. 

Chrys. Nathanacl, in difRculty as to Christ coming out o^ .g 
of Nazareth, shcwcd thc care with which he had read the Hon;. xix. 
Scriptures : his not rejecting the tidiugs when brought him, 
shewed his strong desire for Christ's coming. Ile thought 
that Philip might be mistakcn as to the place. It follows, 
Jesus saio Nathanael cominy to Him, and saith of him, Bchold 
an Israelite indeed, in ivhom is no guile ! There was no fault 
to be found with him, though he had spoken like one who 
did not bclieve, because he was more dceply read in the 
Prophets tban PhiHp. He calls him guileless, because he 
had said nothing to gain favour, or gratify malice. Aug. ^ rp^ 
What mcancth tliis, /« whoin is no guile? Had he no sin ? vii. c. 19. 
Was no physician necessary for him ? Far from it. No oue 


was ever born, of a temper not to need the Physician. It 

is guile, when we say one thing, and think another. How 

then was there no guile in him? Because, if he was a sinner, 

he confessed his sin ; whereas if a man, being a sinner, 

pretends to be righteous, there is guile in his mouth. Our 

Lord then commended the confession of sin in Nathanael; 

He did not pronounce him not a sinner. Theophyl. Na- 

thanael however, notwithstanding this praise, does not ac- 

quiesce immediately, but waits for further evidence, and asks, 

Chrys. Whence knoicest Thou me ? Chrys. He asks as man, Jesus 

om. XX jj,-,g^Ygj,g jjg Qq(J . jgsiis answered and said unto him, Before 

that Philip called thee, when thou toast under the fig tree, 

I saw thee : not having beheld him as man, but as God 

discerning him from above. 7 saw thee, He says, tliat is, 

the character of thy life, when thou wast under the fig tree : 

where the two, Philip and Nathanael, had been talking to- 

gether alone, nobody seeing them ; and on this account it 

is said, that on sceing him a long way off, He said, Behold 

an Israelite indeed ; whence it appears that this speech was 

before Philip came near, so that no suspicion could attach 

to Christ's testimony. Christ would not say, I am not of 

Nazareth, as Philip told you, but of Bethleliem ; in order to 

dfx<pia$r]- avoid an argument : and because it would not have beea 

Tiiai^ov sufficient proof, had He mentioned it, of His being the Christ. 

He preferred rather proving this by His having been present 

Aug. Tr. at their conversation. Aug. Has this fig tree any meaning? 

vn. c. . -yyg j.g^j Qf Q^Q ^g ^pgg which was cursed, because it had 

only leaves, and no fruit. Again, at the creation, Adam 

and Eve, after sinning, made themselves aprons of fig leaves. 

Fig leaves then signify sins ; and Nathanael, when he was 

under the fig tree, was under the shadow of death : so that 

our Lord seemeth to say, Israel, whoever of you is without 

guile, O people of the Jewish faith, before that I called thee 

by My Apostles, when thou wert as yet under the shadow 

Greg. of death, and sawest Me not, I saw thee. Greg. When 

c. xxxviii.^^^o^ wast under the fig tree, I saw thee ; i.e. wheu thou 

(''>9-) wast yet under the shade of tlie law, I chose thee. Aug. 

Senn. 40. Nathanael remembered that he had been under the fig tree, 

(i22.) where Christ was not present corporeally, but only by His 

spiritual knowledge. Hence, knowiug that he had been 

VER. 47 51. ST. JOH.V. 77 

dlone, he recognisecl our Lord's Divinity. Chrys. That our Chrys. 
Lord then had this knowhnlge, had penetrated into his mmd, ^°'"" ^^' 
liad not blamed but praised his hesitation, proved to Na- 
thanael that He was the true Christ : Nathanael answered 
and saith unto Him, Rabbi, Thou art the Son of God, Thou 
urt the King of Israel : as if he said, Thou art He \\\\o was 
expected, Thou art He who was sought for. Sure proof 
being obtained, he proceeds to raake confession ; herein 
shevving liis devotion, as his former hesitation had shewn 
liis diligence. Ii). !Many when they read this passage, are Hom. xxi. 
perplexed at finding that, whereas Peter was pronounced ^ ^^'^ ^* 
blessed for having, after our Lord's miracles and teaching, 
confessed Him to be the Son of God, Xathanael, who makes 
the same confession before, has no such benediction. The 
reason is this. Peter and Nathanael both used the same 
words, but not in the same meaning. Peter confessed our 
Lord to be the Son of God, in the sense of very God ; tlie 
hitter in the sense of mere man ; for after saying, Thou art 
the Son of God, he adds, Thou art the King of Israel; where- 
as the Son of God vvas not the King of Israel only, but of 
the vvliole vvorld. This is manifest from what follows. For 
iu the case of Petcr Christ addcd nothing, but, as if his faith 
were pcrfect, said, that He vvould buihl thc Church upou his 
confession ; whereas Nathanacl, as if his coufession vvere 
very dcficient, is led up to higher things : Jesus answered 
and said unto hini, Bccause I said unto tliee, I saw thee under 
thefig tree, believest thou? Thou shalt ste yreater thinrjs than 
these. As if Ile said, What I have just said has appearcd 
a great matter to thee, and thou hast confessed ]\Ie to be 
King of Israel ; what wilt thou say when thou seest greater 
things than these ? AVhat that greater thing is Ile proceeds 
to shew : And Ile saith unto him, Verily, verity, I say unto 
you, Ilereafter ye shall see heaven open, and the angels of God 
ascending and descendlng upon the Son of Man. See how He 
viiises him from carth for a vvhile, and forces him to think 
tliat Christ is not a mere man : for hovv could Ile be a merc 
uian, whom angels ministered to ? It vvas, as it were, saying, 
tliat He vvas Lord of the Angels ; for Ile must be the King's 
own Son, on vvhom tlie servants of the Kiug descendcd 
and asceuded; descended at His crucifixion, ascendcd at 


His resurrection and ascension. Angels too before this 
came and ministered unto Flim, and angels brougbt the glad 
tidings of His birth. Oar Lord made the present a proof 
of the future. After the powers He had already shewn, Na- 
thanael would readily beheve that rauch more would foUow. 
Aiia. AuG. Let us recollect the Old Testament account. Jacob 

in Verb. ^^^ ^^ ^ dream a ladder reaching from earth to heaven ; the 

Doni. ° 

Lord resting upon it, and the angels asceuding and descend- 
Gen. 28, iug upou it. Lastlv, Jacob himself understanding what the 
vision meant, set up a stone, and poured oil upon it. When 
he anointed the stone, did he make an idol? No : he only 
set up a symbol, not an object of worship. Thou seest here 
the anointing; see the Anointed also. He is the stone 
which the builders refused. If Jacob, who was naracd Israel, 
saw the ladder, and Nathanael was an Israelite indeed, there 
was a fitness in our Lord telhng him Jacob's dreara ; as if 
he said, Whose narae thou art called by, his dreara hath 
appeared unto thee : for thou shalt see the heaven open, and 
the angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of 
man. If they descend upon Hira, and ascend to Him, then 
He is both up abcve and here below at the sarae tirae; above 
Aug, ii Himself, below in His raerabers. Aug. Good preachers, 
Tr VII. however, who preach Christ, are as angels of God ; i.e. they 

in Joan. ' r ' o ) j 

23. ascend and descend upon the Son of raan ; as Paul, who 
ascended to thc third heaven, and descended so far even as 

1 Cor. to give railk to babes. He saith, We shall see greater things 

' ' than these : because it is a greater thing that our Lord has 

justified us, whom He hath called, than that He saw us lying 

under the shadow of death. For had we reraained where 

c. 17. He saw us, what profit would it have been? It is asked why 
Nathanael, to whora our Lord bears such testimony, is uot 
found among the twelve Apostles. We may believe, how- 
ever, that it was because he was so learned, and versed ia 
the law, that our Lord had not put hira among the disciples. 
He chose the foolish, to confound the world. Intending to 
break the neck of the proud, He sought not to gain the fish- 
erraan through the orator, but by the fisherman the emperor. 
The great Cypriau was an orator; but Peter was a fisher- 
man before him ; and through him uot only the orator, but 
the emperor, believed. 

2 Cor 
12, 2. 


1. And the third day there was a marriage in Cana 
of Galilee ; and the mother of Jesus was there : 

2. And both Jesus was called, and His disciples, to 
the marria^e. 

3. And wdien they wanted wine, tlie mother of Jesus 
saith unto Him, They have no w'ine. 

4. Jesus saith unto her, Woman, what have I to do 
with thee ? Mine hour is not yet come. 

Chrys. Our Lord bcing kno^rn in Gahlee, tliey invite chrvs. 
Ilim to a marriaje : And the third day there ivas a marriage ^°'"- '''''• 
in Cana of Galilee. Alcuin. Gahlee is a province ; Cana 
a village in it. Chrys. Thcy invite our Lord to the mar- chrys. 
riage, not as a grcat lierson, but merely as one they knew, Hom. 

xxi. !• 
one of the many ; for Avhicli rcason the Evanirchst says, 

And the mothcr of Jcsus ivas ihere. As they invitcd thc 

mother, so they invited the Son : and tlicrcforc, Jesus ivas 

called, and IIis disciplcs to the marria(/e : and Ile came, as 

caring more for our good, than Ilis own dignity. Ile who 

disdained not to take upon Ilira the form of a servant, dis- 

dained not to come to the marriage of servants. Aug. Let au?. 

the proud man blush to see tbe bumihty of God. Lo, Jj^ ^^*^^* 

among otlicr things, the Son of the Virgin comes to a mar- Serm. 

riage; Ile Who, when He was with the Fathcr, institutcd ^ *' 

marriage. Bede. Ilis condescension in coming to the mar- Bede. 

riagc, aud the miraclc Ile wrouirlit therc, are, even considcr- ]^"'!1* , 
° , '^ ' ' , , 2d. Sund. 

ing thera in tbc lcttcr only, a strong confirmation of the faitb. afier 
Tberein too are condenincd tbe crrors of Tatian, jMarcion, '^'^ ' 
and otbers wbo dctract from tbe bonour of marriage. For 
if the undefiled bed, and tbe marriage celebrated witb due 
chastity, partook at all of sin, our Lord would never bave 

viii. c. 4. 

in loc 


come to one. Whereas now, conjugal chastity being good, 
the continence of widovvs better, the perfection of the virgin 
state best, to sanction all these degrees, but distinguish the 
raerit of each, He deigued to be born of the pure womb of 
the Virgin ; was blessed after birth by the prophetic voice of 
the widow Anna; and now invited in manhood to attend the 
celebration of a marriage, honours that also by the presence of 

Aug. Tr. Ilis goodness. Aug. What marvel, if Ile went to that house 
to a marriage, Who came into tliis world to a marriage. For 
here He has His spouse whom He redeemed with His own 
blood, to whora He gave the pledge of the Spirit, and whom 
He united to Himself in the worab of the Virgin. For the 
Word is the Bridegroom, and human flesh the bride, and 
both together are one Son of God and Son of man. That 
womb of the Virgin Mary is Ilis chamber, from which He 

Ps. 19, 5. went forth as a bridegroom. Bede. Nor is it without some 
raysterious allusion, that the raarriage is related as taking 
place on the third day, The first age of the world, before 
the giving of the Law, was enlightened by the exaraple of the 
Patriarchs; the second, under the Law, by the writings of 
the Prophets ; the third, under grace, by the preaching of the 
Evangelists, as if by the Hght of the third day ; for our 
Lord had now appeared in the flesh. The name of the place 
too where the marriage was held, Cana of GaUlee, which 
raeans, desire of migrating, has a typical signification, viz. 
that those are most worthy of Christ, who buru with devo- 
tional desires, and have know-n the passage from vice to 
virtue, from earthly to eternal things. The wine was raade 
to fail, to give our Lord the opportunity of raaking better ; 
that so the glory of God in raau raight be brought out of its 
hiding-place : And when they wanted wine, the mother oj 

Chrys. Jesus saith unto Him, They have no wine. Chrys. But how 

1 2. * ^^^ carae it into the raother's mind to expect so great a thing 
from her Son ? for He had done no miracles as yet : as we 
read afterwards, This beginning of miracles did Jesus. His 
real nature, however, was beginning now to be revealed by 
John, and His own conversations with His disciples ; be- 
sides that His conception, and the circumstances of His 
birth, had from the first given rise to liigh expectations in 

Luke 2, her mind : as Luke tells us, Ilis mother kept all these say- 

VER. 1 — 4. ST. JOHN. 81 

ings in her heart. Why then did she never ask Him to 
work a miracle before ? Because the time had now come 
that He should be made known. Before He had lived so 
much like an ordinary person, that she had not had the 
confidence to ask Him. But now that she heard that Johu 
had borne witness to Him, and that He had disciples, she 
asks Him confidently. Alcuin. She represents here the 
Synagogue, which challenges Christ to perform a miracle. 
It was customary with the Jews to ask for rairacles. 

Jesus saith unto her, Woman, ivhat have I to do with 
thee? AuG. Some who derogate from the Gospel, and say Aug. Tr. 
that Jesus was not born of the Virgin Mary, try to draw an ^"'* °' ^' 
argument for their error from this place ; for, how, say they, 
could she be His mother to whom He said, What have I to 
do with thee? Now who is it who gives this account, and 
on whose authority do we belicve it? The Evangelist John. 
But he himself says, The mother of Jesus was there. Why 
should he say it, unless both were true. But did He there- 
fore come to the marriage to teach men to despise their 
mother? Ciirys. That He grcatly vcnerated His raother, we Chrys. 
know from St. Luke, who tells us that He was subject unto /aPxxT^" 
His parents. For whcre parents throw no obstaclc in the way 
of God's commands, it is our duty to be subjcct to them; but 
when they demand any thing at an unseasonable time, or cut 
us off from spiritual things, we should not be deceived into 
compliance. Aug. To mark a distinction bctwccn His God- Au?. de 
head and manhood, that according to His manhood He was Senii^°i° 
inferior and subjcct, but according to His Godhcad supreme, c. 14. (5.) 
He saith, IVoman, what have I to do with thee? Chrys. chrys. 
And for another reason, viz. to prevent any suspicion attach- /^"'^■^'f^ 
ing to His miracles : for these it was proper should be asked 
for by those who wanted them, not by His mother. He 
wished to shew them that Hc woukl perform all in their 
proper time, not all at once, to prevent confusion ; for He 
saith, Mine hour is not yet come ; i.e. I am not yet known to xxii. (al. 
the persons present ; nay, thcy know not that the winc hath ^^''^ '" 
failed ; let them find out that first ; he who perceives iiot 
his want beforehand, will not perccive when his want is 
supplied. AuG. Or it was because our Lord as God had not Aug, Tr. 
a mother, though as man He had, and the miracle He was ^'"' '^' ^' 

' o ' et scq. 

VOL. IV. G Bparsim 


about to work was tlie act of His Divinity, not of human 
infirmity. When therefore His mother demanded a miracle, 
He, as though not ackuowledging a human birth, when 
about to perforra a divine work, said, Woman, what have I 
to do with thee ? As if He said, Thou didst not beget that 
in Me, which works the miracle, My Divinity. (She is called 
woman, with reference to the female sex, not to any injury 
of her virginity.) But because thou broughtest forth My 
infirmity, I will acknowledge thee then, when that very in- 
firmity shall hang on the cross, And therefore He adds, Mine 
hour is not yet conie : as if to say, I will acknowledge thee 
when the infirmity, of which thou art the mother, shall hang 
from the cross. He commended His mother to the disciple, 
when about to die, and to rise again, before her death. But 
note; just as the Manicheans have found an occasiou of error 
and pretext for their faithlessness in our Lord's word, What 
have I to do with thee? in the same way the astrologers 
support theirs from the words, IHne hour is not yet come. 
For, say they, if Christ had not been under the power of fate, 
He would never have said this. But let them believe what 
John 10, God says below, I have power to lay it (My life) down, and 
^' I have power to take it again: and then let them ask, why 

He says, Mine hour is not yet come : nor let them on such 
a ground subject the Creator of heaven to fate; seeing that, 
even were thcre a fatality in the stars, the Maker of the stars 
could uot be under the dominion of the stars. And not 
only had Christ nothing to do with fate, as ye call it; but 
neither hast thou, or any other man. Wherefore said He 
then, 3Iine hour is not yet come? Because He had the 
power to die when He pleased, but did not think it expe- 
dient yet to exert the power. He was to call the disciples, 
to proclaim the Kingdom of heaven, to do marvellous works, 
to approve His divinity by miracles, His humility by par- 
taking of the sufferings of our mortal state. And when He 
had done all, then the hour was come, not of destiny, but of 
will, not of obligation, but of power. 

5. His mother saith unto the servants, Whatsoever 
He saith unto you, do it. 

6. And there were set there six waterpots of stone, 

VER. 5 — 11. ST. JOHN. 83 

after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, contaia- 
ing two or three firkins apiece. 

7. Jesus saith unto them, Fill the waterpots with 
water. And they fiUed them up to the brim. 

8. And He saith unto them, Draw out now^ and 
bear unto the governor of the feast. And they 
bare it. 

9. When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water 
that was made wine, and knew not whence it was : 
(but the servants which drew the water knew ;) the 
governor of the feast called the bridegi'oom, 

10. And saith unto him, Every man at the begin- 
ning doth set forth good wine ; and when men have 
well drunk, then that which is worse : but thou hast 
kept the good wine until now. 

1 1 . This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana 
of GaHlee, and manifested forth His glory ; and His 
disciples beUeved on Him. 

Chrys. Altliough Ile had said, Mine hour is not yet come, ciuys. 
Ile afterwards did what His raother told Him, in order to xx'!!! (al. 
shew plaiuly, that He was not undcr subjection to the hour. ^xi.) i. 
For if He was, how could He have done this miracle before 
the hour appointed for it ? In the next place, He wished 
to shew honour to His raother, and make it appcar that He 
did not go counter to her eventually. He would not put her 
to sharae in the presence of so raany ; especially as she had 
sent the servants to Ilira, that the pctition raight corae from 
a number, and not from herself only ; His mother saith unto 
the servants, Whatsoever Ile saith unto you, do it, Bede. As Bede. 
if she said, Though He appear to refuse, He will do it never- 
thcless. She knew Ilis pity and raercifulness. And there 
were set there six waterpots of sfone, after the manner of the 
purifying of the Jews, containing two or three firkins apiece. 
Ilydriai^ are vessels to hold water ; hydor being the Greek ' vZplai. 
for water. Alcuin. Vessels to hold water were there, after 
tlie raanner of the purifying of the Jews. Among other 
traditions of tlie Pharisecs, they observed frequent washings. 



ciirys. Chrys. Palcstine being a dry country, with few fountains 

xxii. (al. 01' wells, they used to nll waterpots with water, to prevent 

XXI.) 2. ^[^Q necessity of going to the river, if they were unclean, and 

to have materials for washing at hand. To prevent any un- 

believer from suspecting that a very thin wine was raade by 

the dregs having been left in the vessels, and water poured 

in upon them, he says expressly, According to the manner 

of the purifying of the Jews : which shews that those vessels 

Aug. Tr. were never used to hold wine. Aug. A firkin is a certain 

^^'^' ' measure; as urn, amphora, and the like. Metron is the 

> MfTp??- Greek for measure : whence metretse ^ Two or three, is not 

kins ' "^' ^^ ^^ taken to mean some holding two, others three, but the 

same vessels holding two or three. 

Jesus saith unto them, Fill the waterpots ivith water. And 
Chrys. theij filled them up to the brim. Ciirys. But why did IIc 
xx*ii!'2 ^^^ work the rairacle before they had filled the waterpots, 
which would have been much more wonderful ; inasrauch as 
it is one thing to change the quality of some existing sub- 
stance, another to make it that substance out of nothing ? 
Tlie lattcr niiracle would be the raore wonderful, but the 
former would be the more easy of belief. And this prin- 
ciple often acts as a check, to moderate the greatness of our 
Lord's miracles : Ile wislies to make them more credible, 
therefore Ile makcs them less raarvellous ; a refutation this 
of the perverse doctrine of some, that He was a different 
Being frora the Maker of the world. For we see He per- 
forras most of Ilis miracles upon subject-matter already 
existing, whereas were He contrary to the Creator of the 
world, He wuuld not use a material thus alien, to demon- 
strate His own power. He did not draw out the water 
Himself which He made wine, but ordered the servants to 
do so. This was for the sake of having witnesses of the 
miracle ; And He saith unto them, Draw out now, and hear 
unto the governor of the feast. Alcuin. The Triclinium is 
a circle of three couches, cline signifying couch : the ancients 
used to recline upon couches. And the Architrichnus is the 
one at the head of the Triclinium, i.e. the chief of the guests. 
Sorae say that among the Jews, He was a priest, and at- 
tended the marriage in order to instruct in the duties of 
\^J]^^' the married state. Chrys. Or thus ; It might be said that 
xxii. 2. 

VER. 5 11. ST. JOHX. 85 

the guests were drunken, and could not, in the confusion of 
tlieir senses, tell whether it were water or wine. But this 
objection could not be brought against the attendants, who 
raust have been sober, being occupied wholly in performing 
the duties of their service gracefully and in order. Our 
Lord therefore bid the attendants bear unto the governor 
oj the feast ; who again would of course be perfectly sober. 
He did not say, Give to the guests to drink. Hilary. Hilar. iiL 
Water is poured into the waterpots ; wine is drawn out c.^5^""' 
into the chalices ; the senses of the drawer out agree not with 
the knowledge of the pourer in. The pourer in thinks that 
vvater is drawn out ; the drawer out thinks that wine was 
poured in. When the ruler of the feast had tasted the ivater 
that was made ivine, and knew not ivhence it was, {but the 
servants who drew the water knew,) the governor of the feast 
called the bridegroom. It was not a mixture, but a creation : 
the simple nature of water vanished, and the flavour of wine 
was produced ; not that a weak dilution was obtained, by 
means of some strong infusion, but that which was, was 
annihilated ; and that which was not, came to be. Chrys. Clirys. 
Our Lord vvished the power of His miracles to be seen gra- ^ "3"' 
dually; and therefore He did not reveal what He had done 
Himself, nor did the ruler of the feast call upon the ser- 
vants to do so; (for no credit would have been given to such 
testimony concerning a mere man, as our Lord was supposed 
to be,) but he callcd the brideyroom, who was best able to 
see what was done. Christ moreover did not only raake 
wine, but the best wine. And {the ruler of the feast) saith 
unto him, Everij man at the beyinning doth set forth good 
wine, and when men have well drunk, ihen that which is 
ivorse ; but thou hast kept the good wine until noiv. The 
cflects of the miracles of Clirist are more beautiful and 
better than the productions of nature. So then that the 
water was made wine, the servants could testify ; that it was 
made good wine, the ruler of the feast and the bridegroora. 
It is probablc that the bridegroom made some ansvver; but 
the Evangelist omits it, only raentioning what it was neces- 
sary for us to know, viz. the water being made wine. He 
adds, This beginning of miracles did Jesus in Cana of Galilee. 
It was very necessary to work miracles just then, when His xxiii. 1. 



devoted dlsciples were all collected, and present at the place, 

Hom. XX, attendiug to what was going on. Id. Should any say that 

there is not sufficient proof of this being the beginning of 

miraclesj because it is added, in Cana of Galilee, as if some 

had been preferred elsewhere : we answer, as we did before, 

c. 1. that John says below, That He might be made manifest to 

Uon,_ Israel, therefore have I come baptizing. Now if He had 

xxi. 2. perforraed rairacles in the earlier part of His life, the Jews 

would not have wanted another person to point Him out. 

If our Lord in a short time became so distinguished for 

the number of His rairacles, that His Name was known to 

every one, would He not have been much more so, had 

He worked miracles frora His earhest years ? for the things 

theraselves would have been the more extraordinary, being 

performed by a Child, and in so long a tirae must have be- 

corae notorious. It was fit and proper however that He 

should not begin to work miracles at so early au age : for 

men would have thought the Incarnation a phantasy, and in 

the extremity of envy would have delivered Hira to be cruci- 

^u fied before the appointed time. Auo. Tliis rairacle of our 

Tr. ix. Lord's, turning ihe water into wine, is no miracle to those 

who know that God worked it. For the Sarae that day 

made wine in the waterpots, Who every year makes wine 

in the vine : only the latter is no longer wonderful, because 

it happens uniformly. And therefore it is that God keeps 

some extraordinary acts in store for certain occasions, to 

rouse men out of their lethargy, and make them worship 

Hira. Thus it follows, He manifested forth His glory. Al- 

cuiN. He was the King of glory, and changed the elements 

Clirys. because He was their Lord. Chrys. He manifests His glory, 

Hom. as far as related to His own act ; and if at the time many 

knew it not, yet was it afterwards to be heard and known of 

all. And His disciples believed on Him. It was probable 

that these would believe more readily, and give more atten- 

AuK de ^^^^ ^^ what went on. Aug. If now for the first time they 

Cons. beheved on Him, they were not His disciples when they 

1. ii. c. came to the marriage. This however is a form of speech, 

xvii. such as saying that the Apostle Paul was born in Tarsus of 

Cilicia ; not raeaning by this that he was an Apostle then. 

In the same way when we hear of Christ's disciples beiiig 

VER. 5 — 11. ST. JOHX. 87 

invited to the marriage, we should understand not disciples 
already, but who were to be disciples. Aug. But see the Aug. Tr. 
mysteries which lie hid in that miracle of our Lord. It was ^^" ^' ^ 
necessary that all thiugs should be fulfilled in Christ which 
were written of Him : those Scriptures were the water. He 
made the water wine when He opened unto them the mean- 
ing of these things, and expounded the Scriptures ; for thus 
that came to have a taste which before had none, and that 
iiiebriated, which did not inebriate before. Bede. At the nnde. 
time of our Lord's appearing in the flesh, the sweet vinous '° ^' ^* 
taste of the hiw had been weakeued by the carnal interpre- 
tations of the Pharisees. Aug. Now if He ordered tlie water Aug. Tr. 
to be poured out, and then introduced the wine from the '^" •^^®'J- 
hidden recesses ^ of creation, He would seem to have re- i sinibus 
jccted the Old Testament. But converting, as He did, the 
water into wine, He shewed us that the Old Testament 
was from Himself, for it was by His order that the water- 
pots were fiUed. But those Scriptures have no meaning, if 
Christ be not understood there. Now we know from wliat 
time the law dates, viz. from the foundation of the world. 
From that time to this are six ages ; the first, rcckoning 
from Adam to Noah ; the second, from Noah to Abraham ; 
the third, from Abraham to David; the fourth, from David 
to the carrying away into Babylon ; the fifth, from that 
time to Johu the Baptist ; the sixth, from Johu the Baptist 
to the end of the world. The six waterpots then denote 
these six ages of prophecy. The prophecies are fulfillcd ; 
the waterpots are fuU. But what is the meaning of thcir 
holding two or three firkins apiece ? Had he said three 
only, our minds would have run immediately to the mys- 
tcry of the Triiiity. Nor perhaps can we reject it, even 
tlioiigh it is said, two or three : for the Father aud the Soa 
being named, the Holy Ghost may be understood by con- 
scquence; inasmuch as it is the love between the Father 
and the Son, which is the Holy Ghost. Nor should we pass c. ly. 
over another interpretation, which makes the two firkins 
alluded to the two races of men, the Jews and the Greeks ; 
and the three to the three sons of Noah. Alcuin. Tiie 
servants are the doctors of the New Testament, who inter- 
pret the holy Scripture to others spiritually ; the ruler of 


tlie feast is some lawyer, as Nicodemus, Gamaliel, or Saul. 

When to the former then is committed the word of the 

Gospel, hid under the letter of the law, it is the water made 

wine, being set before the ruler of the feast. And the three 

1 Tricli- rows ^ of guests at table in the house of the marriage are 

three' properly mentioned; the Church consisting of three orders 

couches, Qf believers, the married, the continent, and the doctors. 

Christ has kept the good wine until now, i.e. He has deferred 

the Gospel till this, the sixth age. 

12. After this He went down to Capernaum, He, 
and His mother, and His brethren, and His disciples : 
and they continued there not many days. 

13. And the Jews' passover was at hand, and Jesus 
went up to Jerusalem. 

Chrys. Chrys. Our Lord being about shortly to go up to Jeru- 

xxiii.* salem, proceeded to Capernaum, that Ile might not take His 

mother and brethren every where about with Him : After 

this He went doivn to Capernaum, Ile, and Ilis mother, and 

His brethren, and Ilis disciples, and they continued there not 

Aug. Tr. many days. Aug. The Lord our God is He, high, that He 

j' 2" "''"* might create us; low, that He might create us anew; walk- 

ing among men, suffcring what was human, hiding what was 

divine. So Ile hath a mother, hath brethren, hath disciples : 

whence He hath a mother, thence hath He brethren. Scrip- 

ture frequently gives the name of brethren, not to those only 

who are born of the same womb, or the same father, but to 

those of the aame generation, cousins by the father's or 

mother's side. Those who are unacquainted with this way of 

speaking, ask, Whence hath our Lord brothers? Did Mary 

bring forth again? That could not be : with her commenced 

the dignity of the Virgin state. Abraham was uncle of Lot, 

and Jacob was nephew to Laban the Syrian. Yet Abrahara 

and Lot are called brethren ; and Hkewise Jacob and Laban. 

Alcuin. Our Lord's brethren are the relations of Mary and 

Joseph, not the sons of Mary and Joseph. For not only the 

Aug. de blessed Virgin, but Joseph also, the witness of her chastity, 

c.°i^.*c. "' abstained from all conjugal intercourse. Aug. And His dis- 

XV ,i! (39.) 

VER. 12, 13. ST. JOHN. 89 

ciples ; it is uncertain whether Peter and Andrew and the 
sons of Zebedee, were of their number or not at this time. 
For Matthew first relates that our Lord came and dwelt at 
Capernaum, and afterwards that He called those disciples 
from their boats, as they were fishing. Is Matthew perhaps 
supplyiug what he had omitted? For without any mention 
that it was at a subsequent time, he says, Jesus walking 1)/ Matt. 4, 
the sea of Galilee saiv two brethren. Or is it better to sup- ^^ 
pose tliat these were other disciples? For the writings of 
the Evangelists and Apostles, call not the twelve only, but 
all who believing in God were prepared for the kingdom of 
heaven by our Lord's teaching, disciples^ How is it too id. cap. u 
that our Lord's journey to Galilee is placed here before John 
the Baptist^s imprisonment'', when Matthew says, Now when 
Jesus had heard that John was cast into prison, Ile departed 
into Galilee : and Mark the same? Luke too, though he 
says nothing of John's imprisonment, yet places Chrisfs 
visit to Galilee after His temptation and baptism '^, as thc 
two former do. AVe should uuderstand then that the three 
Evangelists are not opposed to John, but pass over our 
Lord's first coming into Gahlee after His baptism; at which 
time it was that He converted the water into wine. Euseb. Euseb. 
When copies of the tlirce Gospels had come to the Evan- ^^ll' i 
gelist John, he is rcportcd, while he confirmed their fidelity i". c. 24. 
and corrcctncss, to have at the same time noticed some 
oniissious, espccially at the opening of our Lord's ministry. 
Certain it is tliat the first three Gospels seem only to contain 
the events of the year in which Jubn the Baptist was im- 
prisoncd, and put to death. And therefore John, it is said, 
was asked to write down those acts of our Saviour's before 
the appreheusion of the Baptist, which the former Evan- 

" Tliis supposition agrees best with was baptizing in Enon, near to Salim, 

what follows, wliich niakes out tlie visit because there was much water therc: 

to Galilee, in St. Matthew, St. Mark, and they came and were baptizid. For 

and St. Luke, to be the second visit. Joiin was not yet cast into prison." 

For they all mention the calling of the ^ Compariiig Matt. 4, 12. Mark 1, 

Apostles as taking place in this visit ; 14. Luke 4, 13. 14, it is evident ihat 

which calling therefore had not taken the order of events in the three is 

place at the time of tliis first visit, exactly the same ; excepting that St. 

which St. John is relating now. And Luke omits the mention of Jolin the 

it is diflicult to imagine that in all three Baptist's imprisonment. The visit to 

this mention is parenthetical and outof Galilee in St. Luke is meant to be after 

the order of time. John'simprisonnient, tliough thatevcnt 

^* John 3, 23. 24. "And John also has not bcen mentioned. 


gelists had passed over. Any one then, by attending, will 

find that the Gospels do not disagree, but that John is re- 

lating the events of a difFerent date, from that which the others 

Chrys. refcr to. Chrys. He did not perform any miraele at Caper- 

Hom. ii-ii- r 1 • 1 • ■ 

xxiii. 1. naum, tne inhabitants or which city were in a very corrupt 
state^ and not well disposed to Him ; He went there however, 
and stayed some tirae out of respect to His mother'^. Bede. 
He did not stay many days there, on account of the Passover, 
which was approaching : And the Jews' passover was at 

0"g- hand. Origen. But what need of saying, of the Jews, whea 

torn. X. 4/ o «/ 7 

in Joan. no othcr nation had the right of the Passover ? Perhaps ^ 
^* ^*' because there are two sorts of Passover, one human, which is 
celebrated in a way very different from the design of Scrip- 
ture; another the true and Divine, which is kept in spirit 
and in truth, To distinguish it theu from the Diviue, it is 
said, of the Jews. 

Alcuin. And Ue went vp to Jerusalem. The Gospels 
mention two journeys of our Lord to Jerusalem, one in the 
first year of His preaching, before John was sent to prison, 
which is the journey now spoken of ; the other in the year of 
His Passion. Our Lord has set us here an example of careful 
obedience to the Divine commands. For if the Son of God 
fulfiUed the injunctions of His own law, by keeping the 
festivals, like the rest, with what holy zeal sliould we ser- 
Orig. vants prepare for and celebrate them ? Origen. In a mys- 
^°'g' ^' tical sense, it was meet that after the marriage in Cana of 
Galilee, and the banquet and wine, our Lord should take 
His mother, brethren, and disciples to the land of coriso- 
lation (as Capernaum signifies ^) to console, by the fruits that 

^ Whom, St. Chrys. adds, He was why is it, went down, and not went 

about to Jeave behind whenHe went to up? Perhaps his ' brethren' are here 

Jerusalem. to be understood of those powers who 

^ Origen literally, It is called the went down with Him, not being called 

Jews', as opposed to ihe Lord's Passover. to the marriage, according to the inter- 

For as the Jews had made His Father's pretation we have mentioned, but re- 

houseanhouseofmerchandize,not sanc- ceiving lower and inferior benefit from 

tifying it, so had they made the Lord's them ; and of anotlier sort from those 

Passover a human, a Jewish Passover, called thediscip'esof Christ. ForifHis 

choosing that which was low and carnaL niother be invited, there are some bear- 

' Ongen literally, that He niight ing fruit, whom our Lord Himself 

console Hisdisciples, and the soul that goes down to help with the ministers 

conceived Him of the Holy Ghost, or of the Word, and His disciples ; His 

them who were there benefited with mother too accompanying. — The in- 

the fruits that were to spring up terpretation to wliich Origen refers is 

iu their full [replenished] land. And lost. 

VER. 14 17. ST. JOHN. 9] 

were to spring up and by abundance of fields, those who 
received Ilis discipline, and the mind which had conceived 
Him by the Holy Ghost; and who were there to be holpen. 
For some there are bearing fruit, to whom our Lord Himself 
coraes down with the miuisters of His word and disciples, 
helping such, His mother being present. Those however 
whoare called to Caperuaum, do not seem capable of His 
presence long : that is, a land which admitteth lower conso- 
lation, is not able to take in the enlightenment frora many 
doctrines ; being capable to receive few only. Alcuin. Or 
Capernaura, we may interpret "a most beautiful village," and 
so it signifies the world, to which the Word of the Father came 
down. Bede. But He continued there only a few days, 
because He lived with men in this world only a short time. 
Origen. Jerusalem, as our Saviour Himself saith, is the city Orig. 
of the great King, into which none of those who remaiu on f°'"- ^- 

° ° _ . in Joan. 

earth ascend, or enter. Only the soul which has a certain c. 16. 
natural loftiness, and clear insight into things invisible, is 
the inhabitant of that city. Jesus alone goes up thither ^. 
But His disciples seem to have been present afterwards. 
T/ie zeal of Thine house hath eaten Me up. But it is as 
though in every one of the disciples who went up, it was 
Jesus who went up. 

14. And found in the temple tbose that sold oxen 
and shcep and doves, and the changers of money 
sitting : 

15. And wbcn Hc had made a scourge of small 
cords, Hc drove thcm all out of the temple, and the 
shecp, and the oxen ; and poured out the changcrs 
money, and overthrew the tablcs ; 

16. And said unto thcm that sold doves, Take these 
things hencc ; makc not My Father's housc an house 
of merchandisc. 

17. And His disciples remembered that it was 
written, Thc zeal of Thine house hath eaten Me up. 

8 He, and His motlier, and disciples, went down to Capernaum. Here Jesus 
went to the niarriage : He, and His aloue is meutioued. — Orig. in loc. 
motlier, and brcthren, and disciples, 


Bede. Our Lord on coming to Jerusalem, immediately 

entered the temple to pray ; giving us an example that, 

Matt. 21. wheresoever we go, our first visit should be to the house of 

God to pray. And He found in the temple those that sold 

oxen, and sheep, and doves, and the changers of money sitting. 

Au^. Tr. AuG. Such sacrificcs were prescribed to the people, in con- 

descension to their carnal minds ; to prevent them from 

turning aside to idols. They sacrificed sheep, and oxen, and 

doves. Bede. Those however, who came frora a distanco, 

being unable to bring with them the animals required for 

sacrifice, brought the money instead. For their convenience 

the Scribes aud Pharisees ordered animals to be sold in the 

temple, in order that, when the people had bought and of- 

fered them afterwards, they might sell them again, and thus 

make great profits. And changers ofmoney sitting ; changers 

of money sat at the table to supply change to buyers and 

sellers. But our Lord disapproving of any worldly business 

in His house, especially one of so questionable a kind, drove 

AnjT. Tr, out all cngagcd in it. Aug. He who was to be scourged by 

^- ^- ^" them, was first of all thc scourger ; And ivhen He had made 

a scourge of small cords, Ile drove them all out of the temple. 

Theophyl. Nor did He cast out only those who bought and 

sold, but their goods also : The sheep, and the oxen, and 

poured out the changers' money, and overthrew the tahles, 

i. e. of the money changers, which were cofi^crs of pence. 

Orig. Origen. Should it appear something out of the order of 

toin X. things, that the Son of God should make a scourge of small 

c. 16. cords, to drive them out of the temple? We have one an- 

swer in which some take refuge, viz. the divine power of 

Jesus, Who, when He pleased, could extinguish the wrath 

of His enemies however innumerable, and quiet the tumult 

Ps. 33, 10. of their minds : The Lord bringeth the counsel of the heathen 

to nought. This act indeed exhibits no less power, than His 

more positive miracles; nay rather, more than the miracle 

by which water was converted into wine : in that there the 

subject-matter was inanimate, here, the minds of so many 

Aug. de thousands of men are overcome. Aug. It is evident that 

]. ii. c. 67. *^^^ ^^^ done on two several occasions; the first mentioned 

Orig. toni. by Johu, thc last by the other three. Origen. John says 

x.inJoan. jjgj.^ ^Y\^^ jjg ^^^^^ ^^^ ^j^^ sellcrs from the temple; Mat- 

VER. 14 — 17. ST. JOHN. 93 

thew, tlie sellers and buyers. The niimber of buyers was 
much greater than of the sellers : and therefore to drive 
them out was beyond the power of the carpenter's Sou, as 
He was supposed to be, had He not by His divine power put 
all things under Him, as it is said. Bede. The Evangelist 
sets before us both natures of Christ : the human in that His 
mother accompanied Him to Capernaum ; the divine, iu that 
He said, Make not My Father's house an house ofmerchandize. 
Chrys. Lo, He speaks of God as His Father, and they are Chrys. 
not angry, for they think He means it in a common sense. xx"i? in 
But afterwards when He spoke more openly, and shewed Joan. 
that He meant equahty, they were enraged. In ^Iatthew's 
account too, on driving them out, He says, Ye have made it c. xxi. 
(J/y Fallier's house) a den of thieves. This was just before xxii. 13. 
His Passion, and therefore He uses severer language. But 
the former being at the beginning of His miracles, His 
answer is milder and raore indulgent. Aug. So that tcmple Auj». 
was still a fi^^ure ouly, aud our Lord cast out of it all who i,,"^'!^' „ 
came to it as a market. And what did they scll ? Things c 4- 
that werc necessary for the sacrifice of that time. AVhat if 
He had fouud men drunken? If the house of God ought 
not to bc a house of merchandize, ought it to be a house of 
drunkenness ? Ciikys. But why did Christ use such vio- Chrys. 
lence? He was about to hcal on the Sabbath day, and to ^^^""j^'^ 
do many tliiugs which ai^pcared to thcm trausgrcssions of 
tlie Law. Tliat He might uot appear thcrefore to be acting 
contrary to God, Ile did this at Ilis own peril ; aud thus 
gave thcm to uudcrstand, tliat Ile wlio exposcd Hiniself to 
such pcril to defcnd the decency of the housc, did not de- 
spise the Lord of that house. For the same rcason, to shew 
His agrecment with God, Ile said not, the Holy house, but, 
My Father's house. It foUows, And His disciples remembered 
what was written ; The zeal of Thine house hath eaten Me 
up. Bede. Ilis disciplcs seeing this most fervent zeal in in loc. 
II im, rcmembered that it was frora zeal for His Father's 
house that our Saviour drove the uugodly from the temple. 
Alcuin. Zcal, takcn iu a good scuse, is a certain fcrvour of 
the Spirit, by which the miud, all human fears forgotteu, is 
stirred up to the defence of the truth. Aug. Hc then is au?. Tr. 
eaten up with zeal for God's house, who desircs to correct 


all that he sees wrong tliere; and, if he cannot correct, en- 
dures and mourns. In thine house thou busiest thyself to 
prevent matters going wrong; in the house of God, where 
salvation is ofFered, oughtest thou to be indifFerent? Hast 
thou a friend ? admonish him gently ; a wife ? coerce her 
severely; a maid-servant ? even corapel her with stripes. 
Do what thou art able, according to thy station. Alcuin. 
To take the passage mystically, God enters His Church spi- 
ritually every day, and marks each one's behaviour there. 
Let us be careful then, when we are in God's Church, that 
we indulge not in stories, or jokes, or hatreds, or lusts, lest 
on a sudden He come and scourge us, and drive us out of 
'^"g- His Church. Origen. It is possible even for the dweller ia 

tom. X. . M 1 

in Joan. Jerusaiem to incur guilt, and even the most richly endowed 
^' may stray. And Tinless these repent spcedily, they lose the 

capacity wherewith they were endued. He finds them in 
the temple, i. e. in sacred places, or in the office of enun- 
ciating the Church's truths, some wlio make His Fathcr^s 
house an house of merchandize ; i. e. who expose to sale the 
oxen whom they ought to reserve for the plough, lest by 
turniug back they should becorae" unfit for the kingdom of 
God : also who prefer the unrighteous mammon to the sheep, 
from which they havc the material of ornament; also who 
for miserable gain abandon the watchful care of tliem who 
are called metaphorically doves, without all gall or bitter- 
ness''. Our Saviour finding these in the holy house, maketh 
a scourge of sra.all cords, and driveth them out, togetlier with 
the sheep and oxen exposed for sale, scatters the heaps of 
money, as unbeseeming in the house of God, and overthrows 
the tables set up in the minds of the covetous, forbidding 
them to sell doves in the house of God any longer. I think 
too that He meant the above, as a mystical intimation that 
whatsoever ' was to be performed with regard to tliat sacred 
oblation by tlie priests, was nol: to be perforraed after the 
manner of material oblations, and that the law was not to be 
observed as the carnal Jews wished. For our Lord, by 

*" " Solertiam columbarum privata fieiov irdffris iriKpdT-qTos, whicli appljes 

quilibet amaritudine vilipendent. " The to the dove. 

text is not grammatically correct, but ' Orig. literally, " that the Divine 

'solertiam' is plainly the reading of eTTt- service relating to that temple was ao 

fieXfiav, and ' privata' &c. of iaTfpri- longer to be pertormed," &c. 

VER. 14 — 17. ST. JOHN. 95 

driving away tlie sheep and oxen, aad ordering away the 
doves, which were the most comtnon offerings among the 
Jews, and by overthrowing the tables of material coins, which 
in a figure only, not in truth, bore the Divine stamp, (i. e. 
what according to the letter of the law seemed good,) and 
when with His own hand He scourged the people, He as 
rauch as declared that the dispensation was to be broken up 
and destroyed, and the kingdom translated to the believing 
from among the Gentiles. Aug. Or, those who sell in the Aug. Tr, 
Church, are those who seek their own, not the things of^'*^" 
Jesus Christ. They who will not be bought, think tiiey may 
sell earthly things. Thus Simon wished to buy the Spirit, 
that he might sell Ilim : for he was one of those who sell 
doves. (The Holy Spirit appeared in the form of a dove.) 
The dove however is not sokl, but is giveu of frce grace ■ ; for ' gratis 
it is called grace. Bede, They then are the sellers of doves, jq Iqc. 
who, after receiving the free grace of the Iloly Spirit, do not 
dispense it freely *, as they are commanded, but at a price : ^ gratis 
who confer the laying on of hands, by which the Holy Spirit 
is received, if not for money, at least for the sake of getting 
favour with the people, who bestow Holy Orders not accord- 
iug to merit, but favour. Aug. By the oxcn may be under- Aug. Tr. 
stood the Apostles and Prophets, who have dispeiised to us ^' ^' 
the holy Scriptures. Those who by these very Scriptures de- 
ceive thc people, from whoin they seck honour, sell the 
oxen ; and they sell the sheep too, i. e. the people them- 
selves; and to whom do they sell tliera, but to the devil? 
For that which is cut olf from the one Church, who taketli 
away, except the roaring lion, who goeth about every where, i pet. 5, 
and seeketh whom he may dcvour? Bede. Or, the sheep Bede. 
are works of purity and picty, and they sell the sheep, who '" 
do works of piety to gain the praise of men. They exchange 
money in the temple, who, in the Church, openly devote 
themselves to secular busincss. And besides those who seek 
for money, or praise, or honour from Holy Orders, those too 
make the Lord's house a house of merchandize, who do not 
employ the rank, or spiritual grace, which they have received 
in the Church at the Lord's hauds, with singleness of mind, 
but with an eye to human recorapense. Auo, Our Lord in- Aug. Tr. 
tended a meaniug to be seeu iu His makiug a scourge of ^' '^' 


small cords, and then scourging those who were carrying on 
the merchandize in the teraple. Everj one by his sins twists 
for himself a cord, in that he goes on adding sin to sin. So 
then when men suffer for their iniquities, let them be sure 
that it is the Lord making a scourge of small cords, and ad- 
monishing them to change their lives : which if they fail to 

Matt. 23. do, they will hear at the last, Bind him hand andfoot. Bede. 

B. de. in 'With a scourge then made of small cords, Ile cast them out 

loco. ° 

of the temple ; for from the part and lot of the saints are 
cast out all, who, thrown externally among the Saints, do 
good works hypocritically, or bad openly. The sheep and 
the oxen too Ile cast out, to shew that the hfe and the doc- 
trine of such were alike reprobate. And He overthrew the 
change heaps of the money-changers and their tables, as a 
sign that, at the final condcmnation of the wicked, Ile will 
take away the form even of those things which they loved. 
The sale of doves He ordered to be removed out of the temple, 
because the grace of the Spirit being freely received, should 
Qy5_ be freely given. Origen. By the temple we may understand 

toin. X. too the soul wherein the Word of God dwelletli ; in which, 
c. 16. * before the teachiug of Christ, earthly and bcstial affcctions 
had prevailed. The ox being the tillcr of the soil, is the 
symbol of earthly affections : the sheep, being the most irra- 
tional of all animals, of dull ones ; the dove is tlie type of 
light and volatile thoughts ; and money, of earthly good 
things ; which money Christ cast out by the Word of His 
doctrine, that Ilis Father^s house might be no longer a 

18. Then answered the Jews and said unto Him, 
What sign shewest Thou unto us, seeing that Thou 
doest these things ? 

19. Jesus answered and said unto them, Destroy 
this temple, and in three days I will raise it up. 

20. Then said the Jews, Forty and six years was 
this temple in building, and wilt Thou rear it up in 
three days ? 

21. But He spake of the temple of His body. 

VER. 18 22. ST. JOHN. 97 

22. When therefore He was risen from the dead, 
His disciples remembered that He had said this unto 
them : and they believed the Scripture, and the vvord 
which Jesus had said. 

Theophyl. The Jews seein» Jesus thus acting with power, hoc loco. 
and having heard Him say, Make not My Father^s house an 
house of merchandize, ask of Ilim a sign ; Then ansivered 
the Jews and said unto Ilim, IVhat siijn shewest Thou U7ito 
us, seeing that Thou doest these thinys ? Chrys. But were Chrys. 
signs necessary for Ilis putting a stop to evil practices? Was xxTh.'2. 
iiot the liaviug such zeal for the house of God, tbe grcatest 
sigu of His virtue? Tliey did not however remember the 
prophecy, but asked for a sign ; at once irritated at the loss 
of thcir base gains, and wishing to preveut Ilim froni going 
further. For this dilemma, they thought, would obhge Him 
either to work miracles, or give up His present course. But 
lle refuses to give them the sign, as He did on a hke oc- 
casion, when He answers, An evit and adulterous genera- Matt 12, 
tion seeketh afler a sign, and there shall no sirjn he yiven it, 
buft the sign of Jonas the prophet ; only the answer is more 
open there thau here. He however who eveu anticipated 
men's wishes, and gave signs wheu He was not asked, would 
not have rcjected here a positive rcquest, had Ile not scen 
a crafty design in it. As it was, Jesus answered and said 
unto them, Destroy this temple, and in three days I iviM 
raise it vp. Bede. For inasmuch as they souglit a sigu 
from our Lord of Ilis right to eject tlie customary merchau- 
dize from the temjile, He rephed, that that temple signilied 
the temple of Ilis Body, in w hich was no spot of sin ; as if 
He said, As by My power I purify your inanimate temple 
from your merchandize and wickedness; so the temple of j\Iy 
Body, of which that is the figure, destroyed by your hands, 
on the third day I will raise again. Theophyl. He does not 
however provoke thera to commit raurder, by saying, De- 
stroy ; but only shews tliat their intentious were not hidden 
frora Ilira. Let the Arians observe how our Lord, as tbe 
destroyer of death, says, / will raise it up ; that is to say, by 
My own power. Aug. The Father also raised Him up again ; x. "in Joan. 
to Wiiom He says, Raise Thou Me vp, and I shall reward '^- ^^- 

Ps 41.10- 
VOL. IV. U is.4i,iii 


them, But what did the Father do without the Word ? As 

then the Father raised Him up, so did the Son also : even 

John 10, as He saith helow, I and My Father are one. Chrys. But 

Chr s ^^y ^^^^ ^^ §^^® them the sign of His resurrection ? Because 

Traet. this was thc greatest proof that He was not a mere mau ; 

shewing, as it did, that He could triuraph over death, and in 

Orig. a moment overthrow its long tyranny. Origen. Both those, 

inJoan ^'^' ^°^^^ ^^^ Body of Jesus and the temple, seem to me to 

c. 20. be a type of the Church, which with Hvely stones is built 

up into a spiritual house, into an holy priesthood; ac- 

1 Cor. 12, cording to St. Paul, Ye are the hody of Christ, and mem- 

^'^* bers in particular. And though the structure of stones 

seem to be broken up, and all the bones of Christ scat- 

tered by adversities and tribulations, yet shall the temple 

be restored, and raised up again in three days, and sta- 

blished in the new hcaven and the new earth. For as 

that sensible body of Christ was crucified and buried, 

and aftcrward rosc again ; so the whole body of Christ's 

saints was crucified with Christ, (cach glorying in that 

cross, by which He Himself too was crucified to the workl,) 

and, after being buried with Christ, hath also risen with 

Him, walking in ncwness of life. Yet have we not risen 

yct in the power of the blesscd resurrection, wdiich is still 

going on, and is yet to be completed. Whence it is not 

said, On the third day / will build it up, but in three days ; 

for the erection is being in process throughout the whole of 

the three days. Theophyl. The Jews, supposing that He 

spoke of the material temple, scoffed : Then said the Jews, 

Forty and six years was this temple in building, and wilt 

Thou rear it up in three days? Alcuin. Note, that they 

allude here not to the first temple under Solomon, which was 

finished in seven years, but to the one rebuilt under Zoro- 

Ezra 4, 5. babel. This was forty-six years building, in consequence of 

Orig. tom. the hindrancc raised by the enemies of the work. Origen. 

X. c. ^. Qj, gQjj^g y^-^Y\ reckon perhaps the forty and six years from the 

time that David consulted Nathan the Prophet on the build- 

ing of the temple. David from that time was busy in col- 

lecting materials. But perhaps the nuraber forty may with 

reference to the four corners of the temple allude to the four 

elements of the world, and the number six, to the creatiou 

VER. 19—22. ST. JOHN. 99 

of man on the sixth day. Aug. Or it may be that thisAusr. iv. 
nuraber fits in with the perfection of the Lord's Body. For p^ JVy) 
six times forty-six are two hundred and seventy-six days, 
which make up nine months and six days, the time that our 
Lord's body was forming in the womb ; as we know by au- 
thoritative traditions hauded down from our fathers, and 
preserved by the Church. He was, according to general 
belief, conceived on the eiglith of the Kalends of April, thc ^rnrch 
day on which Ile sufFered, and born on the eiglith of the " 
Kalends of January. The intervening time contains two Dec. 25. 
hundrcd and seventy-six days, i. e. six multiplied by forty- 
six. AuG. The process of human conceptiou is said to be *^"-.J). 
this. The first six days produce a substance like milk, which Q„Kst! 
in the foUowing nine is converted into blood ; in twelve more ^- ^- *• 
is consohdated, in eighteen more is fornied into a perfect sct 
of lirabs, the growth and enlargement of which fills up the 
rest of the time to the birth. For six, and nine, and twclve, 
and eighteen, addcd together are forty-five, and with the ad- 
dition of one (which • stands for the sumraing up, all these ' aclded 
numbers being collected into one) forty-six. This multiplicd s.Aug. 
by the nuraber six, which stands at the head of this calcula- 
tion^, makes two hundred aud sevcntv-six, i. e. nine months -hnjus 

, . , T • • *• /• -11 orilina- 

and six days. It is no unmeaning intormation tlien tliat tionis 
the tcmple was forty and six years buikling ; for the temple '^'^P"^ 
prefigured Ilis Body, and as many years as the tcmplc was 
iu building, so many days was the Lord's Body in forming. 
AuG. Or thus, if vou take the four Greek words, anatole, the Aug. 

* . , in Joan. 

east ; dysis, the west ; arctos, the north ; and meserabna, tnc xr. x. 
south ; the first letters of these words make Adara. And our ^- '-• 
Lord says that Ile will gather togcther His saints frora tlie 
four wiuds, when Ile coraes to judgment. Now these letters 
of the word Adam, make up, according to Greek figuring, the 
number of the years during which the temple was building. 
For in Adara we have alpha, one; delta, four; alpha again, 
one; and mi, forty ; making up together forty-six. The 
temple then signifies the body derived from Adam ; which 
body our Lord did not take in its sinful state, but renewcd 
it, in that aftcr thc Jews liad destroyed it, Ile raised it agaiu 
the third day. The Jews however, being carnal, understood 
cai nally ; Ile spoke spiritually. He tells us, by the Evangelist, 



what temple Ile means ; But Jle spake of tlie temple of His 

Theoph. Body. Theophyl. From this Apollinarius draws an heretical 

ad loc. fin. jjjfgj.gQcg . ^nd attempts to shew that Christ's flesh was in- 

animate^ because the temple was inanimate. In this way 

you will prove the flesh of Christ to be wood and stone, 

because the temple is composed of these materials. Now if 

.Toiin you refuse to allow what is said, Now is My soul troubled ; 

i^b^'lo 18 ^"^' ^ ^''^^^ power to lay it (My hfe) doivn, to be said of the 

Luke rational soul, still how will you interpret, Into Thy hands, 

'^'^' *^' Lord, I commend My spirit ? you cannot understand this 

Ps. 16, iLof an irrational sonl : or again, the passage, Thou shalt not 

^^'■ig- leave My soul in hell. Origen. Our Lord's body is called 

in Joan. the temple, because as the temple contained the glory of God 

c- 23. dwelling therein, so the Body of Christ, which represents the 

Church, contains tlie Only-Begotten, Who is thc image and 

Chrys. glory of God. Chrys. Two things there were in the mean 

xxiH in timc very far removed from the comprehension of the dis- 

Joan. 3. ciples : one, the resurrection of our Lord's Body : the other, 

and the greater mystery, that it was God who dwelt in that 

Body: as our Lord declares by saying, Destroy t/iis temple, 

and in tliree days I will raise it up. And thus it follows, 

When therefore He had risenfrom the dead, His disciples re- 

membered that He had said this unto them : and they believed 

the 8cr'ipture, and the word which Jesus had said. Alcuin. 

For before the resurrection tliey did not understand the 

Scriptures, because they had not yet received the Holy Ghost, 

JoTin 7, J^f^ho tvas not yet given, becanse Jesus tvas not yet glorified. 

But on the day of the resurrection our Lord appeared and 

opened their meaning to Ilis disciples; that they might 

understand what was said of Ilim in the Law and the 

Prophets. And then they beheved the prediction of the 

Prophets that Christ would rise the third day, and the word 

which Jesus had spoken to them : Destroy this temple, ^c. 

Orig. Tr. OiiiGEN. But (in thc mystical interpretation) we shall attain 

to the full measure of faith, at the great resurrection of 

the whole body of Jesus, i. e. Ilis Church; inasmuch as 

the faith which is from sight, is very difiFerent from that 

which seeth as through a glass darkly. 

23. Now when He was in Jerusalem at the pass- 


X. c. 27. 

VER. 23 — 25. ST. JOHN. 101 

over, in the feast day, many believed in His nanie, 
when they saw the miracles which He did. 

24. But Jesus did not commit Himsclf unto them, 
because He knew all men. 

25. And needed not that any should testify of man : 
for He knew what was in man. 

Bede. The Evangehst has related above what our Lord Bede. 
did on His way to Jerusalem ; now He relates how others 
were affected towards Ilira at Jerusalera ; Now ivhen Ue ivas 
in Jerusalem at the Passover, in thefeast day, many believed 
in His Name, when they saiv the miracles which He did. 
Origen. But how was it that many beheved on Ilim from 0ri<r. 
seeing His miracles ? for He seems to have performed no ^^'^q''' 
supernatural works at Jerusalem, except we suppose Scrip- 
ture to have passed them over. May not however the act 
of His making a scourge of small cords, and driving all out 
of the temple, be reckoned a miracle? Chrys. Those had Chrys. 
been wiser disciples, however, who were brought to Christ ^j[|y_"|_ 
not by His miracles, but by Ilis doctrine. For it is the 
duller sort who are attracted by miracles ; the more rational 
are convinced by prophecy, or doctrine. And therefore it 
foUows, But Jesus did not commit Himself unto them. Aug. Aufr. 
What meaueth this, J/awy believed in His Name—but Jesus /jj^|^-^ 
did not commit Himself unto them ? Was it that they did c 2, 3. 
not beUeve in Hira, but only pretended that thcy did? In 
that case the Evangehst would not have said, Many believed 
in His Name. Wonderful this, and strange, that men sliould 
trust Christ, and Christ trusts uot Himself to meu ; espe- 
cially considering that He was the Son of God, and suffered 
voluntarily, or else need not have suffered at alh Yet such 
are all catechumens. If we say to a catechuraen, BeUevest 
thou in Christ? he answers, I do beheve, and crosses hira- 
self If we ask hira, Dost thou eat the flesh of the Son of 
raan ? he knows not what we say ^ for Jesus has not cora- 
raitted Ilimseh' to him. Origen. Or, it was those who be- Ori^. 
Jieved in His Name, not on Him, to whora Jesus would not J^"^g ^' 
commit Himself They beheve on Him, who foUow the 

^ Catechumens in the carly ChurcK not being taught the mystcry of the 
Eucharist. — Mic. 


XXV. 1, 


narrow way wliich leadeth unto life ; they believe in Ilis 
Ciirys. Name, who only believe the miracles. Chrys. Or it means 
that He did not place confidence in them, as perfect disci- 
ples, and did uot, as if they were brethren of confirmed faith, 
commit to them all His doctrines, for He did not attend to 
their outward words, but entered into their hearts, and well 
knew how short-lived was tlieir zeal ^. Because He knew ali 
men, and neecled not that any should testify of man, for He 
knew ivhat ivas in man. To know what is iu man's heart, is 
in the power of God alone, who fashioned the heart. lle 
does iiot want witnesses, to inform Him of that mind, which 
Aixg. Tr. was of His own fashioning. Aug. The Makcr kuew bettcr 
XI. c, 2. ^vhat was in His own work, than tlie work knevv what was 
in itself. Peter knew not what was in himself whcn he said, 
Luke / will go with Thee unto death ; but our Lord's answer 
shewed that He kuew what was in man ; Before the cock 
crow, thou shalt thrice deny 3/e. 13ede. Au admonitiou to 
us not to be confideut of ourselves, but evcr auxious and 
raistrustful ; kuowing that what escapes our owu know- 
ledge, cannot escape thc ctcrnal Judge. 

' elSws 77}v TTpoaKaipot' ainwi/ Ofp/xoTrjTa. A([. tcinpus oppoituiium mani- 
feste scii-ni!;. 

ver. (jl 


1 . Thcre was a man of the Pharisees, named Nico- 
demus, a ruler of the Jews : 

2. The same came to Jesus by night, and said unto 
Ilim, Rabbi, we know that Thou art a teacher comc 
from God : for no man can do thcse miraclcs that 
Thou doest, except God be with him. 

3. Jesus answercd and said unto him, Verily, verily, 
I say unto thce, Except a man be born again, he can- 
not see thc kingdom of God. 

AuG. Ile Imd said above tliat, when Ile ivas at Jcriisalcm Aufr. 
— many btHeved in Ilis Name, ivhen tJiey saw the miracles 
which Ile did. Of this iiuraber was Nicodcmus, of whora 
Avc are told ; Thcre was a man of the Pharisees, Nicodemus, 
a ruler of the Jews. Be:de. Ilis rauk is given, A ruler of 
the Jews ; and thcu wliat lie did, This man came to Jcsus by 
niylit : hoping, that is, by so sccrct an interview, to lcarn 
niorc of thc nivsterics of thc faith ; the Late pubhc niiraclcs 
having givcn hini an cleracntary knowlcdgc of thcm. CiiuYs. chrys. 
As yet however he was withhcld by Jcwish infirmity : and ^[^^"y""]^ 
thercfore lie came iu the night, being afraid to come in the 
dav. Of such the Evangclist si)caks elsewliere, Nevertheless, John 
among ihe chief rulers also many believed on Ilim ; but "' 
becausc of the Fharisees they did not confess Ilim, lest they 
should be put out of the synagogue. Aug. Nicoderaus wasAng. Tr. 
one of thc number \y\\o beheved, but were not as yet born ^^- ^' ^' *' 
again. Wherefore he came to Jesus by night. Wliereas 
thosc who are born of watcr and the Iloly Ghost, are 
addrcssed by the Apostle, Ye were sometimes darkness, but Eph. .';, 8. 
now are ye light in the Lord. Haymo. Or, well may it be Havnio. 
said thut he came in the night, enveloped as he was, in thc Oct. rcnt. 


darkness of ignorance, and not yet come to tlie light, i.e, the 

belief that our Lord was very God. Night in the language 

of Holy Writ is put for ignorance. And said unto Him, 

Rabbiy we Imow that Thou art a teacher come from God. 

The Hebrevv Rabbi, has the meaning of Magister ia Latin. 

He calls Him, we see, a Master, but not God : he does not 

hint at that ; he believes Him to be sent from God, but does 

Aug. Tr. not see that He is God. Aug. What the ground of his 

XI. c. 3, })elief was, is plain from what imraediately follows : For no 

one can do these miracles that Thou doest, except God be 

with him. Nicodemus then was one of the many who 

believed in His Name, when they saw the signs that He did. 

Chrys. Chrys. Hc did uot howevcr conceive any great idea of 

xxTv! 2. them from His miraclcs ; and attributed to Him as yet only 

in Joaii. a human character, speaking of Him as a Prophet, sent to 

execute a commission, and standing iu need of assistance to 

do His work ; whereas the Father had begotten Him perfect, 

self-sufficient, and free from all defect. It being Christ^s 

desigu however for the present not so much to reveal His 

dignity, as to prove that He did nothing contrary to the 

Father; in words He is often humble, while His acts ever 

testify His power. And therefore to Nicodernus on this 

occasion He says nothing expressly to magnify Himself, 

but He impcrceptibly corrects his low views of Him, and 

teaches him that He was Himself all-sufficient, and inde- 

pendent in His miraculous works. Hence He answers, 

Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a man be born ayain, 

Aii". Tr. ^'^^ cannot see the kinydom of God. Aug. Those then are the 

xi. c. 4. persons to whom Jesus commits Himself, those born agaiii, 

vvho come not iu the uight to Jesus, as Nicodemus did. 

Clirys. Such persons immediately make profession. Chrys. He 

Honi. gajs therefore, Except a man be born again, he cannot see the 

khujclom of God : as if He said, Thou art not yet born again, 

i. e. of God, by a spiritual begetting; and therefore thy 

knowledge of Me is not spiritual, but carual and human. 

But I say unto thee, that neither thou, nor any one, except 

he be born again of God, shall be able to see the glory 

which is around Me, but shall be out of the kingdom : for 

it is the begetting by baptism, which enlightens the mind. 

Or the meauing is, Except thou art born from above, and 

VEK. 4 — 8. ST. JOHN. 105 

hast received the certainty of My doctrines, thou wanderest 
out of the way, and art far from the kingdoni of heaven. 
By which words our Lord discloses His nature, shewing that 
He is raore than what He appears to the outward eye, The 
expression, From above% means, according to some, frora 
lieaven, according to others, from the beginning. Ilad the 
Jews heard it, they would have left Hira in scoru ; but 
Nicodemus shews tlie love of a disciple, by staying to ask 
more questions. 

4. Nicodemus saith unto Ilim, How can a man be 
born when he is old ? can he enter the second time 
into his mother's womb, and be born ? 

5. Jesus answered, Verily, verily, I say unto thee, 
Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit, he 
cannot entcr into the kingdom of God. 

6. That which is born of the ficsh is flesh ; and 
that which is born of the Spirit is spirit. 

7. Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must be 
born again. 

8. The wind bloweth whcre it hsteth, and thou 
hearest the sound thcreof, but canst not tell wlience 
it comcth, and whither it goeth ; so is every one tliut 
is born of the Spirit. 

Chrys. Ts^^icodcmus coming to Jcsus, as to a man, is Cbrys. 
startled on learning greater things than raan could utter, "j."^''^ 
tliings too lofty for hira, Ilis mind is darkcned, and he 
does not stand firm, but reels like one on the point of falling 
away frora the faith. Therefore he objects to the doctrine 
as being impossiblo, in order to call forth a fuller explana- 
tion. Two things thcre are which astonish him, such a birth, 
and such a kingdora ; ncithcr yet heard of among the Jews. 
First he urges the former difficulty, as being the greatest 
marvek Nicodernus saith unto Ilim, How can a man be 
born ivhen he is old? can he enter a second time into his 
mother's womb, and be born ? Bede. The question put thus Bede. 

in l*c. 
• Desuper Aq. denuo Vulg. see Tr. 67 on Holy Baptism, p. 45 note. 


sounds as if a boy miyht enter a second time into liis 

niother's womb and be born. But Nicoderaus, we must re- 

member, was an old man, and took his instance from him- 

self ; as if he said, I am an old man, and seek my salvation ; 

liow can I enter again into my mother's womb, and be born ? 

ciirys. CimYS. Thou callcst Ilim Rabbi, and sayest that He comes 

xxiv. 2. from God, and yet receivest not His sayings, but usest to 

thy raaster a word which brings in endless confusion ; for 

that how, is the enquiry of a man who has no strong belief ; 

and raany who have so enquired, have fallen from the faith ; 

some asking, how God became incarnate? others, hovv He 

wasborn^? Nicodemus here asks from anxiety. But ob- 

serve when a raan trusts spiritual tliings to reasonings of his 

Aiig. Tr. own, how ridiculously he talks. Auo. It is the Spirit that 

speaketh, whcreas he understandeth carnally : he knew of 

iio birth save one, that from Adara and Eve ; frora God and 

the Church he knows of none. But do tliou so understand 

the birth of the Spirit, as Nicoderaus did the birth of the 

ilesh ; for as thc entrance into the worab cannot be rcpeated, 

ciuys, so neither can baptisra. Chkys. AVhile Nicodemus sturables, 

xxTv! 3 dwelHng upon our birth here, Christ reveals raore clearly the 

manner of our spiritual birth ; Jesus answered, Verily, verily, 

I say unto you, Except a man be born of water and of ihe 

Aug. Tr. Spirit, he cannot cnter iyito the kimjdom of God. Aug. As 

x.i. c. . -^ y{q said, Thou understandest rae to spcak of a carnal 

birth ; but a raan raust be born of water and of the Spirit, 

if he is to enter into the kingdora of God. If to obtain the 

temporal iuheritance of his huraan fathcr, a man raust be 

born of the worab of his niother ; to obtain the eternal in- 

heritance of his heavenly Father, he must be born of the 

womb of the Ciiurch. And siuce man consists of two parts, 

body and soul, the raode even of this latter birth is twofold ; 

water the visible part cleansing the body ; tlie Spirit by His 

Ciirys. invisible co-opcration, chauging the iuvisible souk Chrys. 

"'"j^ If any one asks how a raan is born of watcr, I ask in return, 

how Adam was born from the ground. For as iu the be- 

ginuing though the element of earth was tlie subject-matter, 

tlie raan was the work of the fashioner; so uow too, though 

the element of water is the subject-raatter, the whole work 

^ So S, Clirys. and liow He remained impassible, Aq. 


VER. 4' 8. ST. JOHN. 107 

is done by the Spirit of grace. He then gave Paradise for 
a place to dAvell in ; now Ile hath opened heaven to us. 
But what need is there of water, to those who receive the c. 2. 
Holy Ghost? It carries out the divine symbols of burial, 
mortification, resurrection, and life. For by the immersion 
of our heads in the water, the old man disappears and is 
buried as it were in a sepulchre, whence he ascends a new 
man. Tlius shouldcst thou lcarn, that tiie virtue of the 
Father, and of the Son, and of the lloly Ghost, filleth all 
things. For which reason also Christ lay three days in 
the grave before His resurrection. Tliat thcn vvhich the Hom. 
womb is to the offspring, Mater is to the bcliever ; he is " ' 
fashioned and formed iu the water. But that which is 
fasiiioned in the womb needeth time; wliereas the water all 
is done in an instant. For the nature of the body is such 
as to require time for its completion; but spiritual creatious 
are perfect from the beginning. From the time that our 
Lord ascended out of the Jordan, water produces no longer 
rcptiles, i. c. living souls; but souls rational and eudued 
witli the Spirit. Aug. Because He does not say, Except Aii}i;. lib. i. 
a man be born again ' of water and of the Spirit, he shall ^l^ ^^\^q 
not liave salvation, or etcrnal lifc ; but, /le shdll not enter i vuig. 
iiilo the kingdom of God ; from tliis, some infer that childrcu 
are to be baptized in order to be witli Christ in the kingdom 
of God, where they would not be, were they not baptized; 
but that they will obtain salvation and eternal hfe even if 
they die without baptism, not being bound with any chain of 
sin. But wliy is a man born again, except to be changed 
from his old into a uew state? Or why doth the image of 
God not entcr into the kingdora of God, if it be not by 
reason of.sin? IIaymo. But Nicodemus bcing unable to Haymo. 
take in so great and deep mystcries, our Lord helps him Qj.t pj.j,t^ 
by the analogy of our carnal birth, saying, That which is 
burn of the flesh is flesh, and that ivhich is born of the Spirit 
is sjjirit. For as flcsh generatcs flcsh, so also doth spirit 
spirit. Chkys. Do not look then for any material produc- Chrys. 
tion, or think that the Spirit gcnerates flcsh ; for even the xx"'!' in 
L rd's flcsli is gcneratcd not by the Spirit only, but also •'"'"'• ^* 
by the flcsh. Tliat which is born of tlie Spirit is spiritual. 
The birth hcrc spokcu of takes place not according to our 


suhstance^ but according to honour and grace. But the 
birth of the Son of God is otherwise ; for else what would 
He have been more than all who are born again ? And He 
would be proved too inferior to the Spirit, inasmuch as His 
birth woukl be by the grace of the Spirit. How does this 
differ from the Jewish doctrine ? — But mark next the part 
c 1, 13. of the Holy Spirit, in the divine work. For whereas above 
some are said to be born of God, here, we find, the Spirit 
generates them. — The wonder of Nicodemus being roused 
again by the words, He who is born of the Spirit, is spirit, 
Christ meets him again with an instance from nature ; 
Marvel not that I said unto thee, Ye must he born again. 
The expression, Marvel not, shews that Nicodemus was sur- 
prised at His doctrine. He takes for this instance some- 
thing, not of the grossncss of other bodily things, but still 
removed from the incorporeal nature, the wnnd ; The ivind 
bloweth where it listeth, and thou hearest the sound thereof, 
but canst not tell whence it cometh, and whither it gocth ; so 
is evcry one that is born of the Spirit. That is to say, if no 
one cau restrain the wind from going where it will ; much 
less can tlie laws of nature, whether thc condition of our 
natural birth, or any other, restrain the action of the Spirit. 
That He speaks of the wind here is plain, from His saying, 
Thou hearest the sound thereof i.e. its noise when it strikes 
objects. He would not in talking to an unbeliever and 
ignorant person, so describe the action of the Spirit. He 
says, Bloweth where it listeth "^ ; not meaning any power of 
choice in the wind, but only its natural movements, in their 
uncontrolled power. But cayist not tell whence it cometh or 
whither it goeth ; i.e. If thou canst not explain the action of 
tliis wind which comcs uiider the cognizance both of thy 
feeling and hearing, why examine into the operation of the 
Divine Spirit ? He adds, So is every one that is born of the 
Auf?. Tr. Spirit. AuG. But who of us does not see, for example, that 
xii. c. 7. tijg south wind blows from south to uorth, another wind frora 
the east, another from the west? Aud how then do we not 

•^ S. Chrys. adds, § 2, that tlie whole borne wbither it will, mucb more shall 

applies d Jortiori to the Holy Spirit; iiot the laws of nature or the rules of 

" It bloweth where It listeth" is spoken eartlily birth, or anything of tbis sort, 

also to express the power of the Spirit. bold tlie might of the Spirit. 
If no oiie restraineth the wiiul, butitis 

VER. 9 — 12. ST. JOHN. 109 

know whence the wind coraeth, and whither it goeth ? Bede. Bede. 
It is the Holy Spirit thcrefore, Who bloweth where He listeth. j" "^°|J^ 
It is in Ilis owu power to choose, whose heart to visit with invent. 
His enhghtening grace. And thou hearest the sound thereof. Ed. Nic. 
When one filled with the Holy Spirit is present with thee 
and speaks to thee. Auo. The Psalm soundeth, the Gospel Aug. Tr. 
soundeth, the Divine Word soundtth ; it is the sound of '"'■ ^" "^' 
the Spirit. This raeans that the Holy Spirit is invisibly pre- 
sent in the Word and Sacrament, to accompUsh our birth. 
Alcuin. Therefore, Thou knowest not lohence it cometh, or 
whither it goeth ; for, although the Spirit should possess 
a person in thy presence at a particular time, it could not 
be seen how He entered into him, or how He went away 
again, because He is invisible, Haymo. Or, Thou canst not Haymo. 
tell whence it cometh ; i.e. thou knowest not how He brings oct"pe"nt 
believers to the faith ; or whither it goeth, i.e. how He directs 
tije faithful to their hope. And so is every one that is born 
of the Sjjirit ; as if He said, The Holy Spirit is an invisible 
Spirit; and in like manner, every one who is born of the 
Spirit is born invisibly. Aug. Or thus : If thou art born of Ang. Tr. 
tlic Spirit, thou wilt be such^ that he, who is not yct born of ^"' *^" ^' 
the Spirit, will not know whence thou comest, or whithcr 
thou goest. For it foUovvs, So is every one that is born of the 
Spirit. TiiEOPHYL. Tliis completely refutes jNIacedonius the in 'oc. 
impugner of the Spirit, who asserted tiiat the Holy Ghost 
was a servant. Tlie Holy Ghost, we find, works by Ilia 
own power, where Ile wili, and what He vvill. 

9. Nicodemus answered and said unto Ilim, Ilow 
can these things be ? 

10. Jesus answercd and said unto him, Art tbou 
a master of Israel, and knowest not these things ? 

1 1 . Verily, verily, I say unto thee, We speak that 
we do know, and testify that we have secn ; and ye 
receive not our witness. 

12. If I have told you earthly things, and ye bclieve 
not, how shall ye believe, if I tell you of heavcnly 
things ? 

Haymo. Nicodemus cannot take iu the mysterics of the 


Divine Majesty, which our Lord reveals, and therefore asks 

hovv it is, not denying tlie fact, not meaning any censure, 

but wishing to be inforraed : Nicodemus answered and said 

Ciirys. unto Him,, How can these things be ? Chrys. Forasmuch then 

xxvi. 2. ^s ^^ ^^^^^ remains a Jew, and, after such clear evidence, 

persists in a low and carnal system, Christ addresses him 

henceforth with greater severity : Jesus answered and said 

unto him, Art thou a master in Israel, and knowest not these 

Aucr. Tr. tJdngs? AuG. What think we ? that our Lord wished to 

insult this master in Israel ? He wished him to be born 

of the Spirit : and no one is born of the Spirit except he is 

made humble ; for this very humility it is, which makes us 

to be born of the Spirit. He however was inflated with his 

eminence as a master, and thought liimself of importance 

because he was a doctor of thc Jews. Our Lord then casts 

down his pride, in order that he may be born of the Spirit. 

Ciirys. Cfirys. Nevcrtheless He does not charge the man with 

^^'""*„ wickedness, but only with want of wisdom, and enlighten- 

XXVI. i. ' •> > a 

ment. But some one will say, What connexion hath this 
birth, of which Christ speaks, with Jewish doctrines ? Thus 
much. The first nian tliat was made, the woman that was 
made out of liis rib, the barren that bare, the miracles which 
were worked by means of water, I mcan, Elijah's bringing 
up the iron from the river, the passagc of the Red Sea, and 
Naaman the Syrian's purification in the Jordan, were all 
types and figures of the spiritual birth, and of the purifica- 
tion which vvas to take place thereby. Many passages iu the 
Prophets too have a hidden reference to this birth : as that 
Pf. 102. 5. in the Psalms, Making thee young and lusty as an eagle : 
Vs. 31, 1. and, Blessed is he whose unrighteousness is forrjiven. And 
again, Isaac was a type of this birth. Referiing to these 
passages, our Lord says, Art thou a master in Israel, and 
knowest not these things? A second time however He con- 
descends to his infirmity, and makes use of a common argu- 
ver. 11. ment to reuder wliat He has said crcdible : Vtrily, verily, 
I say unto thee, We speak that we do know, and testify that 
we have seen, and ye recevpe not our testimony. Sight we 
consider the most certain of all the senses ; so that when 
we say, we saw such a thing with our eyes, we seera to com- 
pel mea to believe us. lu Uke manuer Christ, speaking 

VER. 9 — 12. ST. JOHN. 111 

after tlie manner of men, does not indeed say that he has 
seen actually, i.e. with the bodily eye, the mysteries He 
reveals ; but it is clear that Ile raeans it of the most cei'taia 
absolute knowledge. This then, viz, That ice do know, he 
asserts of Ilimself alone. IIaymo. ^Vhy, it is asked, does Haymo. 
He speak in tlie phiral number, We speak that we do know ? 0"^'"*^^"^, 
Because the speaker being the Only-Begotten Son of God, 
Ile would shew that the Fatlier was in the Son, and the Soa 
in the Father, and tiie lioly Ghost from both, proceeding 
indivisibly. ArxuiN. Or, the plural number may have this 
meaning ; I, and they who are born again of the Spirit, 
alone understand what we speak ; and having seen the 
Father in secret, this we tcstify openly to tlie worhl ; and 
ye, who are carnal and proud, receive not our testimony. 
TnEOPiiYL. This is not said of Nicodemus, but of thc Jewish 
riice, who to thc very last persisted in unbelief. CniiYs. Chrys. 
They are words of gcntlcness, not of anger; a lesson to j^^^^y"'^^ 
us, whcn we arguc aud canuot converse, not l)y sore and 
angry words, but by the absence of angcr and clamour, (for 
clamour is the material of anger,) to prove tlic soundness 
of our views. Jesus in entering upon higii doctrines, ever 
checks Ilimself in compassiou to the weakness of His hearer : 
and docs not dwcli continuousiy on the most important trutlis, 
but turns to otliers more humljie. Wiience it follows : If 
1 have told tjou eartlily thinys, and ye believe not, how shall 
ye believe, if I tell you of heavenly things ? Auo. Tliat is : Au{r. 
If ve do not belicve tliat I can raise un a temijle, wiiicli you /'■•-''"• 

J i 1 ' «^ 111 Joan. 

have thrown down, liow can ye beiieve that mcn can bc re- c. 7. 
generated by tiie Iloly Ghost? CnRYs. Or tlms : Be not Chrys. 
surpriscd at Ilis caiiing Baptism eartiiiy. It is pcrformed ^^y|j' |^ 
upon earth, and is compared w-itii tiiat stupcndous birtli, 
wliich is of the substance of tlie Fatiier, an eartlily birth 
bcing one of mere grace. And well hatii Ile said, not, Ye 
understand not, but, Ye beiieve not : for when tlie under- 
standing cannot take in certaiii truths, we attribute it to 
natural deficicncy or ignorance : but where that is not re- 
ceived which it belongs to faitli oniy to receivc, the fauit is 
not deficiency, but unbelief. Tliese trutha, howcver, wcre 
revealed that posterity might believe and benefit bv them, 
though the pcoplc of that agc did uot. 


13. And no man hath ascended up to heaven, but 
He that came down from heaven, even the Son of 
man which is in heaven. 

Au?. AuG. After taking notice of this lack of kuowledge in 

de Pecc. ^ person, who, on the strength of his magisterial station, set 
iiemiss. himself above others, and blaming the unbehef of such men, 
c. XXXI. ^^^ Lord says, that if such as these do not beheve, others 
will : No one hath ascended into heaven, but He that came 
down from heaven, even the Son of Man who is in heaven. 
This may be rendered : The spititual birth shall be of such 
sort, as that men from being earthly shall become heavenly : 
which will not be possible, except they are made members 
of Me ; so that he who ascends, becomes one with Him who 
descended. Our Lord accounts His body, i.e. Ilis Church, 
GreK. as Himself. Greg. Forasmuch as we are made one with 
MoVc. 8. Him, to the place from which Ile came alone in Himself, 
al. 11. thither He returns alone in us ; aud He who is ever in 
Aug. heaven, daily ascendeth to heaven. Aug. Although Ile 
ut sup. ^^g made the Son of man upon earth, yet Ilis Divinity 
with which, remaining in heaven, Ile descended to earth, 
He hath declared not to disagree with the title of Son of 
man, as He hath thought His flesh worthy the name of Son 
of God. For through the Unity of person, by which both 
substances are one Christ, He walked upon earth, bciug 
Son of God ; and remained in heaven, being Son of man. 
And the behef of the greater, involves behef ia the less. If 
then the Divine substance, which is so far more removed 
from us, and could for our sake take up the substance of 
man so as to unite them in one person ; how much more 
easily may we beheve, that the Saints united with the maii 
Christ, become with Him one Christ ; so that while it is true 
of all, that they ascend by grace, it is at the same time true, 
that He alone ascends to heaven, Who came down from 
Ciirys. heaven. Chrys. Or thus : Nicodemus having said, TFe know 
xx^vTi. 1. ihat Thou art a teacher sent from God; our Lord says, And 
no man hath ascended, ^c. in that He might not appear 
in loc to be a teacher only hke one of the Prophets. Theophyl. 
But when thou hearest that the Son of man came down 
from heaven, think not that His flesh came down from 

VER. 14, 15. ST. jonN, 113 

heaven ; for this is the doctrine of those heretics, who held 
that Christ took His Body frora heaven, and only passed 
through the Virgin. Chrys. By the title Son of mau here, Chrys. 
He does not mean His flesh, but Himself altogether ; the Jfx^Jii' i 
lesser part of His nature being put to express the whole. It 
is not unco nmon with Him to name Himself wholly from 
Ilis humanity, or wholly from His divinity. Bede. If a man 
of set purpose descend naked to the valley, and there pro- 
viding himself with clothes and arraour, ascend the mouu- 
tain again, he who ascended raay be said to be the same with 
him wlio descended. Hilary. Or, His descending from hea- Hiiar. 
ven is the source of His origin as conceivcd by the Spirit : c^//'"' 
Mary gave not His body its origin, though the natural 
qualities of her sex contributcd its birth and increase. That 
IIc is the Son of man is from thc birth of the flesh which 
was conceived in the Virgin. That He is in heaven is from 
the power of His everlasting nature, which did not contract 
the power of the Word of God, which is infinite, within the 
sphere of a fiuite body. Our Lord remaining in the form 
of a servant, far frora the whole circle, inner and outer, of 
heaven and the worhl, yet as Lord of heaven and the world, 
was not absent therefrom, So then Ile came down from 
heaven because He was the Son of man ; and Ile was in 
heaven, because the "Word, which was raade flesh, had not 
ccased to be the Word. Auo. But thou wondcrest that He Aug. 
was at once here, and in heaven. Yet such power hath He ^"^3^" 
given to His disciples, Ilear Paul, Our conversation is in Pliil. 3, 
heaven. If the raan Paul walked upon earth, and had his '^^' 
conversation in heaven ; shall not tlie God of hcaven and 
earth be able to be in heaven aud carth ? Ciirys. That too Chrvs. 
which seeraeth very lofty is still unworthy of His vastness. j.^"J|' , 
For He is not in hcaven ouly, but everywhere, and fiUeth 
all things. But fur the preseut He accommodates Himself 
to the weakness of llis hearer, that by degrees He raay 
convert him. 

14. And as Moses lifted up the serpent in thc 
wilderncss, even so must the Son of Man be lifted up. 

15. That whosoever believeth in Him, should not 
perish, but bave etcrnal life. 





xxvii. 1. 


de Pecc. 
mer. et 
c. xxxii. 

in loc. 

xxvii. 2. 

Chrys. Having made mention of the gift of baptism, He 
proceeds to the source of it, i.e. the cross : And as Moses 
lifted up the serpent in the ivilderness, even so must the Son 
of man be lifted up. Bede. He introduces the teacher of 
the Mosaic law^ to the spiritual sense of that law ; by a 
passage from the Old Testaraent history, which was intended 
to be a figure of His Passion, and of man's salvation. Aug. 
Many dying in the wilderness from the attack of the ser- 
pents, Moses, by coramandraent of the Lord, lifted up 
a brazen serpeut : and those who looked upon it were im- 
mediately healed. The lifting up of the serpent is the death 
of Christ; the cause, by a certain mode of construction, 
being put for the effect. The serpent was the cause of death 
inasrauch as he persuaded raan into that sin, by which he 
merited death. Our Lord, however, did not transfer sin, 
i.e. the poison of the serpent, to His flesh, but death ; in 
order that in the likeness of sinful flesh, tliere might be 
punishraent without sin, by virtue of which sinful flesh 
might be dclivered both frora punishraent and from sin. 
Theophyl. See then the aptness of the figure. The figure 
of the serpent has the appearance of the beast, but not its 
poison : in the same way Christ carae in the likeness of sin- 
ful flesh, being free from sin. By Christ's being lifted up^ 
understand His being suspended on high, by which suspen- 
sion He sanctified the air, even as Hc had sanctified the 
earth by walking upon it. Herein too is typified the glory 
of Christ : for the height of the cross was raade His glory : 
for in that He subraitted to be judged, He judged the prince 
of this world ; for Adam died justly, because he sinned; our 
Lord unjustly, because He did no sin. So He overcame him 
who dehvered Hira over to death, and thus delivered Adam 
from death. And in this the devil found hiraself vanquished, 
that he could not upon the cross torraent our Lord into 
hating His raurderers : but only made Hira love and pray 
for them the more. In this way the cross of Christ was 
made His lifting up, and glory. Chrys. Wherefore He 
does not say, ' The Son of man raust be suspended,' but lifted 
up, a more honourable terra, but coraing near the figure. 
He uses the figure to shew that the old dispensation is akin 
to the ncw, and to shew on His hearers' account that He 

VER. 16 18. ST. JOHN. 115 

sufFered voluntarily : and that His deatli issued in life. Aug. Aug. 

Tr 12. 

As then formerly he who looked to the serpent that was c. u. * 
lifted up, was healed of its poison, and saved from death ; 
so now he who is conformed to the likeness of Chrisfs death 
by faith and the grace of baptisra, is delivered both from 
sin by justification, and frora death by the resurrection : as 
He Himself saith ; That whosoever beUeveth on Him should 
not perish, but have everlasiing life. What need then is there 
that the child should be conformed by baptisra to the death 
of Christ, if he be not altogether tainted by the poisonous 
bite of the serpent ? Chuys. Observe; He alludes to thc Chrys 
Passion obscurely, in consideration to His hearcr ; but thc xxTii! 2. 
fruit of the Passion He unfolds plainly ; viz. that they who 
believe in the Crucified One should not perish. Aud if they 
who believe in thc Crucified live, much more shall the Cru- 
cified One Ilimself. Aug. But there is this diff^crence be-Aiig. Tr. 
tween the figure and the reality, that the one recovered from ^"' '^' 
teraporal death, the other from eternah 

16. For God so loved the world, that He gave His 
only begotten Son, tliat whosoever belicvcth in Him 
should not pcrisb, but have everlasting life. 

17. For God scnt not His Son into the world to 
condcmn the world ; but that the world through Ilim 
might be saved. 

18. Ile that bclievcth on Him is not condemned : 
but he that beheveth not is condemned ah'eady, be- 
cause he hath not beUeved in the name of the only 
begotten Son of God. 

Chrys. Having said, Even so must the Son of man be lifted 
up, alluding to His death ; lest His licarer should be cast 
down by Ilis words, forming sorae human notion of Him, 
and thinking of His death as an evil ^, He corrects this by > iw- 
saying, that IIc who was given up to death was the Son of j°^^^^'^^^ 
God, and that llis death would be the source of hfe eterual ; tion, 
So God loved the world, that He gave His only begotten ,,0,', sa-' 
Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, bul l^i^i^em. 
have everlasting life; as if He said, Marvel not that I must 
be Ufted up, that you may be saved : for so it scemeth good 

de Trin 
c. 40. 


to the Father, who hath so loved you, that Ile hath givea 
His Son to suffer for ungrateful and careless servants. The 
text, God so loved the world, shews intensity of love. For 
great indeed and infinite is the distance between the two. 
He who is without end, or beginning of existence, Infinite 
Greatness, loved those who were of earth and ashes, crea- 
tures laden with sins innumerable. And the act which 
springs from the love is equally indicative of its vastness. 
For God gave not a servant, or an Angel, or an Archangel, 
but His Son. Again, had He had many sons, and given oue, 
this would have been a very great gift ; but now He hath 

Hilar. vi. given His Only Begotten Son. Hilary. If it were only 
a creature given up for the sake of a creature, such a poor 
and insignificant loss were no great evidence of love. They 
must be precious things which prove our love, great thiugs 
must evidence its greatness. God, in love to the world, gave 
Ilis Son, not an adopted Son, but Ilis own, even His Ouly 
Begotten. Here is proper Sonship, birth, truth : no creation, 
no adoption, no lie : here is the test of love and charity, that 
God sent His own and only begotten Son to save the world. 

in loc. Theophyl. As Hc said above, that the Son of man came 
down from heaven, not meaning that His flesh did come 
down from heaven, on account of the unity of person in 
Christ, attributing to man what belonged to God : so now 
conversely what belongs to man, He assigns to God the 
Word. The Son of God was impassible ; but being one in 
respect of person with nian, who was passible, the Son is 
said to be given up to death ; inasmuch as He truly suffered, 
not in His own nature, but in His own flesh. From this 
death follows an exceeding great and incoraprehensible 
benefit : viz. that whosoever believeth in Him should not per- 
ish, but have everlasting life. The Old Testament promised 
to those who obeyed it, length of days : the Gospel promises 
Ed. life eternal, and imperishable. Bede ^, Note here, that the 
same which he before said of the Son of man, lifted up on 
the cross, he repeats of the only begotten Son of God : viz. 
That whosoever believeth in Him, ^c. For the same our 
Maker and Redeemer, who was Son of God before the world 
was, was made at the end of the world the Son of man ; so 
that He who by the power of His Godhead had created us 


VER. 16 — 18. ST. JOHN. 117 

to enjoy the happiness of an endless life, the same restored 
us to the life we liave lost by taking our human frailty upon 
Him. Alcuin. Truly through tlie Son of God shall the 
world have life, for for no other cause came He into the 
world, except to save the world. God sent not His Son into 
the worJd to condemn the world, but that the woild throiigh 
Him might be saved. Aug. For why is He called the Saviour Aug. Tr. 
of the world, but because He saves the world ? The phy- ''''■ '^' ' 
sician, so far as his will is concerned, heals the sick. If the 
sick despises or will not observe the directions of the pby- 
sician, he destroys himself. Chrys. Because however He chrys. 
says this, slothful men in the multitude of their sins, and ^^°'": , 

J ' ' xxvin. 1. 

excess of carelessness, abuse God's mercy, and say, There is 
no hell, no punishment; God remits us all our sins. But 
let us remember, that there are two advents of Christ ; one 
past, the other to come. The former was, not to judge but 
to pardon us : the latter will be, not to pardon but to judge 
us. It is of tlie former that He says, I liave not come to 
judge the world. Because He is merciful, instead of judg- 
ment, He grants an internal remission of all sins by baptism ; 
and even after baptism opens to us thc door of repentance, 
which had Ile not done all had been lost ; for all have Rom. 3, 
sinned, and come shori of the glory of God. Afterwards, '^•^- 
however, there follows something about the punishment of 
unbelievers, to warn us against flattcring ourselves that we 
can sin with impunity. Of the unbchever Ue says, ' he is 
judged already.' — But first Ile says, He that believeth on 
Him is not judged. Ile who belicvcth, He says, not who en- 
quires. But what if his life be impure? Paul very strongly 
declares that such are not believers : They confess, he says, xit. i. Kj. 
that they know God, but in works deny Him. That is to 
say, Such will not be judged for their behef, but will receive 
a heavy punishraent for their works, though unbehef will not 
be charged against them. Alcuin. Ile who believes on Hira, Aug. Tr. 
and cleaves to Him as a meraber to the head, will not be '^"- ^' ^'^- 
condemned. Aug. What didst thou expect Him to say of 
him who bclieved not, exccpt that he is condemned ? Yet 
mark Ilis words : He that belicveth not is condemned already. 
The Judgment hath not appeared, but it is already given. 
For the Lord knows wbo are His ; who are awaiting the 


Clirys. crown, ancl who the fire. Chrys. Or the meaning is, that 
xxviii 1 disbelief itself is the punishment of the impcnitent; inasmuch 
as that is to be without hght, and to be without light is of 
itself the greatest punishment. Or He is announcing what is 
to be. Though a murderer be not yet sentenced by the 
Judge, still his crime has already condemned him. lu like 
manner, he who beheves not, is dead, even as Adam, on the 
GTeg. 1. (lay that he ate of the tree, died. Gueg. Or thus : In the 

xxvi, IVIor, 

c. xxvii. last judgment some perish without being judged, of whora 
(^^•^ it is here said, He that beUeveth not is co7iclemned already. 
For the day of judgment does not try those who for unbehef 
are already banished from the sight of a disceruing judge, 
are under sentence of damnation ; but those, who retaining 
the profession of faith, have no works to shew suitable to that 
profession. For those wlio have not kept even the sacraments 
of faith, do not even hear the curse of the Judge at the last 
triah They have ah'eady, in the darkness of their unbclief, 
received their sentence, and are not thought worthy of being 
convicted by the rebuke of Ilim whom tlicy had despiscd. 
Again ; For an earthly sovereign, in the government of his 
state, has a different rule of punishment, in the case of the 
disaffected subject, and the foreign rebel. In the former 
case, he consults the civil law; but against the enemy he 
proceeds at once to war, and repays his malice with the 
punishment it deserves, without regard to law, inasmuch as 
he who never submitted to law, has uo claim to suffer by 
the law. Alcuin. He then gives the reason why he who 
believeth not is condemned, viz. because he believeth not in 
the name of the only begotten Son of God. For in this name 
alone is there salvation. God hath not many sons who can save; He by whom He saves is the Onlv Begotten. Aug. 

Pecc. mer. ' ^ j a 

et Rem. Wherc thcu do we place baptized children ? Amongst those 
who beheve. This is acquired for them by the virtue of 
the Sacrament, and the pledges of the sponsors. And by 
this same rule \ve reckon those who are not baptized, among 
those who believe not. 

19. And tbis is the condemnation, tbat ligbt is 
qome into the world, and men loved darkness ratber 
tlian ligbt, because their deeds were evil. 

1. i. c. 33. 

VER. 19—21 ST. JOHN. 119 

20. For every one that doeth evil hateth the Hght, 
neither cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be 

21. But he that doeth truth cometh to the light, 
that his deeds may be made manifest, that they are 
wrought in God, 

Alcuin. Here is the reason why men belicved not, and 
M'liy they are justly condemned ; This is the condemnation, 
that light is come into the world. Chrys. As if He said, So chrys. 
far from their havinor sono;}it for it, or laboured to find it, ^""^: „ 
liglit itsclf liath come to tliem, and they have refused to 
admit it : Men loved darkness rather than light. Thus He 
leaves tliem no excuse. He came to rescue tliem from dark- 
ness, and bring them to hght ; ^vho can pity liim wlio does 
not choose to approach the hght when it comes unto him ? 
Bede. He calls Ilimself the hght, whereof the Evangehst Bede. 
speaks, That was the true light ; whereas sin Ile calls dark- '" ^°°' 
ness. Chrys. Then because it seemed incredible that man chrys. 
sliould prefer darkness to hght, He gives the reason of the xxvHi. 2. 
infatuation, viz., that their deeds were evil. And indccd had 
He come to Judgment, there had been some reason for not 
receiving Ilim ; for he who is conscious of his crimes, natu- 
rally avoids the judge. But criminals are glad to meet one 
Avho brings thcm pardon. And thercfore it might liave been 
expected that men conscious of thcir sins would have gone 
to mcet Christ, as many indeed did ; for the puhlicans and 
sinners came and sat do^vn vvith Jcsus. But thc greater 
part being too cowardly to undergo the toils of virtue for 
righteousness' sake, persisted iu their wickedness to the last; 
of whom our Lord says, Evertj one that doeth evil hateth the 
light. He speaks of those who choose to remain in their 
wickedness. Alcuin. Every one that doeth evil, hateth the 
light ; i. e. he who is resohed to sin, who delights in sin, 
hateth the hght, which detects his sin. Aug. Because they au^. 
dislike being deccivcd, and hke to deceive, they love hght for ^^^"[',3^ . 
discovering herself, aud hate her for discovering them. Whcre- 
fore it shall be their punisliment, that she shall manifest 
them against their wih, and herself not be manifest unto 
thcm. They love the brightness of trutli, they hate her dis- 




xxvii. 2. 

xx.viii. 3. 

Au». de 
Pecc. mer. 
et Remiss. 
1. i. c. 53. 

Aug. Tr. 
xii. 13, 14, 

crimination; and therefore it follows, Neither cometh to the 
light, that his deeds should be reproved. Chrys. No one re- 
proves a Pagan, because his own practice agrees with the 
character of his gods; his life is in accorchmce with his doc- 
trines. But a Christian who lives in wickedness all must 
condemn. If there are any Gentiles whose life is good, I 
know them not. But are there not Gentiles? it may be 
asked. !For do not tell me of the naturally amiable and 
honest; this is not virtue. But shew me one who has strong 
passions, and lives with wisdom. You cannot. For if the 
announcement of a kingdom, and the threats of hell, and 
other inducements, hardly keep men virtuous when they are 
so, such calls will hardly rouse thera to the attainment of 
virtue in the first instance. Pagans, if they do produce 
anything which looks well, do it for vaiii-glory's sake, and 
will therefore at the same time, if they can escape notice, 
gratify their evil desires as well. And what profit is a man's 
sobriety and decency of conduct, if he is the slave of vain- 
glory? The slave of vain-glory is no less a sinner than 
a fornicator; nay, sins even oftener, and more grievously. 
However, even supposing there are some few Gentiles of 
good lives, the exceptions so rare do not afFect my argu- 
ment. Bede. Morally too they love darkness rather than 
light, who when their preachers tell them their duty, assail 
them with calumny. 

But he that doeth truth cometh io the light, that his deeds 
may be made manifest, that they are wrovght in God. Chrys. 
He does not say this of those who are brought up under 
the Gospel, but of those who are converted to the true faith 
from Paganism or Judaism. He shews that no one will 
leave a false religion for the true faith, till he first resolve 
to follow a right course of light. Aug. He calls the works 
of him who comes to the light, wrought in God ; meaning 
that his justification is attributable not to his own merits, 
but to God's grace. Aug. But if God hath discovered all 
• men's works to be evil, how is it that any have done tlie 
truth, and come to the light, i.e. to Christ ? Now what He 
saith is, that they loved darkness rather than light ; He lays 
the stress upon that. Many have loved their sins, many 
have confessed them. God accuseth thy sins ; if thou accuse 

VER. 22—26. ST. JOHN. 121 

them too, thou art joined to God. Thou must hate thine 
ovvn work, and love the work of God in thee. The beginning 
of good works, is the confession of evil works, and then thou 
doest the truth : not soothing, not flattering thyself. And 
thou art corae to the light, because this very sin in thee, 
which displeaseth thee, would not displease thee, did not 
God shine upon thee, and Ilis truth shew it unto thee. 
And let those even who have sinned only by word or 
thought, or who have only exceeded in things allowable, do 
the truth, by making confession, and come to the light by 
performing good works. For httle sins, if suffered to accu- 
mulate, bccome mortal. Little drops swell the river : little 
grains of sand become an heap, which presses and weighs 
down. The sea coming iu by little and little, unless it be 
puraped out, sinks the vesseL And what is to pump out, 
but by good works, mourning, fasting, giving and forgiving, 
to provide agaiust our sins overwhehuiug us ? 

22. After these things came Jesus and His dis- 
ciples into the hmd of Judeea ; and there He tarried 
with them, and baptized. 

23. And John also was baptizing in ^non near to 
Salim, because there was much water there : and they 
came and were baptized. 

24. For John was not yet cast into prison. 

25. Then there arose a question between some of 
John's disciples and the Jews about purifying. 

26. And they came unto John, and said unto him, 
Rabbi, He that was with thee beyond Jordan, to whom 
thou barest witncss, behold, the sanic baptizcth, and 
all men come to Him. 

Chrys. Nothing is more open than truth, nothing bolder; chrys. 
it ueither seeks conceahnent, or avoids danger, or fears the **".'"• 

' . XXIX. 1. 

snare, or cares for popuhirity. It is subjcct to no human 
wcakncss. Our Lord went up to Jerusalem at the feasts, 
not from ostentation or love of honour, but to teach the 
pcople His doctrines, and shew rairacles of raercy. After 
thc festival He visitcd the crowds who were collected at the 


Jordan. After tJiese things came Jesus and His disciples into 
the land of Judaa ; and there He tarried wiiJi them, and 
haptized. Bede. After these things, is not immediately after 
His dispute with Nicodemus, whicli took place at Jeru- 
salem ; l3ut on his return to Jerusalem after some time 
spent in Galilee. Alcuin. By Judsea are meant those wlio 
confess, whom Christ visits ; for wherever there is confession 
of sins, or the praise of God, thither cometh Christ and His 
disciples, i.e. His doctrine and enlightenment; and there 
He is known by His cleansing men from sin ; And there He 

f'ii'"y''' tarried with them, and baptized. Chrys. As the Evangehst 

xxix. ]. says afterwards, that Jesus baptized not but His disciples, 
it is evident that he means the same here, i. e. that the dis- 

Aug. Tr. ciples only baptized. Auo. Our Lord did not baptize with 
the baptism wherewith He had been baptized; for He was 
baptized by a servant, as a lesson of humility to us, and in 
order to bring us to the Lord's baptism, i.e. His own ; for 
Jesus baptized, as the Lord, the Son of God. Bede. John 
still continues baptizing, though Christ has begun ; for the 
shadow remains still, nor must the forerunner cease, till 
the truth is manifested. And John also was baptizing in 
2Enon, near to Salim. iEnon is Hebrew for water; so that 
the Evangelist gives, as it were, the derivation of the name, 
when he adds, For tJiere ivas much water there. Salim is 
a town on the Jordan, where Melchisedec once reigned. 

Hierom. Jerome. It matters not whether it is called Salem, or Salim; 

xxliil^ad sincc thc Jcws vcry rarely use vowels in the middle of words ; 

Evang. j^jj(j ^Ijq samc words are pronounced with different vow^els 
and accents, by different readers, and in different places. 

And they came, and were baptized. Bede. The same 
kind of benefit which catechumens receive from instruc- 
tion before they are baptized, the same did John's baptism 
convey before Christ's. As John preached repentance, an- 
nounced Chrisfs baptism, and drew all men to the know- 
ledge of the truth now made manifest to the world ; so the 
ministers of the Church first instruct those who come to 
the faith, then reprove their sins ; and lastly, drawing them 
to the knowledge and love of the truth, offer them remission 

Ciirys. by Christ's baptism. Chrys. Notwithstanding the disciples 

X3dx. L of Jesus baptizcd, John did not leave off till his imprison- 

VER. 22 26. ST. JOHN. 123 

ment; as the Evatigelisfs language intimates, For John ivas 
not yet cast into prison. Bede. He evidently here is rela- 
ting what Christ did before John^s imprisonment; a part 
which has been passed over by the rest, who commence 
after John's imprisonment. Aug. But -why did John bap- Aug. Tr. 
tize ? Because it was necessary that our Lord should be ^"'* '^- ^' 
baptized. And why was it necessary that our Lord should 
be baptized ? That no one might ever think himself at 
liberty to despise baptism. Chrys. But why did he go on ciirys. 
baptizing now ? Because, had he left ofF, it might have ^°^^\'^ 
been attributed to envy or anger : whereas, continuing to 
baptize, he got no glory for himself, but sent hearers to 
Christ. And he was better able to do this service, than 
were Christ's own disciples; his testimony beiug so free 
from suspicion, and his reputation with the people so much 
liigher than theirs. He therefore continued to baptize, that 
he might not increase the envy felt by his disciples against 
our Lord's baptism. Indeed, the reason, I think, why John's 
death was permitted, and, in his room, Christ madc tlie 
great preacher, was, that the people might transfer their 
.nffections wholly to Christ, and no longer be dividcd betwecn 
tlic two. For the disciples of Jolin did become so cnvious 
of Christ's disciples, and even of Christ Himself, that when 
tliey saw the latter baptizing, they threw contempt upon 
their baptism, as being inferior to that of John's; And there 
arose a question from some of John's disciples with the Jeivs 
about purifying. That it was they who began the dispute, 
and not the Jews, the Evangelist implies by saying, that 
there arose a guestion from John's disciples, whereas he 
might have said, The Jews put forth a question. Aug. The Aug. Tr. 
Jews then asserted Christ to be the greater person, and His ^^^^'^' 
baptism necessary to be received. But John's disciples did 
not understand so much, and defended John's baptism. At 
last they come to John to solve the question : And they 
came unto John, and said unto him, Babbi, He that was with 
thee beyond Jordan, behold, the Same baptizeth. Chrys. Chrys. 
INIeaning, He, Whom thou baptizedst, baptizeth. They did ^x1x.*2. 
not say expressly, Wliom thou baptizedst, for they did not 
wish to be reminded of the voice from heaven, but, He Who 
was ivith thee, i. e. Who was in thc situation of a disciple. 


who was notliing more tlian any of us, He now separateth 
Himself from thee, and baptizeth. They add, To Whoni thou 
barest witness ; as if to say, Whom thou shewedst to the 
world, Whom thou madest renowned, He now dares to do 
as thou dost. Behold, the Same baptizeth. And in addition 
to this, they urge the probabiUty that John^s doctrines would 
fall into discredit. All men come to Him. Alcuin. Mean- 
ing, Passing by thee, all men run to the baptism of Him 
Whom thou baptizedst. 

27. John answered and said, A man can receive 
notbing, except it be given him froin hcaven. 

28. Ye yourselves bear me witness, that I said, I 
am not the Christ, but that I am sent before Him. 

29. He that hath the bride is the Bridegroom : 
but the friend of the Bridegroom, which standeth 
and hearcth Him, rejoiceth greatly because of the 
Bridegroom's voice : this my joy therefore is ful- 

30. Ue must increase, but I must decrease. 

Chrys. Chrys. John, on this question being raised, does not 

Hom. rebuke his disciples, for fear they might separate, and turn 
to some other school, but repHes gently, John answered and 
said, A man can receive nothing, except it be given him from 
heaven ; as if he said, No wonder that Christ does such 
excellent works, and that all men come to Him ; when He 
Who doeth it all is God. Human efforts are easily seen 
through, are feeble, and short-hved. These are not such : 
they are not therefore of human, but of divine originating. 
He seems however to speak somewhat humbly ^ of Christ, 
which will not surprise us, when we consider that it was not 
fitting to tell the whole truth, to minds prepossessed with 
such a passion as envy. He only tries for the present to 
alarm them, by shewing that they are attempting impossible 
Aug. Tr. things, and fighting against God. Aug. Or perhaps John 
is speaking here of himself : I am a mere man, and have 

^ Referring to, " A man can receive notliing," &c. ver. 27. 

xiii. c. 9. 

VER. 27 — 30. ST. JOHN. 125 

received all from heaven, aiid therefore think not that, be- 
cause it has been given me to be somewhat, I am so foolish 
as to speak against the truth. Chrys. And see; the very Chrys. 
argument by which they thought to have overthrown Christ, ^""^•g 
To Whom thou barest witness, he turns against them ; Ye 
yourselves hear me ivitness, that I said, I am not the Christ ; 
as if he said, If ye think my witness true, yc must acknow- 
ledge Him more worthy of honour than myself. He adds, 
But that I ivas sent before Him ; that is to say, I am a ser- 
vant, and perform the comraission of the Father which senfc 
me ; my witness is not from favour or partiality ; I say that 
which was given me to say. Bede. Wlio art thou then, 
since thou art not the Christ, and who is He to Whom thou 
bearest witness? John replies, He is the Bridegroom ; I ara 
the friend of the Bridegroom, sent to prcpare the Bride for 
His approach : Ile that hath the Bride, is the Bridegroom. 
By the Bride he raeans the Church, gathered from amongst 
all nations ; a Virgin in purity of heart, in perfection of love, 
in the bond of peace, in chastity of mind and body ; in the 
unity of the CathoHc faith; for in vain is she a virgin in 
body, who continueth not a virgin in mind. This Bride 
hatli Christ joined unto Himself in marriage, and redeemcd 
with the price of His own Blood. Theophyl. Christ is tlie 
spouse of every soul; the wedlock, wherein they are joincd, 
is baptism ; the place of that wedlock is the Church ; the 
plcdge of it, remission of sins, and the fellowship of the 
HolyGhost; the consumraation, eternal Hfe ; which those 
who are worthy shall receive. Christ alone is thc Bride- 
groom : all other teachers are but the friends of the Bride- 
groom, as was the forerunner. The Lord is the giver of 
good ; the rest are the despisers of His gifts. Bede. His 
Bride therefore our Lord coramitted to His friend, i.e. the 
order of preachers, who should be jealous of her, not for 
thcmselves, but for Christ ; The friend of the Bridegroom 
which standeth and heareth Him, rejoiceth greatly because 
of the Bridegroom^ s voice. Aug. As if He said, She is not Anp. Tr. 
My spouse. But dost thou therefore not rejoicc in the ^'"•'^- '-^ 
marriage? Yea, I rejoice, he saith, becausc I am tlic fricnd 
of the Bridegroom. Chrys. But how doth he who said chrys. 
above, Whose shoe's latchet I am not worthy to unloose, call ^^"'!1: „ 

' XXVlll. - 


himself a friend? As an expression not of equality, but of 
excess of joy : (for tlie friend of the Bridegroom is always 
more rejoiced than the servant,) and also, as a condescen- • 
sion to the weakness of his disciples, who thought that he 
was pained at Chrisfs ascendancy. For he hereby assures 
them, that so far from being pained, he was right glad that 

Aug. Tr. the Bride recognised her Spouse. Aug. But wherefore doth 

^"'' he stand ? Because he falleth not, by reason of his humility. 

A sure ground this to stand upon, Whose shoe^s latchet I am 
not worthy to unloose. Again ; He standeth and heareth 
Him. So then if he falleth, he heareth Hira not. There- 
fore the friend of the Bridegroom ought to stand and hear, 
i.e. to abide in the grace which he hath received, and to 
hear the voice in which he rejoiceth. I rejoice not, he saith, 
because of my own voice, but because of the Bridegroom's 
voice. I rejoice ; I in hearing, He in speaking; I am the 
ear, He the Word. For he who guards the bride or wife of 
his friend, takes care that she love nonc else; if he wish 
to be loved himself in the stead of his friend, and to enjoy 
hcr who was entrusted to him, how detestable doth he ap- 
pear to the wholc workl ! Yet many are the adulterers I 
see, who would fain posscss themselves of the spouse who 
was bought at so great a price, and who aim by their words 

Chrys. at bcing loved themselves instead of the Bridegroom. Chrys. 

xxix.S. Or thus; the expression, which standeth, is not without mean- 
ing, but indicates that his part is now over, and that for the 
future he must stand and hsten. This is a transition frora 
the parable to the real subject. For having introduced the 
figure of a bride and bridegroom, he shews how the marriage 

Hom. 10, is consummated, viz. by word and doctrine. Faith cometh by 
hearing, and hearing hy the word of God. And since the 
things he had hoped for had come to pass, he adds, This nnj 
joy therefore is fulfilled; i.e. The work which I had to do is 
finished, and nothing more is left, that I can do. Theo- 
PHYL. For which cause I rejoice now, that all men follow 
Him. For had the bride, i.e. the people, not come forth to 
meet the Bridegroom, then I, as the friend of the Bride- 

Ang. Tr. groom, should have grieved. Aug. Or thus ; This my joy 
is fulfilled, i.e. my joy at hearing the Bridegroora's voice. 
I have my gift ; I claim no more, lest I lose that whicli I 


xiv. c. 3. 

VER. 27 — 30. ST. JOHN. 127 

have received. He who would rejoice in himself, hath sor- 
row; but he who would rejoice iu the Lord, shall ever re- 
joice, because God is everlasting. Bede. He rejoiceth at 
hearing the Bridegroom's voice, who knows that He should 
not rejoice in his own wisdom, but in the wisdom which 
God givcth him. AVhoever in his good works secketh not 
his own glory, or praise, or earthly gain, but hath his affec- 
tions set on hcavenly things ; this raan is the friend of the 
Bridcgroom. Curys. He next dismisses the motions of envy, chrys. 
not only as regards the present, but also the future, saying, ^^"'""o 
Ile must increase, but I must decrease : as if he said, My 
ofTice hath ceased, and is ended; but His advanccth. Aug. Augr. Tr. 
What meaneth this, He must increase ? God neither in- ^V *" 
creases, nor decrcases. And John and Jesus, according to 
the flesh, were of the sarac age : for the six months diflfer- 
ence between them is of no consequence. This is a great 
raystery. Before our Lord came, men gloried in themselves ; 
He came in no man's nature, that the glory of man raight be 
dirainished, and the glory of God exalted. For He carae 
to rcmit sins upon raan's confession : a man's confcssion, 
a man's huraility, is God's pity, God's exultation. Tliis 
trutli Ciirist and John proved, even by their modes of suf- 
fering : Jolin wa8 beheaded, Christ was Ufted up on the 
cross. Then Christ was born, when the days begin to . 
lengthcn ; John, when they begin to shorten. Let God's 
glory thcn increase in us, and our own decrease, that ours 
also may increase in God. But it is because thou under- 
standest God raore and raore, that He sceraeth to increase 
in thee : for in His own nature He increaseth not, but is 
ever perfect : even as to a raan cured of blindness, who 
beginneth to see a little, and daily sceth raore, the lij,'ht 
seemeth to increase, whereas it is in reality always at thc 
fall, whethcr he seeth it or not. In like manner the inner 
man maketh advanccment in God, and it seemeth as if God 
wcre increasing in him ; but it is he himself that decreaseth, 
falling from the height of his own glory, and rising in the 
glory of God. Theophyl. Or thus; As, on the sun rising, 
thc light of the other heavenly bodies seems to be extin- 
guished, though in reahty it is only obscured by the grcater 
light : thus the forcrunner is said to decrease; as if hj 


were a star hidden by the sun. Christ increases in propor- 
tion as He gradually discloses Himself by miracles ; not in 
the sense of increase, or advancement in virtue, (the opinion 
of Nestorius,) but only as regards the mauifestation of His 

31. He that cometh from above is above all : he 
that is of the earth is earthly, and speaketh of the 
earth : he that cometh from heaven is above alh 

32. And what he hath seen and heard, that he 
testifieth ; 

Ciirys. Chrys. As the worm gnaws wood, and rusts iron, so vain- 

XXX. ] g^o^y destroys the soul that cherishes it. But it is a most 
obstinate fault. John with all his arguments can hardly 
subdue it in his disciples : for after what he has said above, 
he saith yet again, He that cometh from above, is above all : 
meaning, Ye extol my testimony, and say that the witness 
is more worthy to be beheved, than Ile to Whom he bears 
witness. Know this, that He Who cometh from heaven, 
cannot be accredlted by an earthly witness. He is above 
all ; being perfect in Himself, and above comparison. The- 
OPHYL. Christ cometh from above, as descending from the 
Father ; and is above all, as being elected in preference to 
alL Alcuin. Or, cometh from above ; i.e. from the height 
of that human nature which was before the sin of the first 
man. For it was that human nature which the Word of 
God assumed : He did not take upon Him man's sin, as Ile 
did his punishment. 

He that is of the earth is of the earth ; i.e. is earthly, 

Ch ys. and speaketh of the earth, speakcth earthly things. Chrys. 

j.jj°j!"'2 And yet he was not altogether of the earth ; for he had a 
soul, and partook of a spirit, which was not of the earth. 
What means he then by saying that he is of the earth ? 
Only to express his own worthlessness, that he is one born 
on the earth, creeping on the ground, and not to be com- 
pared with Christ, Who cometh from above. Speaketh of 
the earth, does not mean that he spoke from his own under- 
standiug ; but that, in comparison with Christ's doctrine, 
he spoke of the earth : as if he said, My doctrine is mean 

VKR. 31, 32. ST. JOHN. 129 

and humble, compared witli Clirist's ; as becoraeth an earthly 
teacher, compared with Ilim, in Whora are hid all the Col. 2, 3. 
treasures of wisdora and knowledge. Aug. Or, speaketh of Aug. Tr. 
the earth, he saith of the raan, i. e. of hiraself, so far as he ''"' '^' 
speaks merely huraanly. If he says ought divine, he is 
enlightened by God to say it : as saith the Apostle ; Yct i Cor. 
not I, but the grace of God which was with me. John thcn, 
so far as pertains to John, is of the earth, and speaketh of 
the earth : if ye hear ought divine frora him, attribate it to 
the EnHghtencr, not to hira vvho hath receivcd the light, 
CiiRYS. Ilaving corrected the bad fecling of his disciples, Chrys. 
he comes to discourse raore dceply upon Christ. Before xx°\"'l 
this it would have been useless to revcal the truths which 
could not yet gain a place in their minds. It follows there- 
fore, Ile that cometh from heaveii. Gloss. That is, from 
the Father. He is above all in two ways ; first, in respect 
of llis humanity, which was that of man before he sinned : 
secondly, in respect of the loftiness of the Father, to Whora 
Ile is equah Chrys. But after this high and solemn men- Chrys. 
tiou of Christ, his tone lowers ; And what Ile hath seen and xxx. l. 
heard, that Ile testifieth. As our senses are our surest chan- 
ncls of knowledge, and teachers are most depcndcd on who 
have apprehended by sight or hearing what they teach, John 
adds this argument in favour of Christ, that, what Ile hath 
seen and heard, that Ile testifieth : meaning that every thing 
which He saith is true. I want, saith John, to hear what 
things Ile, Who cometh from above, hath seen aud heard, 
i.e. what Ile, and He alone, kuows with certainty. Tiieo- 
PHYL. When ye hear then, that Christ speaketh what Ile 
saw and heard frora the Fatlier, do not suppose that Ile 
needs to be taught by the Father ; but only that that know- 
ledge, which lle has naturally, is from the Father. For this 
reason He is said to have heard, whatever He knows, frora 
the Father. Aug. But what is it, which the Son hath heard Aiig. Tr. 
frora the Father ? Ilath Ile hcard the word of the Father? 
Yea, but Ile is the Word of the Father. Whcn thou con- 
ceivest a word, wherevvith to narae a thing, the vcry con- 
ception of that thing in the mind is a word. Just then as 
thou hast in thy mind aud with thee thy spokeu vvord ; cvcu 
so God uttered the Word, i.e. begat the Sou. Since theu 



the Son is the Word of God, and the Son hath spoken the 
"Word of God to us, He hath spoken to us the Father's word. 
What John said is therefore true. 

32. — and no man receiveth His testimony. 

33. He that hath received His testimony hath set 
to his seal that God is true. 

34. For He whom God hath sent speaketh the 
words of God : for God giveth not the Spirit by 
measure unto Him. 

35. The Father loveth the Son, and hath given 
all things into His hand. 

36. He that believeth on the Son hath everlasting 
life : and he that believeth not the Son shall not see 
life ; but the wrath of God abideth on him. 

Chrys. Chrys. Having said, And what He hath seen and heard, 

XXX. 1 ^^'^^ ^^ iestifieth, to prevent any frora supposing, that what 
he said was false, because only a few for the present beheved, 
he adds, And no man receiveth Ilis testimony ; i.e. only a ^eyv, 
for He had disciples who received Uis testimony. John is 
alluding to the unbehef of his own disciples, and to the in- 
sensibihty of the Jews, of whom we read in the beginning 
of the Gospel, Ile came unto His own, and Ilis own received 
Aug. Tr. jj-j^^ ^Q^^ AuG. Or thus : There is a people reserved for 

XIV. c. 8. . . 

the wrath of God, and to be condemned with the devil ; of 
whom none receiveth the testimouy of Christ. And others 
lihere are ordained to eterual life. Mark how maukiud are 
divided spiritually, though as human beings they are mixed 
up together : and John separated them by the thoughts of 
their heart, though as yet they were not divided in respect 
of place, and looked on them as two classes, the unbehevers 
and the behevers. Looking to the unbehevers, he saith, 
No man receiveth His testimony. Then turning to those on 
the right hand he saith, Me that hath received His testimony, 
riiiiys. hath set to his seal. Chrys. i.e. hath shewn tfiat God is 
"'"2_ true. This is to alarm them : for it is as much as saying, 
no one can disbeheve Christ without convicting God, Who 
sent Him, of falsehood : inasmuch as He speaks nothing but 


VER. 32—36. ST. JOHN 131 

what is of the Father. For He, it follows, Whom God hath 
sent, speuketh the ivorcls of God. Alcuin. Or, Hath put to 
his seal, i.e. hath put a seal on his heart, for a singular and 
special token, that this is the true God, Who suffered for 
the salvation of maukind. Aug. What is it, that God i^ Aug. Tr. 
true, except that God is true, and every mau a liar ? For ^'^* ^' ^' 
no man can say what truth is, till he is enlightened by Him - 
Who cannot lie. God then is true, and Christ is God. 
AVouldest thou have proof ? Hear His testimony, and thou 
vvilt fiiid it so. But if thou dost not yet understand God, 
thou hast not yet received His testimony. Christ theu 
Himself is God the true, and God hath sent Him ; God hath 
sent God, join both together ; they are One God. For John 
saith, Whom God hath sent, to distinguish Christ from him- 
self. What then, was not John himself sent by God ? Yes ; 
but mark what follows, For God (jiveth not the Sjjirit by 
measure unto Him. To meu He giveth by measure, to His 
only Son He giveth not by measure. To one mau is given 
by the Spirit the word of wisdom, to another the word of 
knowledge : one has one thing, another another ; for measure 
implies a kind of division of gifts. But Christ did not re- 
ceive by measure, though He gave by measure. Ciirys. By ciirys. 
Spirit here is meant the operation of the Holy Spirit. IIc xxx! 2. 
wishes to shevv that all of us have received the operation of 
tlie Spirit by measure, but that Christ contaius withiu Him- 
self tlie vvhole operatiou of the Spirit. How then shall He 
be suspected, Who saith nothing, but what is from God, 
and the Spirit? For Ile makes 110 meution yet of God tlie 
Word, but rests His doctrine on the autliority of the Father 
and the Spirit. For men knew that there was God, and 
knew that there vvas thc Spirit, (although they had not right 
belief about His nature;) but that there was the Son they 
did not know. Auo. Having said of the Son, God giveth Aui:. Tr. 
not the Spirit by measure unto Him ; he adds, The Father 
loveth the Son, and farther adds, and hath given all things 
into His hand ; in ordcr to shew that the Father loveth the 
Son, in a peculiar sense. For the Father loveth John, and 
Paul, and yet hath not given all things into their hands. 
But the Faiher loveth the Son, as the Son, not as a mastcr 
his servant : as an oiily, not as an adopted, Son. Where- 

K 2 


fore He hath given all things into His hand ; so that, as 
great as the Father is, so great is the Son ; let us not think 
then that, because He hath deigned to send the Son, any 
one inferior to the Father has been sent. Theophyl. The 
Tather then hath given all things to the Son in respect of 
His divinity ; of right, not of grace. Or ; He hath given all 
things into His hand, in respect of His humanity : inasmuch 
as He is made Lord of all things that are in heaven, and 
that are in earth. Alcuin. Aud because all things are in 
His hand, the life everlasting is too : and therefore it follows, 
Ile that believeth on the Son hath everlasting life. Bede. 
We must understand here not a faith in words only, but 
Chry?. a faith which is developed in works. Chrys. He means not 
^x°x? 1 ^^^^' *^^* *° believe on the Son is sufficient to gain ever- 
Mutt. 7. lasting hfe, for elsewhere He says, Not evenj one that saith 
unto Me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdoni qf heaven. 
And the blaspheray against the Holy Ghost is of itself suffi- 
cient to send into hell. But we must not thinlc that even 
a right behef on Father, Son, aud Holy Gbost, is sufficient 
for salvation ; for we have need of a good life and conver- 
sation. Knowing tlien that the greater part are not raoved 
so rauch by the promise of good, as by the threat of punish- 
nient, he concludes, But he that believeth not the Son, shall 
not see life ; but the wrath of God abideth on him. See how 
He refers to the Father again, when He speaketh of punish- 
ment. He saith not, the wrath of the Son, though the Son 
is judge; but malieth the Father the judge, in order to 
alarm men more. And He does not say, in him, but on 
him, meaning that it will never depart from him; and for 
the same reason He says, shall not see life, i.e. to shew that 
Aug. Tr. He did not mean only a temporary death. Aug. Nor does 
^'^'^" He say, The urath of God cometh to him, but, abideth on 
him. For all who are born, are uuder the wrath of God, 
which the first Adara incurred. The Son of God came with- 
out sin, and was clothed with mortaHty : He died that thou 
mightest hve. Whosoever then will not believe on the Son, 
on him abideth the wrath of God, of which the Apostle 
Epii. 2, 3. speaks, We were by nature the children of wrath. 


1 . When therefore the Lord knew how the Pharisees 
had heard that Jesus made and baptized more disciples 
than John, 

2. (Though Jesus Himself baptized not, but His 

3. He left Juddea, and departed again into Galilee. 

4. And He must needs go through Samaria. 

5. Then cometh He to a city of Samaria which is 
called Sychar, ncar to the parcel of ground that Jacob 
gave to his son Joseph. 

6. Now Jacob's well was there. Jcsus thcrefore, 
bcing wcaried with His journey, sat thus on the wcU : 
and it was about the sixth hour. 

Gloss. ^ Tlie Evanjjelist, after rclating how John clicclved i The 
the envy of his disciples, on the succcss of Clirist's tcacli- "earest 

•^ i ' _ , passajie 

insT, comes ncxt to tlic cnvv of the Pharisees, and Christ's is one of 
retreat from them. Whe}i therejore the Lord kneiv tJiat ihe i^-^l^^ 
Pharisees had heard, ^c. Aug. Truly had the Pharisees' xwr. Tr. 
knowlcdge that our Lord was niaking more disciples, and ''^- ^- '-^- 
baptizing more than John, bccn such as to lead them heartily 
to follow Him, IIc woukl not have left Judsea, but would 
have rcmaincd for tlieir sake : but seeing, as He did, that 
this knowledge of Him was couplcd with envy, and made 
them not followcrs, but persecutors, He departed thence. 
He could too, had He plcased, have staycd amongst them, 
and escaped their hands ; but He wished to shew His own 
example to behcvers in time to come, that it was no sin for 
a servant of God to fly from the fury of pcrsecutors. He did 
it hke a good teacher, not out of fear for Himself, but for our 
instruction. Chrys. He did it too to pacify the envy of chrys. 
men, and pcrhaps to avoid bringing the dispensation of the ^^<^™' 
incaruation into suspicion. For had He been taken aud 


escaped, the reality of His flesh would have been doubted. 

Aug. Tr. AuG. It may perplex you, perhaps, to be told that Jesus 

^^' '^* ■ bapiized more than John, and then immediately after, Though 

Jesus Himself bapiized not. What? Is there a mistake 

Chryp. made, and then corrected ? Chrys. Christ Himself did not 

xxxi. 1. baptize, but those who reported the fact, in order to raise the 

envy of their hearers, so represented it as to appear that 

11011 occ. Christ Himself baptized. The reason why He baptized not 

l(j/ ' Himself, had been already declared by John, He shall bap- 

tize you with the Holy Ghosi and wiih fire. Now He had 

not yet given the Holy Spirit : it was therefore fitting that 

He should not baptize. But His disciples baptized, as an 

efiicacious mode of instruction -, better than gathering up 

behevers here and there, as had been done in the case of 

Simon and his brother. Their baptism, however, had no 

more virtue than the baptism of John; both bcing without 

the grace of the Spirit, and both having one object, viz. 

Aiig. Tr. that of bringing raen to Christ. Aug. Or, both are true; 

XV. c. 3. fQj. Jesus both baptized, and baptized not. He baptized, 

in that He cleansed : Ile baptized not, in that He dipped 

not. The disciples supplied the ministry of the body, He 

vcr. 33. the aid of that INIajcsty of which it was said, The Same is 

He which baptizeih. Alcuin. The question is often asked, 

whether the Holy Ghost was given by the baptisra of the 

c. 7. disciples ; when below it is said, The Holy Ghost was not 

yet given, because Jesus was not yei glorified. We reply, that 

the Spirit was given, though not in so raanifest a way as 

He was after the Ascension, in the shape of fiery tongues. 

For as Christ Himself in His human nature ever possesscd 

the Spirit, and yet afterwards at Ilis baptism the Spirit 

descended visibiy upon Him in the form of a dove ; so be- 

fore the mauifest and visible coming of the Holy Spirit, ali 

Aiig. Ad saints might possess the Spirit secretly. Aug. But we must 

Seieuciam belicve that the disciples of Christ were already baptized 

themselves, either with John's baptism, or, as is raore pro- 

bable, with Christ's. For He who had stooped to the humble 

service of washing His disciples' feet, had not failed to ad- 

minister baptism to His servants, who would thus be en- 

Chrys. ablcd iu their turn to baptize others. Chrys. Christ on 

xxxi. 2. withdrawing from Judsca, joined those whom He was with 

VER. 1 6. ST. JOHN. 135 

before, as we read next, And departed again into Galilee. 
As the Apostles, when they were expelled by the Jews, weut 
to the Gentiles, so Christ goes to the Samaritans. But, to 
deprive the Jews of all excuse, He does not go to stay there, 
but only takes it on His road, as the Evangelist implies by 
saying, Aiid He must needs go throrigh Samaria. Samaria 
receives its name frora Somer, a raountain there, so called 
from the name of a former possessor of it. The inhabitants 
of the country were forraerly not Samaritans, but Israelites. 
But in process of tirae they fell under God's wrath, and the 
king of Assyria transplanted thera to Babylon and Media ; 
])lacing Gentiles frora various parts in Saraaria in their room. 
Ciod however, to shew that it was not for want of power on 
His part that He delivered up the Jews, but for the sins of 
the people themselves, sent lions to afflict the barbarians. 
This was told the king, and he sent a priest to instruct them 
in God's law. But not even then did they whoUy cease 
from their iniquity, but only half changed. For in process of 
time they turncd to idols again, thougli they still worshipped 
God, calling themselves after the mountain, Samaritans. 
Bede. He must needs pass through Saraaria ; because that 
country Lay between Judfca and Galilec. Samaria was the 
principal city of a province of Palestinc, and gave its name 
to the whole district connected with it. The particular 
place to which our Lord went is next given ; Then cometh 
He to a city of Samaria which is called Sychar. Chrys. chrys. 
It was the pLace where Siraeon and Lcvi made a great ^"^''2 
slauffhter for Dinah. Thkophyl. But after the sons of Ja- 
cob had desolated the city, by the slaughter of the Sychem- 
ites, Jacob annexed it to the portion of his son Joseph, as 
we rcad in Genesis, / have given to thee one portion above q^^^ 
thy brethren, which I took out of the hand of the Amorite ^». '^2. 
wiih my sivord, and with my bow. This is referred to in 
what follows, Near to the place of ground which Jacob gave 
to his son Joseph. 

Now Jacob's wcll was there. Aug. It was a welh Every ^y^ j^. 
well is a spring, but every spring is not a well. Any water '^v. c.5. 
that rises frora the ground, and can be drawn for use, is 
a spring : but whcre it is ready at hand, and on the surfacc, 
H is called a spring ouly; whcre it is deep and low down, it 


is called a well, not a spring. Theophyl. But why does the 
Evangelist make mention of the parcel of ground, and the 
well? First, to explain what the woman says, Our father 
Jacob gave us this well ; secondly, to remind you that what 
the Patriarchs obtained by their faith in God, the Jews had 
lost by their impiety. They had been supplanted to make 
room for Gentiles. And therefore there is nothing new in 
what has now taken place, i.e. in the Gentiles succeeding to 

Chrys. the kingdom of heaven in the place of the Jews. Chrys. 

xxxLS Christ prefers labour and exercise to ease and luxury, and 
therefore travels to Samaria, not in a carriage, but on foot ; 
until at last the exertion of the journey fatigues Him ; 
a lesson to us, that so far from indulging in superfiuities, 
we should often even deprive ourselves of necessaries : Jesus 

Aug. Tr. therefore beiny wearied with His journey, ^c. Aug. Jesus, 

^* ^' ' we see, is strong and weak ; strong, because in the beginning 

was the Word ; weak, because the Word was made fiesh. 

Jesus thus weak, being wearied with His journey, sat on the 

ciirys. well. Chiiys. As if to say, not on a seat, or a couch, but on 

xxx' 3. ^^^® ^^'^^ place He saw — upon tlic ground. He sat down be- 
cause He was wearied, and to wait for the disciples. The 
coolness of the well would be refreshing in the mid-day heat : 
And it tvas about the sixth hour. Theophyl. He mentions 
our Lord's sitting and resting from His journey, that none 
might blame Him for going to Samaria Himsclf, after He 
had forbidden the disciples going. Alcuin. Our Lord left 
Judaea also mystically, i.e. He left the uubelief of those who 
condemned Him, and by His Apostles, went iuto Galilee, 
i. e. into the fickleness ^ of the world ; thus teaching His 
disciples to pass from vices to virtues. The parcel of ground 
I couceive to have been left not so much to Joseph, as to 
Christ, of whom Joseph was a type ; whom the sun, and 
moon, and all the stars truly adore. To this parcel of ground 
our Lord came, that the Samaritans, who claimed to be in- 
heritors of the Patriarch Israel, might recognise Him, and 

Aiig. Tr. be converted to Clirist, the legal heir of the Patriarch. Aug. 
His journey is His assumption of the flesh for our sake. 
For whither doth Ile go, Who is every where present ? What 

" The Heb. root signifying to roll, revolve, &c. as applied to idols, it is a term 
of sliame. 

XV. c. 7. 

VER. 1 — 6. ST. JOHN. 137 

is this, except that it was necessary for Ilim, in order to 
come to us, to take upon Him visibly a form of flesli ? So 
then His being wearied with His journey, what meaneth it, 
but that He is wearied with the flesh ? And wherefore is it 
the sixth hour? Because it is the sixth age of the world. 
Reckon severally as hours, the first age from Adam to Noah, 
the second from Noah to Abrahara, the third from Abrahara 
to David, the fourth frora David unto tlie carrying away 
into Babylon, the fifth frora thence to the baptisra of John; 
on this calculation the prescut age is the sixth hour. Aug. Aug. lib. 
At the sixth hour then our Lord coraes to the well. The q^^^I]' 
black abyss of the well, raetliinks, represents the lowest parts qu. Gk 
of this universe, i.e. the earth, to which Jesus came at the 
sixth hour, that is, in the sixth age of raankind, the old age, 
as it were, of the old man, which we are bidden to put ofl", Col. 3, 9 
that we may put on the new. For so do we reckon the dif- 
ferent ages of man's life : the first age is iufaucy, the second 
childhood, the third boyliood, the fourth youth, the fifth 
manhood, the sixth old age. Again, the sixth hour, being 
the middle of the day, the tirae at which the sun begins to 
descend, signifies that we, who arc called by Christ, are to 
check our plcasure in visible thiugs, that by the love of 
things invisible refreshing the inner mau, we may be re- 
stored to the inward light which never fails. By His sitting 
is signified His humihty, or perhaps His magisterial cha- 
racter; teachers beiug accustoraed to sit. 

7. Therc comcth a wonian of Samaria to draw water: 
Jesus saitli unto hcr, Givc Me to drink. 

8. (For His disciples were gone away into the city 
to buy meat.) 

9. Then saith tlie woman of Samaria unto Him, 
How is it tliat Thou, being a Jew, askcst drink of me, 
which am a woman of Samaria ? for the Jews have no 
dealings with the Samaritans. 

10. Jcsus answered and said unto her, If thou 
knewest thc gift of God, and Who it is that saith to 
thee, Give Me to drink ; tliou wouldest have asked 
of Him, and He would have given thee living water. 

xxxi. 4 

Tr. XV 

c. ly 


11. The woman saith unto Him, Sir, Thou hast 
nothing to draw with, and the weil is deep : from 
whence then hast Thou that living water ? 

12. ArtThou greater than our father Jacob, which 
gave us the well, and drank thereof himself, and his 
children, and liis cattle ? 

Ciirys. Chrys. That this conversation might not appear a viola- 

tion of His own injunctions against talking to the Sama- 
ritans, the Evangelist explains how it arose; viz. for He did 
not come with the intention beforehand of talking with the 
woman, but only would not send the woman awaj, when 
she had come. There came a woman of Samaria to draw 
Aug. water. Observe, shc comes quite by chance. Aug. The 
woman here is the type of the Church, not yet justified, 
but just about to be. And it is a part of the resemblance, 
that she comes from a foreign people. The Samaritans were 
foreigners, though they were neighbours ; and in Hke man- 
ner the Church was to come from the Gentiles, and to be 
alien from the Jewish race. Theophyl. The argumcnt with 
the woman arises naturally from the occasion : Jesus saith 
unto her, Give Me to clrink. As man, the hibour aud heat 
Aiig. lib. Ile had uudergone had made Hira thirsty. Aug. Jesus also 
Jxxxiu. thirsted after that woman's faith? He thirsteth for their 
qu. «t. faith, for whom He shed His blood. Curys. This shews us 
i\om' ^°^ ^^^ only our Lord's strength and endurance as a travel- 
xxxi, 3. ler, but also His carelessness about food; for His disciplcs 
did not carry about food with them, since it follows, His 
disciples were gone away into the city to buy food. Herein 
is shewn the humility of Christ ; He is left alone. It was 
in His power, had He pleased, not to seud away all, or, ou 
their going away, to leave others in their place to wait on 
Him. But He did not choose to have it so : for in this way 
He accustomed His disciples to trample upon pride of every 
kind. However some one will say, Is humility in fishermeu 
and tent-makers so great a matter ? But these very men 
were all on a sudden raised to the most lofty situation upoii 
earth, that of friends and followers of the Lord of the whole 
earth. Aud men of humble origin, when they arrive at 

VER. 7 — 12. ST. JOHN. 139 

dignity, are on this very account more liable than others to 
be lifted up with pride ; the honour being so new to thera. 
Our Lord therefore to keep His disciples humble, taught 
them in all things to subdue themselves. The woraan on 
being told, Give Me to drink, very naturally asks, IIow is it 
that Thou, being a Jew, askest drink of me, who am a ivoman 
of Samaria? She knew Him to be a Jew from His figure 
and speech. Here observe her simpleness. For even had 
our Lord been bound to abstain frora dealing with her, that 
was His concern, not hers; the Evangehst saying not that 
the Samaritans would have no dealings with the Jews, but 
that the Jeivs have no dealinys with the Samaritans. The 
woman howcver, though not in fault herself, wished to cor- 
rect what she thought a fault in another. The Jews after 
their return from the captivity entertained a jealousy of the 
Samaritans, whom they regarded as ahens, and enemies ; 
and the Samaritans did not use all the Scriptures, but only 
the writings of Moses, and made little of the Prophets. They 
claimed to be of Jewish origin, but the Jews considered thera 
Gentiles, and hated thera, as they did the rest of tlie Gentilc 
world. Adg. The Jews would not even use their vessels. Antr. 
So it would astonish the woraan to hcar a Jew ask to driuk '^^- ^"'' 
out of her vessel ; a thing so contrary to Jcwish rule. Chkys. 
But why did Christ ask what the law allowed not ? It is no 
answer to say that He knew she would not give it, for in 
that case He clearly ought not to havc asked for it. Rather 
His very reason for asking, was to sliew His indifference to 
sucli observances, and to abolisli thcm for the future. Aug. a,,^. 
He who asked to drink, howevcr, out of the womau's vessel, ' •■• "'^* 
thirsted for the woman's faith : Jesus answered and said unto 
her, If thou kneivest the gift of God, or Who it is that saith to 
thee, Give Me to drink, thou wouldest have asked of Uim, and 
He would have given thee living water. Origen. For it is as OriKen. 
it were a doctrine, that no one receives a divine gift, who !"'"• '^'^ 
seeks not for it. Even the Saviour Himself is comraanded 
by the Father to ask, that He may give it Him, as we read, 
Require qf Me, and I will give Thee the heathen for Thine in- pg. 2. 8. 
heritance. And our Saviour Himself says, Ask, and it shall Li,]je 
be (jiven you. "Wherefore He says here eraphatically, Thou^^'^- 
wouldest have asked qf Ilim, and He loould have given thee. 




Aun;. lib, 



qu. ei. 

Aiig. Tr. 



xxxi. 4. 

Aug. Tr. 
XV. c. 13. 

xxxi. 4. 

AuG. He lets her know that it was not the water, which she 
meant, that He asked for ; but that knowing her faith, He 
wished to satisfy her thirst, by giving her the Holy Spirit. 
For so must we interpret the living water, which is the gift 
of God ; as He saith, If thou knewest the gift of God. Aug. 
Living water is that which comes out of a spring, in distinc- 
tion to what is collected in ponds and cisterns from the rain. 
If spring water too becomes stagnant, i.e. collects into sorae 
spot, where it is quite separated from its fountain head, it 
ceases to be living water. Chrys. In Scripture the grace of 
the Holy Spirit is sometimes called fire, sometimes water, 
which shews that these words are expressive not of its sub- 
stance, but of its action. The mctaphor of fire conveys the 
lively and siu-consuraing property of grace ; that of water 
the cleansing of the Spirit, and the refreshing of the souls 
who receive Him. Theophyl. The grace of the Holy Spirit 
tlien He calls living water ; i.e. lifegiving, refreshing, stir- 
ring. For the grace of the Holy Spirit is ever stirring him 
who does good works, directing the risings of his heart. 
Chrys. These words raised the woman's notions of our 
Lord, and make her think Him no common person. She 
addresses Him reverentially by the title of Lord ; The woman 
saith unto Ilim, Lord, Thou hast nothing to draw with, and 
the well is deep : from whence then hast Thou that living 
water? Aug. She understands the living water to be the 
water in the well ; and therefore says, Thou wishest to give 
me living water; but Thou hast nothing to draw with as 
I have : Thou canst not then give me this living water; Art 
Thou greater ihan our father Jacob, who gave us the well, 
and drank ihereof himse/f, and his children, and his cattle? 
Chiiys. As if she said, Thou canst not say that Jacob gave 
us this spring, and used another himself ; for he and they 
that were with hira drank thereof, which would not have 
bcen done, had he had another better one. Thou canst not 
tlien give me of this spring; and Thou hast not another 
better spring, unless Thou confess Thyself greater than 
Jacob. Whence then hast Thou the water, which Thou 
promisest to give us? Theophyl. The addition and his 
cattle, shews the abundance of the water; as if she said, 
jSIot only is tlie water sweet, so that Jacob and his sons 

VER. 13 — 18. ST. JOHN. 141 

drank of it, but so abundant, that it satisfied the vast mul- 
titude of the Patriarch's cattle. Chrys. See how she thrusts Chrys. 
herself upon the Jewish stock. The Saraaritaus claimed ^^'^i'^ 
Abraham as their ancestor, on the ground of his having 
come from Chaldea ; and called Jacob their father, as being 
Abraham's grandson. Bede. Or she calls Jacob their father, 
because she lived under the Mosaic law, and possessed the 
farm which Jacob gave to his son Joseph. Origen. In the Orig. 
mystical sense, Jacob's well is tlie Scriptures. The learned *' '''"' * 
tlien drink like Jacob and his sons; the simple and un- 
educated, like Jacob's cattle. 

13. Jesus answered and said unto her, Whosoever 
drinketh of this water shall thirst again : 

14. But whosoever drinketh of the water that I 
shall give him shall never thirst ; but the water that 
I shall give him shall be in him a well of water 
springing up into everlasting Ufe. 

15. The woman saith unto Him, Sir, give me this 
water, that I thirst not, ncithcr come hitlier to draw. 

16. Jesus saith unto her, Go, call thy husband, 
and come hither. 

17. The woman answered and said, I have no hus- 
band. Jesus said unto hcr, Thou hast wcll said, I 
have no husband : 

18. For thou hast had five husbands ; and he wliom 
thou now hast is not thy husband : in that saidst 
thou truly. 

Chrys. To the woman's question, A)^t Thou greater ihan c'i,rys. 
our father Jacob? He docs not reply, I am greater^ lest He ""'|1 

should seem to boast; but His answer implies it; Jesus 

answered and said to her, IVhosoever drinketh of this water 
shall thirst again : but whosoever drinketh of the water that 
I shall give him shall never thirst ; as if He said, If Jacob 
is to be honoured bccause he gave you this water, wliat wilt 
thou say, if I give thee far better than this? Ile makcs the 
comparison however, not to depreciate Jacob, but to exalt 




Aug. Tr. 
XV. c. l(j. 

Ps. 36, 8. 

xxxii. 1. 

xxxii. 1. 

Tr. XV 
c. 15- li 

Himself. For He does not say, that this water is vile and 
counterfeit, but asserts a simple fact of uature, viz. that 
whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again. Auo. 
Which is true indeed both of material water, and of that of 
which it is the type. For the water in the well is the plea- 
sure of the world, that abode of darkness. Men draw it 
with the waterpot of their lusts; pleasure is not relished, 
except it be preceded by lust. And when a man has enjoyed 
this pleasure, i. e. drunk of the water, he thirsts again ; but 
if he have received water from Me, he shall never thirst. 
For how shall they thirst, who are drunken with the abund- 
ance of the house of God? But He promised this fulness 
of the Holy Spirit. Chrys. The excellence of this vvater, 
viz. that he that drinketh of it never thirsts, He exphdns in 
what follows, But the water that I shall give him shall be in 
him a well of water springing up into everlasting life. As 
a man who had a spring within him, would never feel thirst, 
so will not he who has this water vvhich I shall give him. 
TiiEOPHYL. For the water which I give him is ever multi- 
plying. The saints receive through grace the seed and 
principle of good ; but they themselves make it grow by 
their own cultivation. Cukys. See how the woman is lcd 
by degrees to the highest doctrine. First, she thought He 
was some lax Jew. Then hearing of the living water, she 
thought it meant material water. Aftervvards she under- 
stands it as spoken spiritually, and believes that it can take 
away thirst, but she does not yet know what it is, only 
understands that it was superior to material things : The 
woman saith unto Him, Sir, give me this water, that 1 
thirst not, neither come hither to draw. Observe, she prefers 
Him to the patriarch Jacob, for whom she had such venera- 
tion. AuG. Or thus; The woman as yet understands Him 
of the flesh only. She is delighted to be rcHeved for ever 
from thirst, and takes this promise of our Lord's in a carual 
sense. For God had once granted to His servant Elijah, 
that he should neither hunger nor thirst for forty days ; and 
if He could grant this for forty days, why not for ever? 
Eager to possess such a gift, she asks Him for the Uving 
water ; The woman saith mito Him, Sir, give me this water, 
that I thirst not, neither come hither to draw. Her poverty 

VER. 13 — 18. ST. JOHN. 143 

obliged her to labour more than her strength could well 
bear ; would that she could hear, Come unto Me, all that ^ratt. ii, 
labour and are heavy laden, and I will refresh you. Jesus " ' 
had said this very thing, i. e. that she need not labour any 
longer; but she did not understand Him. At last our 
Lord was resolved that she should understand : Jesus saith 
unto heVy Go call thy husband, and come hither. What 
meaneth this ? Did Ile wish to give her the water through 
her husband ? Or, because she did not understand, did He 
wish to teach her by means of her husband ? The Apostle 
indced saith of woraen, If they ivill learn any tldny, let them i Cor. 
ask their husbands at home. But this applies only where ' ""^* 
Jesus is not present. Our Lord Himself was present here; 
what need then that He should speak to her through her 
husband ? Was it through her husband that He spoke to 
Mary, who sat at His feet? Chrys. The woman then being chns. 
urgent in asking for the promised water, Jesus saith unto ^ ''^|'." ^ 
her, Go call tliy husband ; to shew that he too ought to have 
a share in these things. But she was in a hurry to receive 
the gift, and wished to conceal her guilt, (for she stiL 
imagined she was spcaking to a man :) The ivoman anstvered 
and said, I have no husband. Christ answers her with 
a seasonable reproof; exposing her as to former husbands, 
and as to her prcsent one, whora she had concealcd ; Jesus 
said unto her, Thou hastwell said, I have no husband. Auo. Auj '• 
Understand, that the woraan had not a lawful husband, but '^^* '^* 
had formed an irregular connexion with some one. He 
tells her, Thou hast had five husbands, in order to shew her 
His miraculous knowledge. Origen. May uot Jacol)'s well Ong. 
signify mystically the lctter of Scripture; the water of !°";-^^;''- 
Jesus, that which is above the letter, which all arc not c. 5, 6. 
allowed to penetrate iuto ? That which is written was 
dictatcd by men, whereas the things which tlie eye hath 
not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entercd into the heart 
of man, cannot be reduced to writing, but are from the 
fountain of water, that springeth up unto everlasting life, 
i.e. the Holy Ghost. These truths are unfolded to such as 
carrying no longer a human heart within tliem, are able to 
say with the Apostle, JVe have the mind of Christ. Human i Cor. 
wisdora indeed discovers truths, which arc handcd down to ^^>^^- 


posterity ; but the teaching of the Spirit is a well of water 
which springeth up into everlasting life. The woman wished 
to attain, like the angels, to angelic and super-human truth 
without the use of Jacob's water. For the angels have 
a well of water within them, springing from the Word 
of God Himself. She says therefore, Sir, give me this 
water. But it is irapossible here to have the water which 
is given by the Word, without that which is drawn from 
Jacob's well ; and therefore Jesus seems to tell the woman 
that He cannot supply her with it from any other source 
than Jacob's well ; If we are thirsty, we must first drink 
from Jacob's well. Jesus saith unto her, Go, call thy hus- 
Rom. 7,1. band, and come hither. According to the Apostle, the Law 
Au<r. lib. is the husband of the soul. Aug. The five husbands sorae 
Quast interpret to be the five books which were given by Moses. 
qu. (j*. And the words, He whom thou now hast is not thy husband, 
thcy understand as spoken by our Lord of Hiraself; as if 
He said, Thou hast served the five books of Moses, as five 
husbands ; but now He ivhom thou hast, i. e. vvhom thou 
hearest, is not thy husband: for thou dost not yet believe iu 
Him. But if sho did not believe in Ciirist, she was still 
united to those five husbands, i. e. five books, and thereforc 
why is it said, Thou hast had five husbands, as if she 
no longer had thera ? And how do we understand that 
a man raust have these five books, in order to pass over 
to Christ, when he who beheves in Christ, so far from 
forsaking these books, embraces thera in this spiritual raean- 
ing the more strongly? Let us turu to another interpre- 
Aug. Tr. tation. AuG. Jesus seeing that the woman did not under- 
XV. c. 19. g^j^jjj^ ry^^^ wishing to enlighten her, says, Cull thy husband ; 
i. e. apply thine understanding. For when the hfe is well 
ordered, the understanding governs the soul itself, per- 
taining to the soul. For though it is indeed nothing eise 
than the soul, it is at the same time a certain part of the 
soul. And this very part of the soul which is called the 
understanding and the intellect, is itself illuminated by 
a light superior to itself. Such a Light was talking with 
the womau ; but in her there was not understanding to be 
enlightened. Our Lord then, as it were, says, I wish to 
enlighten, and there is not one to be enlighteued ; Call thy 

A-ER. 19 — 24. ST. JOHN. 145 

husband, i. e. apply tliine understanding, through wliicli 
thou must be taught, by which goverued. The five forraer 
husbands may be explained as the five senses, thus : a man 
before he has the use of his reason, is entirely under the 
government of his bodily senses. Then reason comes into 
action ; and from that time forward he is capable of enter- 
taining ideas, and is either under the influence of truth 
or error. The woman had been under the inflnence of 
error, which error was not her lawfiil husband, but an adul- 
terer. Wherefore our Lord says, Put away that adulterer 
which corrupts thee, and call thy husband, that thou mayest 
understand Me. Oiiigen. And what more proper pLice than Origon, 
Jacob's well, for exposing the unlawful husband, i. e. the ^."'g' ' "'" 
perverse law ? For the Samaritan woman is meant to figure 
to us a soul, that has subjected itself to a kind of law of its 
own, not the divine law. And our Saviour wishes to raarry 
her to a lawful husband, i. e. Himself ; the Word of truth 
which was to rise from thc dead, and never again to die. 

19. The woman saith unto Him, Sir, I perceive 
that Thou art a prophet. 

20. Ourfathers worshipped in this mountain ; and 
ye say, that in Jerusalem is the place where men 
ougbt to worship. 

21. Jesus saith unto ber, Woman, believe ]\Ie, the 
hour cometh, when ye shall neithcr in this mountain, 
nor yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father. 

22. Ye worship ye know not what : we know what 
we worship : for salvation is of the Jews. 

23. But the hour comcth, and now is, whcn the 
true worshippers shall worship the Father in spirit and 
in truth: for the Father seeketh such to worship Him. 

24. God is a Spirit : and they that worship Him 
must worship Him in spirit and in truth. 

Chrys. The -woman is not offended at Chrisfs rebukc. chrys. 
She does not leave Him, and go away. Far from it : her ^'^T." ^^ 
admiration for Him is raised : The ivoman saith unto Him, 
Sir, I perceive that Thou art a Prophet : as if she said Thy 



knowledge of rae is unaecountable, Thou must be a prophet. 

Aug, AuG. The husband was beginning to come to her, though 

'^^2^'^' He had not yet fully come. She thought our Lord a pro- 

Matt. 13, phet, and He was a prophet : for He says of Himself, A pro- 

^^* phet is not without honour, save in his oivn country. Chrys. 

Hom.* And having come to this belief she asks no questions relat- 

xxxii. 2. jjjg ^Q ^j^jg Yde, the health or sickness of the body : she 

Aug. is not troubled about thirst, she is eager for doctrine. Aug. 

■^'^•^^* And she begins enquiries on a subject that perplexed her; 

Our fathers worshipped in this mountain ; and ye say that in 

Jerusalem is the place where men ought to worship. This 

was a great dispute between the Samaritans and the Jews. 

The Jews worshipped in the temple built by Solomon, and 

made this a ground of boasting over the Samaritans. The 

Samaritans replicd, Why boast ye, because ye have a temple 

which we have not? Did our fathers, who pleased God, 

worship in that temple ? Is it not better to pray to God in 

Cliry% this mountain, where our fathers worshipped ? Chrys. By 

xxxii. 2. our fathers, she means Abraham, who is said to have offered 

Origen. up Isaac hcre. Origen. Orthus; The Samaritans regarded 

^ 23 ' Mount Gerizira, near which Jacob dwelt, as sacred, and wor- 

shipped upon it ; while the sacred place of the Jews was 

Mount Sion, God's own choice. The Jews being the people 

from vvhom salvation came, are the type of true beHevers ; 

the Samaritans of heretics. Gerizim, which siguifies divi- 

sion, becomes the Samaritans ; Sion, which signifies watch- 

Clirys. tower, becomes the Jews. Chrys. Christ, however, does not 

xxxii 3 ^^^'^^ ^liis question immediately, but leads the woman to 

higher thiugs, of which He had not spoken till she acknow- 

ledged Him to be a prophet, and therefore listened with 

a more fuU belief : Jesus saith unto her, Woman, believe Me, 

the hour cometh, when ye shall neither in this mountain, nor 

yet at Jerusalem, worship the Father. He says, Believe Me, 

because we have need of faith, the mother of all good, the 

medicine of salvation, in order to obtain any real good. 

They who eudeavour without it, are Hke men who venture 

011 the sea without a boat, and, beiiig able to swim only 

Aug. a little way, are drowned. Aug. Believe Me, our Lord says 

c. 24. ' "^^^^ fitness, as the husband is now present. For now there 

is one in thee that believes, thou hast beguu to be present 

Isa. 7, 9. in the understaudiug ; but if ye will not believe, surely ye 

VER. 19 24. ST. JOHN. 147 

shall not be established. Alcuin. In saying, the hour 
cometh, He refers to the Gospel dispensation, which was 
now approaching; under which the shadows of types were 
to withdraw, and the pure light of truth was to enlighten 
the minds of believers. Chrys. There was no necessity for Chrys. 
Christ to shew wliy the fathers worshipped in the moun- ^°'": , 
tain, and the Jews in Jerusalem. He therefore was sileut 
on that question ; but nevertheless asserted the religious 
superiority of the Jews on auother ground, the ground not 
of place, but of knowledge ; Ye worship ye know not what : 
we knoiv what we icorship : for salvation is of the Jews. 
Origen. Ye, literally refers to the Samaritans, but mysti- Origr. 
cally, to all who understand the Scriptures in an heretical c!'i7.^'"" 
sense. We agaiu literally means the Jews, but raystically, 
I the Word, and all who conformed to My Image, obtain 
salvation from the Jevvish Scriptures. Chrys. The Sama- cbrys. 
ritans worshipped they knew not what, a local, a partial ^^^^(:^ j 
God, as they imagined, of whom they had the same notion 
that they had of their idols. And thereforc they mingled 
the worship of God with the worship of idols. But the Jews 
were free from this superstition : indeed they knew God to 
be the God of the whole world ; wherefore lie says, IVe 
icorship what tce knoio. He reckons Himself among the 
Jews, in condcscension to the woman's idea of Him; and 
says as if Ile were a Jewish prophct, IVe worship, though it 
is certain that Ile is the Being who is worshipped by all. 
The words, For salvation is of the Jeivs, mean that every- 
thing calculated to save and amend the world, the know- 
ledge of God, the abhorrence of idols, and all other doc- 
trines of that nature, and even the very origin of our religion, 
comes originally from the Jews. In salvation too He in- 
cludes His own prcsence, which Ile says is of the Jews, as 
we are told by the Apostle, Of whom as concerning the flesh Rom.9, 
Christ came. See how Ile exalts the Old Testament, which 
He shews to be the root of every thing good ; tlms proving 
in every way that He Himself is not opposed to the Law. 
AuG. It is saying much for the Jews, to declare in their Au^. 
name, We worship what we knoio. But He does not speak I|?/° ^" 
for the reprobate Jews, but for that party from whom the c. 26. 
Apostles and the Prophets came. Such were all those saints 



•who laid the prices of their possessions at the Apostles' 
Clirys. feet. Chrys. The Jewish worship then was far higher than 


xxxiii. 1 ^^6 Samaritan ; but even it shall be abolished ; The hour 

cometh, and now is, tohen the true worsMppers shall worship 

the Father in spirit and in truth. He says, and now is, to 

shew that this was not a prediction, Uke those of the ancient 

Prophets, to be fulfilled in the course of ages. The event, 

Ile says, is now at hand, it is approaching your very doors. 

The words, true worshippers, are by way of distinction : for 

there are false worshippers who pray for temporal and frail 

benefits, or whose actions are ever contradicting their prayers. 

Chrys. Chrys. Or by saying, true, He excludes the Jews together 

xxilili ^ith the Samaritans, For the Jews, though bettcr than the 

Samaritans, were yet as much inferior to those who were to 

succeed them, as the type is to the reahty. The true wor- 

shippers do not confine the worship of God to place, but 

Rom. 1,9. worship in the spirit ; as Paul saith, Whom I serve with my 

toni" xUi. spirit. Origen. Twice it is said, The hour cometh, and the 

c- 14' first time without thc addition, and ?ioiv is. The first secms 

to allude to that purely spiritual worship which is suited 

only to a state of pcrfccticm ; thc second to earthly worship, 

perfected as far as is consistent with human nature. When 

that hour cometh, which our Lord speaks of, the mountain 

of the Samaritans must be avoided, and God must be wor- 

shipped in Sion, where is Jerusalem, wldch is called by 

Christ the city of the Great King. And this is the Church, 

where sacred oblations and spiritual victims are offered up 

by those who understand the spiritual law. So that when 

the fulness of time shall have come, the true worship, we 

raust suppose, will no longer be attached to Jerusalem, i. e. 

to the present Church : for tlie Angels do not worship the 

Father at Jerusalem : and thus those who have obtained the 

likeness of the Jews, worship the Father better than they 

who are at Jerusalem. And when this hour is come, we 

shali be accounted by the Father as sons. Wherefore it is 

not said, Worship God, but, Worship the Father. But for 

the present the true worshippers worship the Father in spirit 

Ciirys. g^Q^ j^ truth ^ Chrys. He speaks here of the Church ; 

V V Ylil 2 

» Origen literallj'. The words the liour with the addition and now is. I think 
cometh are repeated ; the second time that the first expression signifies the 

VER. 19 — 24. ST. JOHN. 149 

wherein there is true worship, aud such as becoraeth God ; 
and therefore adds^ For the Father seeketh such to ivorship 
Uim. For though formerly He willed that mankitid should 
liuger under a dispensatiou of types and figures, this was 
only done in condescension to human frailty, aud to prepare 
mcn for tlie reception of the truth. Origex. But if the Origen. 
Father seeks, He seeks through Jesus, Who came to seek c. 20. 
and to save that which was lost, and to teach men what true 
worship was. God is a Spirit ; i.e. He constitutes our real 
lifc, just as our breath (spirit) constitutes our bodily life. 
Chrys. Or it signifies that God is incorporeal ; and that Ciirys. 
therefore He ought to be worshipped not with tlie body, but ^^^^:^ ^ 
Avith the soul, by the offering up a pure mind, i. c. that tliey 
who worship Him, must loorship Him in spirit and in truth. 
The Jews neglected the soul, but paid grcat attention to the 
body, and had various kiuds of purification. Our Lord 
seems here to refer to this, and to say, not by cleansing of 
the body, but by the incorporeal nature within us, i. e. the 
understanding, which He calls the spirit, that we must 
worship the iucorporeal God. Hilary. Or, by saying that Hiiar. 
God being a Spirit ought to be worshipped in spirit, He ^\^^\^^_ 
indicates the frcedora and knowledge of the worshippers, c. 31. 
and the uncircumscribcd nature of the worsliip : according 
to the saying of the Apostle, fVhere t/ie Spirit of the Lord 2Cor." 
is, there is libertu. Chrys. And that we are to worslup m ' 

' '' ^ . Clirys. 

trutli, means that whereas the fonuer ordinances were typi- Hom. 
cal ; that is to say, circumcision, burnt ofFerings, and sacri- ^^"' 
fices; uow, on the contrary, evcry thing is real. Theovhvl. 
Or, because many think that they worsliip God in the spirit^ 
i. e. with the mind, who yet held heretical doctrines concern- 
ing Him, for this reason Hc adds, arid in truth. May not 

most perfect worship thathuman natiire conie, the true worship will no longer 

is capable of iu this life. So until the be pcrformed in Jerusalem, tliat is, in 

hour shall have come which tlie Lord the present Church. For tlie Angels 

speaks of, the mountain ot the Sama- do not worship the Fatherat Jerusalcm; 

ritans (who represent those who sepa- and so those ivho are like them worship 

rate themselves from the Church) is to the Father better than those who are in 

be avoidcd and God must be worshipped Jerusaleni, even though for the sake of 

in Sionat Jerusalem, which Christcalls the latter they abide with them, and 

the city of the Great King. "VVhat is become Jews to the Jews, that they 

tl\is but the Church where the holy may gain the Jews. And when &c. 

ofTerings of spiritual victims are pre- Nicolai has missed the meaning of the 

sentcd by mcn of spiritual minds ? But last sentence. 
wheu the luhiess of time shall have 




Rom. 8, 

the words too refer to the two kinds of philosopliy among 
us, i. e. active and conteraplative ; the spirit standing for 
action, according to the Apostle, As many as are led by the 
Spirit of God ; truth, on the other hand, for contemplation ? 
Or, (to take another view,) as the Samaritans thought that 
God was confined to a certain place, and ought to be wor- 
shipped in that place ; in opposition to this notion, our 
Lord may mean to teach them here, that the true wor- 
shippers worship not locally, but spiritually. Or again, all 
being a type and shadow in the Jewish system, the meaning 
may be that the true worshippers will worship not in type, 
but in truth. God being a Spirit, seeketh for spiritual 
worshippers ; being the truth, for true ones. Aug. O for 
a mountain to pray on, thou criest, high and inaccessible, 
that I may be nearer to God, and God may hear me better, 
for He dwelleth on high. Yes, God dwelleth on high, but 
He hath respect unto the humble. Wherefore descend that 
Ps. 74, 7. thou mayest ascend. " Ways on high are in their heart," 
it is said, " passing in the valley of tears," and in " tears" is 
humility. Wouldest thou pray in the temple ? pray in thy- 
self ; but first do thou become the temple of God. 

Aug. Tr, 
XV. c. 25, 

25. The woman saith unto Him, I know that Mes- 
sias cometh, which is called Christ : when He is come, 
He will tell us all things. 

26. Jesus saith unto her, I that speak unto thee 
am He. 

xxxii. 2, 

Aug. Tr. 
XV. c. 27. 

xxxii, 2. 

CriRYS. Tlie woman was struck with astonishment at the 
loftiness of His teaching, as her words shew : The woman 
saith unfo Him, I hnow that Messias cometh, which is called 
Christ. AuG. Uuctus in Latin, Christ in Greek, in the He- 
brew Messias. She knew then who could teach her, but did 
not know Who was teaching her. When He is come, He 
will tell us all things : as if she said, The Jews now contend 
for the temple, we for the mountain ; but He, when He 
comes, will level the mountain, overthrow the temple, and 
teach us how to pray in spirit and in truth. Chrys. But 
what reason had the Samaritans for expecting Christ's com- 
ing? They acknowledged the books of Moses, which fore- 

VER. 25 — 30. ST. JOHN. 151 

told it. Jacob prophesies of Clirist, The sceptre shall not Gen. 49, 
departfrom Judah, nor a lawgiver from beneath hisfeet, until ^^' 
Shiloh come. And Moses says, The Lord thy God shall raise Oeut, 
up a Prophet froni the midst of thee, of thy brethren. Origen. ^^\ ^^' 
It sliould be known, tbat as Cbrist rose out of tbe Jews, not tom xiii. 
oulj declaring but proving Himself to be Christ; so among ^- ^^* 
tbe Samaritaus tbere arose one Dositbeus by name, wbo 
asserted tbat be was tbe Cbrist propbesied of. Aug. It is Aug. lib. 
a confirmation to discerning minds that the five senses were 'i^^^"'- 

" Ciucest. 

what were signified by the five husbands, to find the woman qu. 64. 
making five carnal answers, and tben raentioning the name 
of Cbrist. Chrys. Christ now reveals Himself to the woman : chrys. 
Jesus saith unto her, I that speak unto thee am Ile. Had He ^*^'".: „ 

xxxni. 2. 

told the -woman this to begin with, it would have appeared 

vanity. Now, having gradually awakened her to tbe tbought 

of Christ, His disclosure of Himself is perfectly opportune. 

He is not equally open to the Jews, who ask Him, If Thou john lo, 

be the Christ, tell us plainly ; for tbis reason, tbat tbey did ^'** 

not ask in order to learn, but to do Ilim injury; whereas 

she spoke in the simplicity of her hcart. 

27. And upon this came His disciples, and mar- 
velled that Hc talked with the woman : yct no man 
said, What seekest Thou ? or, ^Yhy talkcst Thou 
with her? 

28. The woman then left her waterpot, and went 
her way into the city, and saith to the men, 

29. Come, see a man, which told me all things 
that ever I did : is not this thc Christ ? 

30. Then they went out of the city, and came 
unto Him. 

Chrys. Tbe disciples arrive opportunely, and when the cbrys. 
teaching is finisbed : And upon this came His disciples, and "V. 
marvelled that Ile talked luith the woman. They marvelled 2, 3. 
at tbe exceeding kindness and bumihty of Cbrist, in con- 
descending to converse with a poor woman, and a Sama- 
ritan. Aug. Hc who came to seek tbat wliicb was lost, Aug. Tr. 
sought tlie lost oue. This was what tliey marvelled at ; ^^* ^' ^^' 





II 0111. 

xxxiii. 3. 

tom. xiii. 
in Joan, 
c. 28. 

Aug. Tr. 
XV. c. 30. 
xxxiv. 1. 


tom. xiii. 
in Joaii. 
c. 29. 

II om. 
xxxiv. 1. 

xxxiv. 1 

they marvelled at His goodness ; they did not suspect evil. 
Chrys. But notwithstanding their wonder, they asked Hira 
no questions ; No man said, What seekest Thou ? or, Why 
talkest Thou with her ? So careful were they to observe the 
rank of disciples, so great was their awe and veneration for 
Him. On subjects indeed which concerned themselves, they 
did not hesitate to ask Hira questions. But this was not 
one. Origen. The woman is almost turned into an Apostle. 
So forcible are His words, that she leaves her waterpot to 
go to the city, and tell her townsraen of thera. The woman 
then left her waterpot, i.e. gave up low bodily cares, for the 
sake of benefiting others. Let us do the same. Let us 
leave off caring for things of the body, and irapart to others 
ofourown. Aug. Hydria answers to our word aquarium; 
hydor bcing Greek for water. Chrys, As the Apostles, on 
being called, left thcir nets, so does slie leave her waterpot, 
to do the worlc of an Evangelist, by calling not one person, 
but a w^hole city : 8he went her way into the city, and saith 
to the men, Come, see a man which told me all things that 
ever I did: is not this the Christ? Origen. She calls thcm 
together to sce a man, whose words werc deepcr than man's. 
She had had five husbands, and then was living with the 
sixth, not a lawful husband. But now she gives him up for 
a seventh, and she leaving her waterpot, is converted to 
chastity. Chrys. She was not prevented by shame-faced- 
ness from spreading about what had been said to her. For 
the soul, when it is once kindled by the divine flame, regards 
neither glory, nor shame, nor any other earthly thing, only 
the flame which consumes it. But she did not wish them 
to trust to her own report only, but to come and judge of 
Christ for themselves. Conie, see a man, she says. She 
does not say, Come aud beheve, but, Come and see ; which 
is an easier matter. For well she knew that if they only 
tasted of that w^ell, they would feel as she did. Alcuin. It 
is only by degrecs, however, that she comes to the preaching 
of Christ. First she calls Him a man, not Christ ; for fear 
those who heard her raight be angry, and refuse to come. 
Chrys. She then neither openly preaches Christ, nor wholly 
omits Him, but says, Is not this the Christ ? This wakened 
their attentiou, Then they went out of the city, and came 

VER. 31 — 34 ST. JOHN. 153 

unto Him. Aug. The circumstance of the woman's leavins: 
her waterpot on going away, must not be overlooked. For 
the waterpot signifies the love of this world, i.e. concupiscence, 
by which men from the dark depth, of which the well is the 
iraage, i.e. from an earthly couversation, draw up pleasure. 
It was right then for one who believed in Christ to renouuce 
the worhl, and, by leaving her waterpot, to shew that she had 
parted Avith worldly desires. Aug. She cast away therefore Aug. Tr. 
coucupiscence, and hastened to proclaim the truth. Let ^^" ^' ^'^' 
those who wish to preach the Gospel, learn, that they should 
first leave their waterpots at the well. Ohigen. The woman ori^. 
having become a vessel of wholesome discipline, lays aside i""^- -'>"'• 
as couteraptible her forraer tastes and desires. 

31. In tlie meanwhile His disciples prayed Him, 
saying, Master, eat. 

32. But He said unto them, I have meat to eat 
that ye know not of. 

33. Therefore said the disciples one to another, 
Hath any man brought Him ought to eat ? 

34. Jesus saith unto them, My meat is to do the 
will of llim that sent Me, and to finish His work. 

AuG. His disciples had gone to buy food, and had re- Aufr. Tr. 
turned. Tiiey offcred Christ sorae : In tlie mean wliile llis^"' ^' ' 
disciples prayed Him, saying, Master, eat. Chuys. They 
all ask Ilini at once, Ilini so fatigued with the journey and 
heat. This is not irapatience in thera, but simply lovc, aud 
tenderness to their master. Origen. They think the pre- orie. tom. 
sent time convenient for dining; it beiug aftcr the dcparture ^"'- '^- '^^- 
of the woman to the city, and. before the coming of the 
Samaritans; so that they sit at meat by themseU'es. This 
explains, In the mean ivhile. Theophyl. Our Lord, know- 
ing that the woman of Saraaria was briuging the whole towu 
out to Ilim, tells Ilis disciples, / have meat that ye knoio 
not of. CuuYS. The salvation of men Ile calls Ilis food, ciirys. 
sViewing Ilis great desire that we should be saved. As food ^.^'™' j 
is an object of desire to us, so was the salvation of men to 
Him. ObservC; Ile does iiot e.xpress Himself directly, but 


figuratively ; which makes some trouble necessary for His 

hearers, in order to comprehend His meaning, and thus 

gives a greater importance to that meaning when it is 

understood. Theophyl. That ye know not of, i.e. know 

not that I call the salvation of men food ; or, know not that 

the Samaritans are about to believe and be saved. The 

disciples however were in perplexity : Therefore said the 

disciples one to another, Hath any man brought Him ought 

Aw^.Tt. to eat? AuG. What wonder that the woman did not un- 

XV. c. 31. ^gj.s^j^jj(j about the water ? Lo, the disciples do not under- 

ciirys. stand about the meat. Chrys. They shew, as usual, the 

xxxiv. 1. honour and reverence in which they hold their Master, by 

talking among themselves, and not presuming to question 

Him. Theophyl. From the question of the disciples, Hath 

any man brought Him ought to eat, we may infer that our 

Lord was accustomed to receive food from others, when it 

Ps. 146. \vas ofFered Him : not that He who giveth food to all flesh, 

needed any assistance : but He received it, that they who 

gave it might obtaiu their reward, and that poverty thence- 

forth might not blush, nor the support of others be esteemed 

a disgrace. It is proper and necessary that teachers should 

depend on others to provide them with food, in order that, 

being free from all other cares, they may attend the more 

Aug. Tr. to the ministry of the word. Aug. Our Lord heard His 

XV. c. 31. . . . 

doubting disciples, and answered them as disciples, i. e. 
plaiuly and expressly, not circuitously, as He answered the 
woman ; Jesus saith unto them, My meat is to do the will of 
Orig. tom. Him that sent Me. Origen. Fit meat for the Son of God, 
^'"' '^' ' who was so ooedient to the Father, that in Him was the 
same will that was in the Father: not two wills, but one 
will in both. The Son is capable of first accomplishing the 
whole will of the Father. Other saints do nothing against 
the rather's will ; He does that will. That is His meat in 
an especial sense. And what means, To finish His work ? It 
would seem easy to say, that a work was what was ordered 
by him who set it ; as where men are set to build or dig. 
But some who go deeper ask whether a work being finished 
does not imply that it was before incomplete ; aud whether 
God could originally have made an incomplete work ? The 
completing of the work, is the completing of a rational 

VER. 35—38. ST. JOHN. 155 

creature : for it was to complete this work, which was as 

yet imperfect, that the Word made flesh came. Theophyl. 

He finished the work of God, i. e. man, He, the Son of God, 

finished it by exhibiting our nature in Himself without sin, 

perfect and uncorrupt. He finished also the work of God, 

i. e. the Law, (for Clirist is the end of the Law,) by abolish- Rom. 

ing it, when everything in it had been fulfiUed, and chang- ^^' *' 

ing a carnal into a spiritual worship. Origen. The matter Orig. tmn 

of spiritual drink and living water being explained, the sub- ^'"' '^' ^ 

ject of meat follows. Jesus had asked the woman of Samaria, 

and she could give Him none good enougli. Then came 

the disciples, having procured some humble food among the 

people of the country, and ofiFered it Him, beseeching Hira 

to eat. They fear perhaps lest the "NYord of God, deprived 

of His own proper nourishment, fail within them ; and 

therefore with such as they have found, immediately propose 

to feed Him, that being confirmed and strcngthened, He 

may abide with His nourishers. Souls require food as well 

as bodies. And as bodies require different kinds of it, and 

m different quantitics, so is it in things which are above the 

body. Souls dififer in capacity, and one needs more nourish- Heb.5,12 

ment, another less. So too in point of quality, the same 

nourishment of words and thoughts does not suit alL In- 

fants just born need the milk of the word ; the grown up, 

soHd meat. Our Lord says, / have meat to eat. For one 

who is over tiie wcak who cannot behold thc same things 

with the stronger, may always speak thus ^ 

35. Say not yc, There are yet four months, and 
thcn eometh harvest? behold, I say unto you, Lift up 
your cyes, and look on the fields ; for they are white 
already to harvest. 

36. And he that reapeth receiveth wages, and 
gathcreth fruit unto hfc cternal : that both he that 
soweth and he that reapeth may rejoicc together. 

^ i.e. tliose of wcak faith cannot comfort he had in adversities, and what 

understand the spiritual gifts and nou- swect joys Thy Brcad had for tlie 

rishnicnt of the stroufi;. It is " nieat hidden mouth of his spirit — I nei- 

ihey isnow not of." So S.Aug. when tlicr could conjecture nor bad ex- 

unconverted, of S. Ambrose : " What perienccd." Conf. vi. 3. 




37. And herein is that saying true, One soweth 
and another reapeth. 

38. I sent you to reap that whereon ye hestowed 
no labour : other men laboured, and ye are entered 
into their labours. 

xxxiv. 1. 

xxxiv. 2. 

Aiig. Tr. 
XV. c. 32, 

xxxiv. 2. 

Chrys. "VVhat is the will of the Father He now proceeds 
to explain : 8ay ye not, There are yet four months, and 
then cometh harvest? Theophyl. Now ye are expecting 
a material harvest. But I say uuto you, that a spiritual 
harvest is at hand : Lift up your eyes, and look on the fields ; 
for they are white already to harvest. He alludes to the 
Samaritans who are approaching. Chrys. He leads them, 
as his custom is, from low things to high. Fields and 
harvest here express the great uuraber of souls, which are 
ready to receive the word. The eyes are both spiritual, and 
bodily ones, for they saw a great multitude of Samaritans 
now approaching. This expectant crowd he calls very suitably 
white fields. For as the corn, wheu it grows white, is ready 
for the harvest; so were these ready for sah^ation. But why 
does He not say this in direct language ? Because by making 
use in this way of the objects around them, he gave greater 
vividness and power to His words, and brought the truth 
home to them ; and also that his discourse might be more 
pleasant and raight sink deeper into their memories. Aug. 
He was intent now on beginning the work, and hastened to 
send labourers : Aiid he that reapeth receiveth wages, and 
gathereth fruit unto life eternal ; that both he that soweth 
and he that reapeth may rejoice together. Chhys. Again, 
He distinguishes earthly from heavenly things, for as above 
He said of the water, that he who drank of it should never 
thirst, so here He says, He that reapeth gathereth fruit 
unto life eternat ; adding, tliat both he that soweth and he 
that reapeth may rejoice together. The Prophats sowed, the 
Apostles reaped, yet are not the former deprived of their 
reward. For here a new thing is promised ; viz. that both 
sowers and reapers shall rejoice together. How difFerent 
this from what we see here. Now he that soweth grieveth 
because he soweth for others^ aud he uuly that reapeth 

VER. 35 — 38. ST. JOHN. 157 

rejoiceth. But in tlie new state, tlie sower and reaper sliare 
tlie sarae wages. Aug. The Apostles and Prophets had Aug. Tr. 
different labours, corresponding to the difference of times; '^^" '^" * 
but both will attain to like joy, and receive together their 
wages, even eternal life. Chrys. He confirms what He Chrys. 
says by a proverb, A?id herein is that sayiny true, one sow- ^^"J"^* ^ 
eth and another reapeth, i. e. one party has the labour and 
another reaps the fruit. The saying is especially apphc- 
able here, for the Prophcts had laboured, and the dis- 
ciples reaped the fruits of tlieir labours : / sent you to reap — 
that whereon ye bestowed no labour. Aug. So then He sent Aug:. Tr. 
rcapers, no sowers. The reapers went where the prophets ^^* '^* "' 
had preached. Read thc account of their labours ; they 
all contain prophecy of Christ. And the harvest was ga- 
thered on that occasion when so many thousands brought 
tlie prices of thcir possessions, and laid thera at the Apo- 
sties' feet ; relieving their sliouklers frora earthly burdens, 
that they might foilow Christ. Yea, verily, and frora that 
harvest were a few grains scattered, which fillcd the whole 
world. And now ariseth another harvest, wliicli will be 
reaped at thc end of the worhl, not by Apostles, but 
by Angels. The reaj^ers, He says, are the AmjeU. Chrvs. Matt. 13. 
I sent you to rcap that whereon ye bcstowed no labour, i. e. ciirys. 
I have reserved you for a favourable time, in which the xxxiv. 2. 
hibour is less, the enjoymcnt grcatcr. The more laborious 
part of the worlc was laid on the Prophets, viz. the sowing 
of the seed : Other mcn laboured, aud ye are entered into 
their labours. Clirist here throws hght on the meaning of 
thc old prophecics. He shews that both the Law and tho 
Prophcts, if riglitly interpreted, led raen to Him ; and that 
the Prophets were sent in fact by Himself. Thus tho in- 
timate connexion is established between the Okl Testament 
and the New. Origen. How can we consistently give an nii<r. 
allegorical raeaning to the words, Lift up your eyes, S^c, and 'll^lvY* 
only a literal one to thc woi-ds, There are yet four months, c. 39 — 19. 
and then cometh harvest ? The sarae principle of inter- 
pretation surely must be applied to the latter, that is to the 
fornicr. Thc four raonths rcprcsent the four elements, i. e. 
our natural lifc ; thc liarvest, the end of the workl, when 
all conflict shall have ceased, and truth shall prcvail. The 


disciples then regard the triith as incomprehensible in our 
natural state, and look forward to the eud of the world for 
attaining the knowledge of it. But this idea our Lord con- 
demns : Say not ye, There are four months, and then cometh 
harvest? Behold, I say unto you, Lift up your eyes. In 
many places of Holy Scripture, we are coramanded in the 
same way to raise the thoughts of our minds, which cling 
so obstinately to earth. A difficult task this for one who 
indulges his passions, and lives carnally. Such an one will 
not see if the fields be white to the harvest. For when are 
the fields white to the harvest ? When the Word of God 
comes to light up and make fruitful the fields of Scripture. 
Indeed, all sensible things are as it were fields made white 
for the harvest, if only reason be at hand to interpret them. 
We lift up our eyes, and behold the whole universe over- 
spread with the brightness of truth. And he that reapeth 
those harvests, has a double reward of his reaping ; first, his 
wages; And he that reapeth receiveth wages ; meaning his 
reward in the life to come ; secondly, a certain good state 
of thc uuderstanding, which is the fruit of conteraplation, 
And gathereth fruit unto life eternal. The man who thinks 
out the first principles of any science, is as it were the sower 
in that science; others taking them up, pursuing them to 
their results, and engrafting fresh matter upon them, strike 
out new discoveries, from which posterity reaps a plentiful 
harvest. And how much more may we perceive this in the 
art of arts ? The seed there is the whole dispensation of 
the mystery, now revealed, but formerly hidden iu darkness ; 
for while men were unfit for the advent of the Word, the 
fields were not yet white to their eyes, i.e. the legal and 
prophetical Scriptures were shut up. Moses and the Pro- 
phets, who preceded the coming of Christ, were the sowers 
of this seed ; the Apostles who came after Christ and saw 
His glory were the reapers. They reaped and gathered into 
barns the deep meaning which lay hid under the prophetic 
writings; and did in short Avhat those do who succeed to 
a scientific system which others have discovered, and who 
with less trouble attain to clearer results than they who 
originally sowed the seed. But they that sowed and they 
that reaped shall rejoice together in another world, in whicU 

\ER. 39 — 43. ST. JOHN. 159 

all sorrow and mourning shall be done away. Nay, and 
have they not rejoiced already ? Did not Moses and Elias, 
the sowers, rejoice with the reapers Peter, James, and John, 
when they saw the glory of the Son of God at the Trans- 
figuration ? Perhaps in, one soweth and another reapeth, one 
and another may refer simply to those who live under the 
Law, and those who live under the Gospel. For these may 
both rejoice together, inasmuch as the same end is laid 
up for them by oue God, through one Christ, in oue Holy 

39. And many of the Samaritans of that city be- 
lieved on Him for the saying of the woman, which 
testified, Ile told me all that ever I did. 

40. So when the Samaritans vvere come unto Ilim, 
they besought Him that He would tarry with them : 
and He abode tbere two days. 

41. And many more beheved because of His own 

42. And said unto the woman, Now we believe, 
not because of thy saying : for we have heard Him 
oursclves, and know that this is indeed the Christ, 
the Saviour of the world. 

Origen. After this eonversatioii with the disciples, Scrip- Orig:. 
ture returns to those who had believed on the testiraony of i°"joan ' 
the woman, and were come to see Jesus. Chrys. It is now, c. .50. 
as it were, harvest time, when the coru is gathered, and j, ^^^' 
a whole fioor soon covered witli sheavcs; And many of the xxxiv. 2. 
Samaritans of that city helieved on Him, for the saying of the 
woman which testified, He told me all that ever I did. They 
considered that the womau would never of her own accord 
have conceived such admiration for one Who had reproved 
her offences, unless He were really some great and wonderful 
person. And thus relying solely on the testimony of the iiom. 
woman, vvithout any other evidence, they went out to be- ^^^''' • 
seech Christ to stay with them : So tohen the Samaritans 
were come to Him, ihey besought Him that He would tarry with 


them. The Jews when they saw His miracles, so far from 

begging Him to stay, tried in every way to get rid of His 

presence. Such is the power of malice, and envy, and vain- 

glory, that obstinate vice which poisons even gcodness itself. 

Though the Samaritans however wished to keep Him with 

them, He would not consent, but only tarried there tioo days. 

Orig. Origen. It is natural to ask, why our Saviour stays with 

cTSi.'^^"' the Samaritans, when He had given a command to His dis- 

ciples not to enter into any city of the Samaritans. But we 

must explain this mystically. To go the way of the Gentiles, 

is to be imbued with Gentile doctrine ; to go into a city of 

the Samaritans, is to admit the doctrines of those who be- 

lieve the Scriptures, but interpret them heretically. But 

when men have given up their own doctrines, and come to 

Chrys. Jesus, it is lawful to stay with them. Chrys. The Jews dis- 

Hom. beUeved in spite of miracles, while these exhibited great 

XXXV. 1. ^ . ,111 

faith, beforc even a miracle was wrought, and when they 
had only heard our Lord's words. And many more helicved 
hecause of His oivn word. Why then do not the Evangelists 
give these words? To shew that they omit many iraportant 
things, and bccausc the result sliews what they were; the 
result being that the whole city w^as convinced. On the 
other hand, when the hearers are not convinced, the Evan- 
gelists are obliged to give our Lord's words, that the failure 
may be seen to be owing to the indifference of the hearers, 
not to any defect in the preacher. And now, having be- 
come Chrisfs disciples, they dismiss their first instructor ; 
And they said unto the icoman, Now ive helieve not hecause of 
thy saying : for we have heard Him ourselves, and hioio that 
this is indeed ihe Christ, the Saviour of the loorld. How soon 
they understand that He was come for the deliverance of 
the whole workl, and could not therefore confine His pur- 
poses to the Jews, but must sow the Word everywhere. 
Their saying too, The Saviour of the world, implies that they 
looked on this world as miserable and lost ; and that, whereas 
Prophets and Angels had come to save it, this was the only 
real Saviour, the Author not only of temporal but eternal 
salvation. And, observe, whereas the woman had spoken 
doubtfully, Is not this the Christ ? they do not say, we sus- 
pect, but loe knoio, know, that tJiis is indeed the Saviour of tJie 

VER. 43 — 45. ST. JOHN. IGl 

world, not one Christ out of many. Thougli they had ouly 
heard Ilis words, they said as much as they could have doue, 
had they seen ever so many and great miracles. Ortgen. Orig. 
With the aid of our former observations on Jacob's well, ^°"';,'' "* 

c. 5C. 

and the water, it will not be difficult to see, why, when they 
fiud the true word, tliey leave other doctrines, i.e. the city, c 51. 
for a sound faith. Observe, they did not ask our Saviour 
only to enter Samaria, St. Johu particularly remarks, or 
enter that city, but to tarry there. Jesus tarries with those 
who ask Him, and especially with those who go out of the 
city to Him. Origen. They were not ready yet for the Orig. 
third day ; having no anxiety to see a miracle, as those had ««"'• '^'"- 
who supped with Jesus in Cana of Galilee. (This supper 
was after He had been in Cana three days.) The womau's 
report was the ground of their belief. The enlightening 
power of the Word itsclf was not yet visible to them. Aug. Au^. 
So then they knew Christ first by report of another, after- '^^'S^' 
wards by His own presence ; which is still the case of those 
that are without the fold, and not yet Christians. Christ 
is announced to them by some charitable Christians, by the 
rcport of the woman, i.e. tlie Church ; they come to Clirist, 
thcy believe on Him, through the instrumentality of that 
woman; He stays with tliem two days, i.e. gives them two 
precepts of charity. And thenceforth their belief is stronger. 
They believe that He is indeed the Saviour of the world. 
Origen. For it is impossiblc that tlie same inipression should Orijr. 
be produced by hearing from one who has secn, and seeing ^^ 52. 
one's self; walking by sight is different from walking by 
faith. The Samaritans now do not believe only from tes- 
tiraony, but from really seeing the truth. 

43. Now after two days He departed thence, and 
went into Galilee. 

44. For Jcsus Himself testificd, tbat a prophet 
hath no honour in his own country. 

45. Then when He was come into GaHlcc, the 
GaUleeans received Him, having seen all the things 
that He did at Jerusalem at the feast : for they also 
went unto the feast. 



Aug. AuG. After staying two days in Samaria, He departed into 

ir. XVI. Qalilee, where He resided : Now after two days He deparled 

tlience, and went into Galilee. Aug. Why then does the 

Evangelist say immediatelyj Fur Jesus Himself testi/ied, 

that a prophet liatlt no honour in his oum country ? For He 

would seem to have testified more to the truth, had He 

remained in Samaria, and not gone into Galilee. Not so : 

He stayed two days in Samaria, and the Saraaritans believed 

ou Him : He stayed the same time in Galilee, aud the Gali- 

leans did not believe on Him, and therefore He said that 

Chrys. « prophet hath no honour in his own country, Chrys. Or 

iioni. consider this the reason that He went, not to Caperuaum, 

XXXV. 1. . 

but to Galilee and Cana, as appears below, His country being, 

I think, Capernaum. As He did not obtain houour there, 

Matt. 11, hcar what He says -, And thou, Capernaum, which art exalted 

unto heaven, shalt be brouc/ht down to hell. He calls it His 

own couutry because He had most resided here. Theophyl 

Or thus : Our Lord ou leaving Samaria for Galilce, explains 

why He was not always in Gahlee : viz. because of the httle 

honour He reccived there. A prophet hath no honour in his 

Orisr. owu country. Origen. The couutry of the prophets was 

toin.^xvii. jmjgg.^^ j^jj(j every one knows how little honour thcy received 

Waii. 23. from the Jews, as we read, Whom of the prophets have not 

your fathers persecuted ? One cannot but wouder at the 

truth of this saying, exemplified not only in the contcmpt 

cast upon the holy prophets and our Lord Himself, but also 

iu thc case of other tcachers of wisdom who have been de- 

Ciirys. spised by their fellow-citizens and put to death '^. Ciirys. 

xxx" 2 ^^^ ^° ^® '^^^ ^^^ many held in admiration by their own 

people ? We do ; but we cannot argue from a few instances. 

If some are honoured in their own country, many niore are 

honoured out of it, and familiarity generally subjects mcn 

to conterapt. The Galileans however received our Lord : 

Then when He was come into Galilee, the GalilcBans received 

Him. Observe how those who are spoken ill. of, are always 

the first to come to Christ. Of the Galileans we find it 

said below, Search and look, for out of Nazareth ariseih no 

prophet. And He is reproached with being a Samaritan. 

Thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil. And yet the Sa- 

' In allusion to the persecution of some Greek Philosophers. 

VER, 46 — 54. ST. JOHN. 163 

maritans aud Galileans believe, to the condemnation of the 
Jews. The Galileans however are superior to the Samari- 
tans ; for the latter believed from hearing the womau's 
words, the former from seeing the signs which He did : 
Having seen all the things that He did at Jerusalem at the 
feast. Origen. Our Lord by ejecting those who sold sheep Orig. 
and oxen fiom the temple, had impressed the GaHleans with io'^-,xvn. 
a strong idea of His majesty, and they received Him. His 
power was shewn no less in this act, than in making the 
blind to see, and the deaf to hear. But probably He had 
performed some other miracles as well. Bede. They had 
seen Him at Jerusalem, for they also went unto the feast. 
Our Lord's return has a mystical meaning, viz. that, when 
the Gentiles have been coufirmed in the faith by the 
tvvo precepts of love, i.e. at the end of the world, He vvill re- 
turu to His country, i. e. Judsea. Origen. The Galileans Orig. 
were allowed to keep the feast at Jerusalem, where they 'o»^- ^ "• 
had seen Jesus. Thus they were prepared to receive Him, 
when He came : otherwise they woukl either have rejected 
Him, or He, knowing their unprepared state, would not 
have gone near them. 

46. So Jesus came again into Cana of Galilee, 
where He made the water wine. And there was a 
certain nobleman, whose son was sick at Capernaum. 

47. When he heard that Jesus was come out of 
Judaea into Galilee, he went unto Him, and besought 
Him that He would come down, and lieal his son : for 
he was at the point of death. 

48. Then said Jesus unto him, Except ye see signs 
and wonders, ye will not believe. 

49. The nobleman saith unto Him, Sir, come down 
ere my child die. 

50. Jesus saith unto him, Go thy way ; thy son 
liveth. And the man believed the word that Jesus 
had spoken unto him, and he went his way. 

51. And as he was now gomg dovvn, his servants 
met him, and told him, saying, Thy son liveth. 




XXXV. 2. 



2. 3. 


toiii. xvii. 


XXXV. 2. 
Matt. 8, 5 

52. Then enquired he of them the hour when he 
began to amend. And they said unto him, Yesterday 
at the seventh hour the fever left him. 

53. So the father knew that it was at the same 
hour, in the which Jesus said unto him, Thy son 
liveth : and liimself beUeved, and his whole house. 

54. This is again the second miracle that Jesus did 
when He was come out of Judsea into GaUlee. 

Chrys. On a former occasion our Lord attended a mar- 
riage in Cana of Galilee, now He goes there to convert the 
people, and confirra by Ilis presence the faith which His 
miracle had produced. He goes there in preference to His 
own country. Aug. There, we are told, Ilis disciples believed 
on Him. Though the house was crowded witli guests, the 
only persons who believed in consequence of this great mi- 
racle, were His disciples, He therefore visits the city again, 
in order to try a second time to convert them. Theophyl. 
The Evangchst reminds us of the miracle in order to express 
the praise due to the Samaritans ^. For the Galileans in 
receiving Him were influenced as well by tlie miracle He 
had wrought with them, as by those they had seen at Jeru- 
salem. The nobleman certainly beheved in consequence 
of the miracle performed at Cana, though he did not yet 
understand Christ's full greatness ; And there ivas a cer- 
iain nobleman whose son was sick at Capernaum. Origen- 
Some think that this was an officer of King Herod's; others, 
that he was one of Csesar's household, then employed on 
some commission in Judaia. It is not said that he was a Jew. 
AuG. He is called a nobleman, either as being of tlie royal 
family, or as liaviug some office of government. Chrys. 
Some think that he is the same centurion who is mentioned 
in Matthew. But that he is a difl'erent person is clear from 
this ; that the latter, when Christ vvished to come to his 
house, entreated Him not ; whereas the former brought 
Christ to his house, though he had received no promise of 
a cure. And the latter met Jesus on His way from the 

^ Sia T?) oi;|rj(rat 'S.afxapdTuv rh iyKtifiiov. But in tlie Lat. it is, ut augere'' 
Christi prseconium. 

VER. 46 — 54. ST. JOHX. 165 

mountain to Capernaum ; whereas the former carae to Jesus 
in Cana. And the latter's servant was laid up with the palsy, 
the former's sou with a fever. Of this nobleraan then we 
read, When he heard that Jesus was come out of Judcea into 
Galilee, he ivent unto Ilim, and besouyht Ilim that Ile would 
heal his son : for he ivas at the point of death. Aug. Did Aup. Tr. 
not he who made this request believe ? Mark what our ^^'" '^' ' 
Lord says ; Then said Jesus unto him, Except ye see signs 
and wondersy ye will not believe. This is to charge the man 
either with lukewarraness, or coldness of faith, or with want 
of faitli altogether : as if his only object was to put Christ's 
power to the tcst, and see who and what kind of person 
Christ was, and what He coiild do. The word prodigy 
(wonder) signifies soinething /a/' off, in futurity. Alq. Our 
Lord would have the mind of the behever so raised above all 
mutable things, as not to seck even for miracles. For "" 
miracles, though sent from lieaven, are, in their subject 
matter, mutable. Gkeg. Ecmember wliat he asked for, and Greg. 
you will plainly see that he doubted. He asked Him to K°a",*J" 
come down and see his son : The nobleman saith wito Ilim, xxviii. i. 
Sir, come down, ere my child die. His faith was deficient; 
in that he thought that our Lord could not save, except 
He were personally present. Chrys. And mark his earthly Chrys. 
mind, sliewn in hurrying Christ along with hira ; as if our j.^"j!"\ 
Lord coukl not raise his son after dcath. Indced it is very 
possible tliat he raay have asked in unbelicf. For fathers 
often are so carried away by their affection, as to consult 
not only those they depcud upon, but cvcn tliose tliey do 
not deperul upon at all : not wisliing to lcavc auy nieans 
untried, which might save their chihlren. But had he had 
any strong rcliance upon Christ, he would have gone to 
Him in Judsea. Gheg. Our Lord in His answer implies Gregr. 
that He is in a certain sense where He is invited present, j,",'"^' '" 
even when He is absent frora a place. He saves by His x.wiii. 
coramand simply, even as by His will He created all things ; ' 
Jesus saith unto him, Go thy way, thy son liveth. Here is 
a blow to that pride which honours human wealth and great- 
ness, and not that nature which is raade after the iraage of 
God. Our Redeeraer, to shew that things made much of 
among men, were to be despised by Saints, and things de- 






XX.XV. 2. 

XXXV. 3. 

Anp:. Tr. 
xvi. c. 3. 

Aug, Tr. 
xvi. c. 3. 

xxxvi. 1. 

spised made mucli of, did not go to the nobleraan's son, but 
was ready to go to the centurion's servant. Chrys. Or 
thus; In the centurion there was confirmed faith and true 
devotion, and therefore our Lord was ready to go. But the 
nobleman's faith was still imperfect, as he thought our Lord 
could not heal in the absence of the sick person. But 
Chrisfs answer enlightened him. And the man believed the 
word which Jesus had spoken to him, and went his way. He 
did not believe, however, wholly or completely. Ouigen. 
His rank appears in the fact of his servants meeting him : 
And as he was now going down, his servants met him, and 
told him, saying, Thy son iiveth. Ciirys. They met him, 
to announce what had happened, and prcvent Christ from 
coming, as He was no longer wanted. That the nobleman 
did not fully believe, is shewn by what follows : Then en- 
quired he of them at what hour he hegan to amend. He wished 
to find out whether the recovery was accideutal, or owing to 
our Lord's word. And they said unto him, Yesterday at the 
seventh hour the fever left him. How obvious is the rairacle? 
His recovery did not take place in an ordinary way, but all 
at once ; in order that it might be seen to be Chrisfs doing, 
and not the result of nature : So the father knew that it was 
at the same hour, in the which Jesus said unto him, Thy son 
liveth ; and himself believed, and his whole house. Aug. If 
he only believed when he was told that his son was well 
again, aud had compared the hour according to his servants' 
account, with the hour predicted by Christ, he did not be- 
lieve when he first made the petition. Bede. So, we see, 
faith, like the other virtues, is formed gradually, and has its 
beginning, growth, and maturity. His faith had its begin- 
ning, when he asked for his son's recovery ; its growth, 
when he believed our Lord's words, Thy son liveth ; its 
maturity, after the announcement of the fact by his ser- 
vants. AuG. The Samaritans believed on the strength of 
His words ouly : that whcle house believed ou the strength 
of the miracle which had been wrought in it. The Evan- 
gelist adds, T^his is again the second miracle which Jesus did, 
when He was come out of Judcea into Galiiee. Chrys. T/ie 
second miracie, he says markedly. The Jews had not come 
to the more perfect faith of the Saraaritans, who saw no 

VER. 46 — 54. ST. JOHN. 167 

miracle. Okigen. Tlie seatence is ambiguous. Taken one Orig 
way, it means that Jesus after coraing to Galilee, performed (..'oo. 
two miracles, of which that of liealing the nobleman's son 
was the second : taken another, it means, that of the two 
miracles which Jesus performed in Galilee, the second was 
done after coming frora Juda^a into Galilce. The latter is 
the true aud received meaning. Mystically, the two journeys c. 56. 
of Christ into Galilee signify His two advents; at the first 
of wliich Ile makes us His guest at supper, and gives us - 
wine to drink ; at the second, He raises up the nobleman's 
son who was at the point of death, i. e. the Jewisli people, 
who, after the fulness of the Gentiles, attain themselves to 
salvation. For, as the great King of Kings is Ile whora 
God hath seated upon Ilis holy hill of Sion, so the lesser 
king is he who saw His day, and was glad, i. e. Abrahara ®. 
And therefore his sick son is the Jewish people fallen from 
the true religiou, and throvvn into a fever iu cousequence by 
the fiery darts of the enemy. And we know that tlie saints 
of old, even when they had put ofF the cuvering of the flesh, 
made the people the object of their care : for we read in 
Maccabees, after the death of Jeremiah, T/iis is Jeremias the 2 Macc. 
prophet of the Lord, ivho prayeth muchfor the people. Abra- 
ham therefore prays to our Saviour to succour his diseascd 
people. Again, the word of power, Thy son liveth, comes 
forth from Cana, i. e. the work of the Word, the healing of 
the nobleman'» son, is done in Capernaum, i.e. the land of 
consolation. The noblemau's sou signifies the class of be- 
lievers who though diseased are yet not altogether destitute 
of fruits. The words, Except ye see si(jns and ivoyiders, ye 
will not believe, are spoken of the Jewisli people in general, 
or perhaps of the nobieman, i.e. Abraham hirhself, in a cer- 
tain sense. For as John waited for a sign ; on Whom thou 
shalt see the Spirit descending ; so too the Saints who died 
before the coming of Christ in the flesh, expected Him to 
raanifest Hiraself by signs and wonders. And this nobleraan 
too had servants as well as a son ; which ^^ervants stand for 
the lower and weaker class of believers. Nor is it chance 
that the fever leaves the son at the seventh hour ; for seven 
is the nuraber of rest. Alcuin. Or it was the seventh 

* The same word as nobleman ; a more literal trauslation. 

t. xviii 
c. 5& 


hour, because all remission of sins is througli the sevenfold 
Spirit ; for the number seven divided into three and four, 
signifies the Holy Trinity, in the four seasons of the world, 
Orig. in the four elements. Origen. There may be an allusion 
in the two journeys to the two advents of Christ in the soul, 
the first supplying a spiritual banquet of wine, the second 
taking away all remains of weakness and death. Theophyl, 
The little king stands for man generally ; man not only de- 
riving his soul from the King of the universe, but having 
Himself dominion over all tliings. His son, i. e. his mind, 
labours under a fever of evil passion aud desires. He goes to 
Jesus and entreats Him to come down ; i. e. to exercise the 
condescension of His pity, and pardon his sins, before it is 
too late. Oar Lord answers; Go thy ivay, i.e. advance in 
holiness, and then thy son will live ; but if thou stop short 
in thy course, thou M'ilt destroy the power of understauding 
and doing right. 


1. After this there was a feast of the Jews ; and 
Jesus went up to Jerusalem. 

2. Now there is at Jerusalem by the sheep market 
a pool, which is called in the Hebrew tongue Beth- 
esda, having five porches. 

3. In these lay a great multitude of impotent folk, 
of bhnd, halt, withered, waiting for the moving of the 

4. For an angel went down at a certain season into 
the pool, and troubled the water : whosoever then 
first after the troubHng of the water stepped in, was 
made whole of whatsoever disease he had. 

5. And a certain man was thcre, which had an in- 
firmity thirty and eight years. 

G. When Jesus saw him He, and knew that hc had 
been now a long time in that case, He saith unto him, 
Wilt thou be made whole ? 

7. The impotent man answered Him, Sir, I have 
no man, when the water is troubled, to put me into 
the pool : but while I am coming, another steppeth 
down before me. 

8. Jesus saith unto him, Rise, take up thy bed, 
and walk. 

9. And immediately the man was made whole, and 
took up his bed, and walked : and on the same day 
was the sabbath. 

10. The Jews therefore said unto him that was 
cured, It is the sabbath day : it is not lawful for thee 
to carry thy bed. 


11. He answered them, He that made me whole, 
the same said unto me, Take up thy bed, and walk. 

12. Then asked they him, What man is that which 
said unto thee, Take up thy bed, and walk ? 

13. And he that was healed wist not who it was : 
for Jesus had conveyed Himself away, a multitude 
being in that place. 

Aii^. AuG. After the miracle in Galilee, He returns to Jcru- 

de Con. gj^iem : After this there was a feast of the Jeivs, and Jesus 

Lvaiig. -^ ^ ./ j 

\. iv. c. 10. vjent up to Jerusalem. Chrys. The feast of Pentecost. Jesus 
Ciirys. always went up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, that 
xxxvi. 1. it might be seen that Ile vvas not an enemy to, but an ob- 
server of, the Law. And it gave Ilira the opportunity of 
impressing the siraple multitude by miracles aud teachiug : 
as great numbers used then to collect from the neighbour- 
ing towns. 

Now there is at Jerusalem by the sheep-marhet a pool, 
which is caUcd in the Ilehrew tongue Bethesda, having five 
porches. Alcuin. The pool by the sheep-markct, is thc 
place where the priest washed the animals that were going 
Chrys. ^o bc sacrificed. Chrys. This pool was one araong many 
Hom. types of that baptism, which was to purge away sin. First 
God enjoined water for the cleansing frora the filth of the 
body, and from those defilements, which were not real, but 
legal, e. g. those frora death, or leprosy, and the hke. After- 
wards infirmities were healed by watcr, as we read : In these 
(the porches) lay a great multitude of impotent folk, of blind, 
halt, withered, waiting for the moving of the water. This 
was a nearer approximation to the gift of baptism, when not 
only defilements are cleansed, but sicknesses healed. Types 
are of various ranks, just as iu a court, some officers are 
nearer to the prince, others farther off'. The water, however, 
did not heal by virtue of its own natural properties, (for if so 
the effect would have followed uniforraly,) but by the descent 
of an Angel : For an Angel went down at a certain season 
into ihe pool, and troubled the water. In the same way, in 
Baptism, water does not act siraply as water, but receives 
first the grace of the Holy Spirit, by means of which it 

VER. 1 — 13. ST. JOHN. 171 

cleanses us from all our sins. And the Angel troubled the 
Mater, and imparted a healing virtue to it, in ordcr to pre- 
figure to the Jews that far greater power of the Lord of the 
Angels, of healiiig the diseases of the soul. But then their 
infirmities preventcd thcir applying the cure ; for it follows, 
Whosoever then first after the troubling of the water stepped 
in, was made whole of whatsoever disease he had. But now 
every one may attain this blcssing, for it is not an Angcl 
which troubleth the water, but the Lord of Angels, which 
worketh every where. Though the M'hole world come, grace 
fails not, but remains as fuU as cver ; like the sun's rays 
which give Ught all day, and every day, and yet are not 
spent. The sun's hght is not diminished by this bountiful - 
expenditure : no more is the influence of the Iloly Spirit by 
the largeness of its outpouriiigs. Not more thau one could 
be cured at the pool ; God's design bcing to put bcfore 
mcn's minds, and oblige thcm to dwcll upon, the heaUng 
power of water; that from the effect of watcr on thc body, 
they might bebcve more rcadily its powcr on the soul. Aug. Aufr. Tr. 
It was a greater act in Chris^t, to heal the diseases of the ■''^"" ^- ^' 
soul, than the sickucsses of the pcrishable body. But as the 
soul itself did not know its Restorer, as it had eyes iu the 
flesh to discern visible things, but not in thc heart where- 
with to know God; our Lord performed cures which couhl 
be seen, that He might aftcrwards work curcs which could 
not be seeu. He went to the place, where lay a multitudc 
of sick, out of whom Ile chose one to hcal : And a certain 
man was there, which had an infirmity thirty and eight years. 
Chrys. He did not, however, proceed immediately to heal ciirys. 
him, but first tried by conversation to bring hirp into a be- ^^""1: 
lieving state of mind. Not that Ile rcquired faith ni the i,-2. 
first instance, as He did from the bliud raan, saying, Believe M^tt. 9, 
ye ihat I am able to do this ? for the lame man couhl not -^- 
well know who He was. Persons who in diftercnt ways had 
liad the means of knowing Hira, wcre asked this question, 
and properly so. But there were sorae who did not and 
couhl not know Hira yet, but would be raade to know Him 
by His rairacles afterwards. Aud in their case the deraand 
for faith is reserved till after those rairacles had taken place : 
When Jesus saw hini lie, and knew that he had been a Inng 




Aiiff. Tr. 
xvii. c. 7. 




xxxvii. 2. 

time in that case, He saith unto him, Wilt thou be made 
whole ? He does not ask this question for His own informa- 
tion, (this were unnecessary,) but to bring to light the great 
patience of the man, who for thirty and eight years had sat 
year after year by the place, in the hope of being cured; 
which sufficieutly explains why Christ passed by the others, 
and went to hira. And He does not say, Dost thou wish Me 
to heal thee ? for the man had not as yet any idea that He 
was so great a Person. Nor on the other hand did the lame 
man suspect any mockery in the question, to make him take 
offence, and say, Hast Thou come to vex me, by asking me if 
I would be made whole? but he answered mildly, 8ir, Ihave 
no man, when the water is troubled, to put me into the pool ; 
but while I ain coming, another steppeth down before me. 
He had no idea as yet that the Person who put this ques- 
tion to him would heal him, but thought that Christ might 
probably be of use in putting him into the water. But 
Christ^s word is sufficient, Jesus saith unto him, Rise, take 
up thy bed, and ivalk. Aug. Three distinct biddings. Rise, 
however, is nct a command, but the conferring of the cure. 
Two commands were given upon his cure, Take vp thy bed, 
and walk. Chrys. Behold the richness of the Divine Wis- 
dora. He not only heals, but bids him carry his bed also. 
This was to shew the cure was really miraculous, and not 
a mere effect of the iraagination; for the man's limbs must 
have become quite sound and compact, to allow hira to take 
up his bed. The impotent man again did not deride and 
say, The Angel cometh down, and troubleth the water, and 
he only cureth one each time ; dost Thou, who art a mere 
man, think that Thou canst do more than an Angel ? On 
the contrary, he heard, believed Him who bade hira, and 
was made whole : And immediately the man was made ichole, 
and took up his bed, and walked. Bede. There is a wide 
difference between our Lord's mode of heahng, and a phy- 
sician's. He acts by His word, and acts immediately : the 
other's requires a long time for its completion. Chrys. 
This was wonderful, but what follows more so. As yet he 
had no opposition to face. It is made more wonderful when 
we see him obeying Christ afterwards in spite of the rage 
and railing of the Jews : And on the same day was the sab- 

VER. 1 — 13. ST. JOHN. 173 

haih. Tlie Jeivs therefore said unto him that was cured, It 
is the sabbath day, it is not lawfulfor thee to carry thy hed. 
AuG. They did not charge our Lord with liealing on the Ang. Tr. 
sabbath, for He would have replied that if an ox or an ass '^^"" ^' ' 
of theirs had fallen into a pit, would not they have taken it 
out on the sabbath day : but they addressed the man as he 
was carrying liis bed, as if to say, Even if the healing could 
not be delayed, why enjoin the work ? Ile shields himself 
under the authority of his Ilealer : Ile that made me whole, 
the Same said unto me, Take up thy bed, and icalk . meaning, 
"\Vhy should not I receive a command, if I received a cure 
from Ilim ? Chrys. Had he been incHned to deal treacher- ciirys. 
ously, he might have said, If it is a crime, accuse Him Who y.^^^l\:^ ^ 
commanded it, and I will lay down my bed. And he would 
have concealed his cure, knowing, as he did, that their real 
cause of offence was not the breaking of the sabbath, but 
tlic miracle. But lie neither concealed it, nor asked for 
pardon, but boklly confessed the cure. They then ask 
spitefuUy ; IVliat Man is that ivho said unto thee, Take up 
thy bed, and walk ? Thcy do not say, Who is it, who made 
thee wliole ? but only mention the offence. It follows, And 
he that tvas healed wist not ivho it ivas, for Jesus had con- 
veyed Uimself away, a multiiude being in that place. This 
Ile had done first, because the raan who had been made 
whole, was the best witness of the cure, and could give his 
testimony with less suspicion in our Lord's absencc ; and 
secoudly, that the fury of mcn might not be excited more 
thau was necessary. For the mere siglit of tlie object of 
envy, is no small iuceutive to euvy. For these rcasons Ile 
departed, and left them to exauiine the fact for themselves. 
Some are of opinion, that this is the same with the one who 
liad the palsy, wliom Matthevv mcntions. But he is not. 
For tlie latter had many to wait upon, and carry him, 
whereas this man had none. Aud the place where the 
miracle was performed, is diflferent. Aug. Judging on low Ane. Tr. 
and humau notions of this miracle, it is not at all a striking ^*"'' ^* ^' 
dispLay of power, and ouly a moderate one of goodness. Ot' 
so many, who lay sick, only one was hcaled ; though, had 
Ile chosen, Ile could have restorcd them all by a single 
word. How must we accouut for this? By suppcsi.ig that 


His power and goodness were asserted more for imparting 

a knowledge of eternal salvation to the soul, than working 

a temporal cure ou the body. That which received the tem- 

poral cure was certain to decay at last, when death arrived : 

whereas the soul which believed passed into life eternal. 

The pool and the water seem to me to signify the Jewish 

Rev. 17 people : for John in the Apocalypse obviously uses water to 

'^' express people. Bede. It is fitly described as a sheep pool. 

V. cap. -By sheep are meant people, according to the passage, We 

Joan. Q^g j^/iy people, and the sheep of Thy pasture. Aug. Tlie 

' ■ water then, i.e. the people, was enclosed within five porches, 

xvit c. 2. i.e. the five books of Moses. But those books only betrayed 

the impotent, and did not recover them ; tliat is to say, the 

Law convicted the siuner, but did not absolve him. Bede. 

Lastly, many kinds of impoteut folk lay near the pool : the 

blind, i. e. those who are without the light of knowledge ; 

the larae, i. e. those who have not strength to do what they 

are commanded ; the withered, i. e. those who have not the 

Anjr. Tr. marrow of heavenly love. Aug. So then Christ came to 

XVII. c. s. ^ijg Jewish people, and by meaus of mighty works, and pro- 

fitable lessons, troubled the sinners, i. e. the water, and the 

stirring continued till He brought on His own passion. But 

lCor. 11. He troubled the water unknown to the world. For had 

they knoivn Him, they would not have crucified the Lord of 

glory. But the troubling of the water came on all at once, 

and it was not seen who troubled it. Again, to go down 

into the troubled water, is to believe humbly on our Lord's 

passion. Only one was healed, to signily the unity of the 

Church : whoever came afterwards was not healed, to signify 

that whoever is out of this unity cannot be healed. Wo to 

them who hate unity, and raise sects. Again, he who whs 

healed had had his infirmity thirty and eight years : this 

being a number which belongs to sickuess, rather than to 

health. The number forty has a sacred character with us, 

and is significative of perfection. For the Law was given iu 

Ten Commandments, and was to be preached throughout 

the whole world, which consists of four parts; and four 

multiplied into ten^ make up the number forty. And tlie 

Law too is fulfilled by the Gospel, which is written in four 

books. So then if the number forty possesses the perfect- 

VER. 14 — 18. ST. JOHN. 175 

ness of the Law, and nothing fulfils the Law, except the 
twofold precept of love, why wonder at the impotence of 
him, who was two less than forty ? Some man was neces- 
sary for his recovery ; but it was a man who was God. He 
found the man falling short by the number two, and there- 
fore gave two commandments, to fiU up the deficiency. For 
the two precepts of our Lord signify love ; the love of God 
beiug first in order of command, the love of our neighbour, - 
in order of performance. Take up thy bed, our Lord saith, 
meaning, Wlien thou wert impotent, thy neighbour carried 
thee ; now thou art made whole, carry thy neighbour. And 
walk ; but whither, except to the Lord thy God ? Bede. Bede. 
What meau the words, Arise, and walk ; except that thou ^* ^* """^ 
shouldest raise thysclf from thy torpor and indolence, and 
study to advance in good works? Take up thy bed, i. e. thy 
neighbour by which thou art carricd, and bear him patiently 
thyself. AuG. Carry him then with whom tliou walkest, Auar. Tr. 
that thou mayest come to Ilim with Whom thou desircst ^"^" ^' ' 
to abide. As yet however he wist not who Jesus was; just 
as we too believe in Ilim though we see Him not. Jesus 
again does not wish to be seen, but conveys Himself out of 
the crowd. It is in a kind of solitude of the mind, tliat God 
is seen : the crowd is noisy ; this vision requires stilluess. 

14. Afterward Jesus findeth bim in the temple, and 
said unto him, Behold, thou ai t made whole : sin no 
more, lest a worse thing come unto thce. 

15. The man departcd, and told the Jews that it 
was Jesus, which had made him whole. 

16. And therefore did the Jcws persecute Jesus, 
and sought to slay Ilim, because He had done these 
things on the sabbath day. 

1 7. But Jesus answercd them, My Father w^orketh 
hitherto, and I work. 

18. Therefore the Jews sought the more to kill 
Him, because He not only had broken the sabbath, 
but said also that God was His Father, making Him- 
self equal with God. 


Clirys. Chrys. The man, when healed, did not proceed to the 


""* market place, or give himself up to pleasure or vain glory, 


but, wtech was a great mark of religion, went to the temple : 

Aug. Tr. Afterward Jesus findeth him in the temple. Aug. The Lord 

. jg^g g^^ Yixxa. both in the crowd, and in the temple. The 

irapotent man does not recognise Jesus in the crowd ; but 

in loc. " in the temple, being a sacred piace, he does. Alcuin*=. For 

if we would know our Maker*s grace, and attain to the sight 

of Hira, we must avoid the crowd of evil thoughts and affec- 

tions, convey ourselves out of the congregation of the wicked, 

and flee to the temple ; in order that we may make our- 

selves the temple of God, souls whom God wili visit, and iu 

whom He will deign to dwell. 

And (He) said unto him, Behold, thou art made whole; 
Chrys. sin no more, lest a worse thing come upon thee. Chrys. 
2. Here we learn in the first place, that his disease was the 
consequence of his sins. We are apt to bear with grcat in- 
difference the diseases of our souls ; but, should the body 
suff^er ever so little hurt, we have recourse to the most 
energetic remedies. Wherefore God punishes the body for 
the offences of the soul. Secondly, we learn, that there is 
really a hell. Thirdly, that it is a place of lasting and infmite 
punishment. Some say indeed, Because we have corrupted 
ourselves for a short time, shall we be tormented eternally ? 
But see how long this man was tormented for his sins. 
Sin is not to be measured by length of time, but by the 
nature of the sin itself. And besides this we learn, that if, 
after undergoing a heavy punishment for our sins, we fall 
into thera again, we shall incur another and a heavier 
punishraent still : and justly ; for one, who has undergone 
punishment, and has not been made better by it, proves him- 
self to be a hardened person, and a despiser ; and, as such, 
deserving of still greater torments. Nor let it embolden us, 
that we do not see all punished for their offences here : for 
if men do not suffer for their offences here, it is only a sign 
that their punishment will be the greater hereafter. Our 
diseases however do not always arise from sins; but only 
most commonly so. For some spring from other lax habits ; 
Bome are sent for the sake of trial, as Job's were. But why 

' Alcuin's commentary on St. Jolin's Gospel is the work always referred to. 

VER. 14 — 18 ST. JOHX. 177 

does Christ make mention of this palsied man's sins? Some 

say, because he had been an accuser of Christ. And shall 

we say the same of the man afflicted with the palsy ? For 

he too was told, Thy sins are forgiven thee. The truth is, Matt.9,2. 

Christ does not find fault with the man here for his past 

sins, but only warns him against future. In healing others, 

however, He makes no mention of sins at all: so that it 

would seem to be the case that the diseases of these men 

had arisen from their sins ; whereas those of the others 

had come from natural causes only. Or perhaps through 

these, He admonishes all the rest. Or He may have ad- 

monished this man, knowing his great patience of mind, and 

that he would bear an admonition. It is a disclosure too of 

His divinity, for He implies in saying, Sin no more, that Hc 

knew what sins he had committed. Aug. Now that the Aug. Tr. 

man had seen Jesus, and knew Him to be the author of his ^^'^ "'^-^' 

recovery, he was not slow in preachitig Him to others : TJte 

tnan departed, and told the Jews that it was Jesus v)hich 

had made him whole. Chrys. He was not so insensible to ciirys. 

the benefit, and the advice he had received, as to have anv ^^"'".•.. „ 

• xxxviu. 2. 

malignant aim in speaking this news. Had it been douc 
to disparage Christ, he could have concealed the cure, and 
put forward the off^ence. But he does not mention Jesus's 
saying, Take up thy bed, which was an offcnce in the eyes 
of the Jews ; but told the Jews that it ivas Jesus which had 
made him whole. Aug. This announcement cnraged them, Aug. Tr. 
And therefore did the Jcivs pcrsecutc Jesus, bccause Ile /iof/ ^^"'•*^' ' 
done these things on the sabbath day. A plain bodily work 
had been done before their eyes, distinct from the heahng 
of the man's body, and wliich could not have been neces- 
sary, even if heaUng was ; viz. the carrying of the bed. 
"VVhcrefore our Lord openly says, that the sacrament of the 
Sabbath, the sign of observing one day out of seven, was 
only a temporary institution, which had attained its fulfil- 
ment in Him : But Jesus ansivered them, My Father worketh 
hitherto, and I work : as if He said, Do not suppose that 
My Father rested on the sabbath in such a sense, as that 
from that time forth, He has ceased from working ; for He 
worketh up to this time, though without labour, and so 
work I. God's resting means only that He made no otlicr 



creature, after the creation. The Scripture calls it rest, to 
remind us of the rest we shall enjoy after a life of good 
works here. And as God only when He had made man in 
His own iraage and similitude, and finished all His works, 
and seen that they were very good, rested on the seventh 
day : so do thou expect no rest, except thou return to the 
likeness in which thou wert made, but which thou hast lost 
Aug. iv. by sin ; i.e. unless thou doest good works. Aug. It may be 
^d^^rtt^^" said then, that the observance of the sabbath was imposed 
ram(c.xi.) on the Jcws, as the shadow of something to come; viz. that 
spiritual rest, which God, by the figure of His own rest pro- 
mised to all who should perform good works. Aug. There 
will be a sabbath of the world, when the six ages, i.e. the six 
days, as it were, of the world, have passed : then will come 
Aug. iv. that rest which is promised to the saints, Aug. The mystery 
lit c. xi. of which rest the Lord Jesus Himself sealed by His burial : 
for He rested in His sepulchre on the sabbath, having on 
the sixth day finished all His work, inasmuch as He said, It 
c. 19. is finished. What wonder then that God, to prefigure the 
- day on which Christ was to rest in the grave, rested one 
day from His works, afterwards to carry on the work of 
governing the world. "We may consider too that God, when 
He rested, rested from the work of creation simply, i. e. made 
no more new kinds of creatures : but that from that time 
till now, He has been carrying on the government of those 
creatures. For His power, as respects the government of 
heaven and earth, and all the things that He had made, did 
not cease on the seventh day : they would have perished im- 
mediately, without His government : because the power of 
the Creator is that on which the existence of every creature 
depends. If it ceased to govern, every species of creation 
would cease to exist : and all nature would go to nothing. 
For the world is not like a building, Avhich stands after the 
architect has left it j it could not stand the twinkling of an 
eye, if God withdrew His goveruing hand. Therefore when 
our Lord says, My Father worketh hitherto, He means the 
continuation of the work ; the holding together, and govern- 
ing of the creation. It might have been difl^erent, had He 
said, Worketh even now. This would not have conveyed the 
sense of coutinuing. As it is we find it, Until now ; i. e. frora 

VER. 14 18. ST. JOHN. 179 

the time of the creation downwards. Aug. He says then, as Aug. Tr. 

it were to the Jews, Why think ye that I should not work ^^"" ^" ^^' 

on the sabbath ? The sabbath day was instituted as a type '^ 

of Me. Ye observe the works of God : by Me all things were 

made. The Father made light, but He spoke, that it might 

be made. If He spoke, theu He made it by the Word ; and 

I ara His Word. My Father worked when He made the 

world, and He worketh until now, governiug the world : 

and as He made the world by Me, when He made it, so 

He governs it by Me, now He governs it. Chrys. Christ Clirys. 

defended His disciples, by putting forward the example of j^^^j^^Jjj ^. 

their fellow-servant David : but Ile defends Himself by a re- 

ference to the Father. We may observe too that Ile does 

not defend Himself as man, nor yet purely as God, but 

sometimes as one, soraetimes as the othcr; wishing both 

to be believed, both the dispensation of His hurailiation, 

and the dignity of His Godhead ; wherefore He shews His 

equality to the Father, both by calling Him His Father em- 

phatically, {My Father,) and by declaring that He doeth the 

same things that the Father doth, [And I luork.) Therefore, 

it follows, the Jews sought the niore to kill Ilim, because He 

not only had broken the sabbath, but said also that God was 

His Father. Aug. i. e. not in the secondary sense in which Aup. Tr. 

it is true of all of us, but as iraplying equality. For we all ^^"'•''•i"- 

of us say to God, Our Father, Which art in heaven. And the Matt. 6. 

Jews say, Thou art our Father. They were not angry then isaiah 

because He called God Ilis Father, but because He called ^^' ^^' 

Hira so in a sense difFereut from men. Aug. The words, Aug. <ie 

My Father worketh hitherto, and I work, suppose Him to , ""' J^^^ 

be equal to the Father. This being uuderstood, it followed 

from the Father's working, that thc Son worked : inasmuch 

as the Father doth nothing without the Son. Chrys. Were Chrys. 

He not the Son by nature, and of the sarae substance, this „""'*•• 

defence would be worse than the former accusation made. s. 3. 

For no prefect could clear Ilimself from a transgression of 

the king's law, by urging that the king broke it also. But, 

on the supposition of the Son's equality to the Father, the 

defence is valid. It then follows, that as the Father worked 

* Since our Everlasting rest, wliich tlie sabbath foreshadowed, is in Him. 
See Conf. fin. de Civ. D, xi. 8, &c. 

N 2 


on the sabbath without doing wrong, the Son could do so 

Aug. Tr. likewise. Aug. So, the Jews understood that the Arians 

xvn. s. 16. ^^ ^^^ -p^^ ^^^ Arians say that the Son is not equal to the 

Father, and hence sprang up that heresy which afflicts the 

Chrys. Church. Chrys. Those however who are not well-disposed 

™iii.3 to this doctrine, do not admit that Christ made Himself 

equal to the Father, but only that the Jews thought He did. 

But let us consider what has gone before. Tliat the Jews 

persecuted Christ, and that He broke the sabbath, and said 

that God was His Father, is unquestionably true. That 

which immediately follows then from these premises, viz. 

Hilar.vii. His making Himself equal with God, is true also. Hilary. 

deTrin. ^pj^^ Evangelist here explains why the Jews wished to kill 

Him. Chrys. Aud again, had it been that our Lord Himself 

did not mean this, but that the Jews misuuderstood Him, 

He would not have overlooked thcir mistake. Nor would 

c. 11. the Evangelist have omitted to remark upon itj as he does 

Aug. Tr. upon our Lord's speech, Destroy this temple. Aug. The 

xvii. s. 16. jg^g however did not understand from our Lord that He 

was the Son of God, but only that He was equal with God ; 

though Christ gave this as the result of His being the Son of 

God. It is from not seeiug this, while they saw at the same 

time that equality was asserted, that they charged Him with 

making Himself equal with God : the truth being, that He 

did not make Himself equal, but the Father had begotten 

Him equal. 

19. Then answered Jesus and said unto tliem, 
Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do 
nothing of Hiniself, but what He seeth the Father 
do : for what things soever He doeth, these also 
doeth the Son likewise. 

20. For the Father loveth the Son, and sheweth 
Him all things that Himself doeth : and He will shew 
Him greater works than these, that ye may marvel. 

Hilar. vii. HiLARY. Hc rcfcrs to thc chargc of violating the sabbath, 

c 17""* brought against Him. My Father worketh hitherto, and I 

work ; meauing that He had a precedent for claiming the 

VER. 19, 20. ST. JOHN. 181 

right He did ; and tliat wliat He did was iti reality His 
Father's doing, who acted in the Son. And to quiet the 
jealousy which had been raised, because by the use of Ilis 
Father's name He had made Himself equal with God, and 
to assert the excellency of His birth and nature, Ile says, 
Verily, verily, I say unto you, The Son can do nothing qf 
Ilimself, but ivhat He seeth the Father do. Aug. Some who Aug. Tr. 
would be thought Christians, tlie Arian heretics, wlio say that ''^"*' ^' ^' 
the very Son of God, who took our flesh upon Him, was in- 
ferior to the Father, take advantage of these words to throw 
discredit upon our doctrine, and say, You see that when our 
Lord perceived the Jews to be indignant, because Ile seemed 
to make Himself cqual with God, He gave such an answer 
as shewed that Ile was not equah For they say, he who 
can do nothing but what he sees the Father do is not cqual 
but inferior to the Father. But if there is a greater God, 
and a less God, (the "NVord being God,) we worsliip two 
Gods, and not one"^. Hilary. Lest then that assertion of Hiiar. vii 
His equality, which must belong to Ilim, as by Name and jE '^'^' 
Nature the Son, might throw doubt upon His Nativity ^, 
Ile says that the Son can do nothing of Himself. Aug. As Aug. Tr. 
if Ile said : "VVhy are ye offended that I called God My ^^' 
Father, and that I make Myself equal with God ? I ara 
cqual, but equal in such a sense as is consistent with His 
liaving begotten Me ; with My being from Ilim, not Him 
from Me. With the Son, being and power arc one and the 
same thing. The Substance of the Son thcn bcing of tlie 
Father, the power of the Son is of the Fatlicr also : and as 
the Son is not of Himself, so He can not of Himself. The Son 
can do nothing of Himself, but what He seeth the Father do. — 
His seeing and His being born of the Fathcr arc the same. xxi. 4. 
His vision is not distinct from His Substance, but the whole 

* This is the answer of thc Catholic Equality with the Father, and yet 

to the Arian arguinent, and is drawn that Ile was the Son, " The Only- 

out inore fiilly in Augiistin's text, Begotten God operating by the ope- 

where the Arian blasphemy, that there rations of the power of the Father, and 

was a greater and a lesser God, is said so He wrought that, which He knew 

to savour of Paganisni. Nic. in His own intrinsic knowledge that 

f i.e. left to thcmselves, peoplewould the Nature of God the Father, inse- 

be vacillating between the thought our parable from Himself, Which He pos- 

Lord was not equal to the Father, or sessed tlirouojh His true Nativity, could 

not the Son, and therefore our Lord work." S. Hil., 1. c. 
at once conveys the doctrine of His 


Hilar. vii. together is of the Father. Hilary. That the wholesome 
•^ ' ' order of our confession, i.e. that we believe in the Father 
and the Son, might remain, He shews the nature of His birth ; 
viz. that He derived the power of acting uot from an acces- 
sion of strength supplied for each work, but by His own 
knowledge in the first instance. And this kuowledge He 
derived not from any particular visible precedents, as if what 
the Father had done, the Son could do afterwards ; but that 
the Son being born of the Father, and consequeutly con- 
scious of the Father's virtue aud nature withiu Him, could do 
nothing but what He saw the Father do : as he here testifies ; 
God does not see by bodily organs, but by the virtue of His 
Aug. ii. de nature. Aug. If we uuderstaud this subordiuatiou of the Son 
^'^' ' to arise from the human nature, it will follow that the Father 
walked first upon the water, aud did all the other things 
which the Son did in the flesh, in order that the Son might 
AugTr. do them. Who can be so insane as to thiuk this^? Aug. 
Yet that walking of the flesh upon the sea was done by the 
Father through the Son. For when the flesh walked, and 
the Diviuity of the Son guided, the Father was not absent, 
c. 14. as the Son Himself saith below, The Father that dwelleth in 
s. 9. Me, He doeth the worhs. He guards however against the 

(v. 10.) carnal iuterpretation of the words, The Son can do nothing 
of Himself. As if the case were like that of two artificers, 
master and disciple, one of whom made a chest, aud the 
other made another Hke it, by adding, For whatsoever things 
He doethy these doeth the 8on likewise. He does not say, 
Whatsoever the Father doeth, the Son does other things like 
them, but the very same things. The Father made the 
world, the Son made the world, the Holy Ghost made the 
world. K the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost are one, it 
follows that one and the same world was made by the 
Father, through the Son, in the Holy Ghost. Thus it is 
the very same thing that the Son doeth. He adds likeivise, 
to prevent auother error arising. For the body seems to do 
the same things with the mind, but it does not do them in 

s The Son can do nothing of Him- eye, each several act of His done be- 

self, hut wliat He seeth the Father do. forehand by tlie Father. It follows 

If this arises from His liunian nature, that the subordination here mentioned 

then he must have seen in His human arises from llie Sonsliip itself of the 

nature, i.e. visibly, with the natural Sou's, not from His human nature. 

VER. 19, 20. ST. JOHN. 183 

a like way, inasmucli as the body is subject, the soul govern- 
ing, the body visible, the soul invisible. \Mien a slave does 
a thing at the command of his master, the same thing is 
done by both; but is it in a like way? Now in the rather 
and Son there is not this difference; they do the same 
tliings, and in a like way. Father and Son act with the 
same power ; so that the Son is equal to the Father. Hilary. Hilar. vii. 
Or thus ; All things and the same, He says, to shew the virtue jg^^* °* 
of His nature, its being the same with God's. That is the 
same nature, which can do all the same things. And as the 
Son does all the same things in a like way, the likeness of 
the works excludes the notion of the worker existing alone ^ 
Thus we come to a true idea of the Nativity, as our faith re- 
ceives it : the likeness of the works bearing witness to the 
Nativity, their sameness to the Nature. Chrys. Or thus ; chrys. 
That the Son can do nothinq of Himself, must be understood ^°'":.. . 
to mean, that Ile can do nothing coutrary to, or displeasing 
to, the Father. And therefore He does not say, that He does 
iiothing contrary, but that Ile can do notliing; in order to 
shew Plis perfect likeness, and absolute equality to the Father. 
Nor is this a sign of weakness in the Son, but rather of good- 
ness. For as when we say that it is impossible for God to 
sin, we do not charge II im with weakness, but bear witness to 
a certain ineflfable goodness ; so when the Son says, I can do 
nothing of Myself, it only means, that He can do nothing con- 
trary to the Father. Aug. This is not a sign of faihug iu Au^. 
Him, but of Ilis abiding in Ilis birth from the Father. And %'''^'^ 
it is as high an attribute of the Almighty that Ile does not Ariano- 
change, as it is that He does not die. The Son could do ^j^jy') " 
what He had not seen the Father doing, if Ile could do what 
the Father does not do through Him ; i.e. if He could sin : 
a supposition inconsistent with the immutably good nature 
which was begotten from the Father. That He cannot do ; 
this then is to be understood of Him, not in the sense of 
deficiency, but of power. Chrys. And this is confirmed by chrys. 
what follows : For whatsoever He doeth, these also doeth the ^""V.. . 

' _ _ xxxviii. 4. 

Son likewise. For if the Father does all things by Himself, 

** " Similitudo operum solitudinem things. Yetthe very expression "same- 

operantis exclusit." Bened. and edd. ness" implies a plurality of Persons. 

i.e. as before, the Son is equal to the Nic. reads similitudincm, which does 

Father, since He doelh all the same not belong to the argumeut here. 


so does the Son also, if tliis likeivise is to stand good. You 
see how high a meaning these humble words bear. He gives 
His thoughts a humble dress purposely, For whenever He 
expressed Hiraself loftily, He was persecuted, as an enemy 
Aug. of God. AuG. Having said that He did the same things 
s^ 2. ' that the Father did, and in a like way, He adds, For tlie 
Father loveth the Son, and sheiveth Him all things that Himself 
doeth. And sheweth Him all things that Himself doetli : this 
has a reference to the words above; But what He seeth the 
Father do. But again, our human ideas are perplexed, aud 
one may say, So then the Father first does something, that 
the Son may see what He does ; just as an artificer teaches 
his son his art, and shews him what he makes, that he may 
be able to raake the same after him. On this supposition, 
when the Father docs a thing, the Son does not do it ; in 
that the Son is beholding what His Father doeth. But we 
hold it as a fixed and incontrovertible truth, that the Father 
raakes all things through the Son, and thercfore He must 
shew them to the Son, before He makes them. And where 
does the Father shew the Son what He makes, except in the 
Son Himself, by whom He makes them ? For if the Father 
raakes a thing for a pattern, and the Son attends to the 
workmanship as it goes on, where is the indivisibility of the 
Trinity ? The Father therefore does not shew the Son what 
He doeth by doing it, but by shewing doeth it, through the 
Son. The Son seeth, and the Father sheweth, before a thing 
is made, and from the shewing of the Father, and the sceing 
of the Son, that is made vvhich is made ; made by the Father, 
through the Son. But thou wilt say, I shew my son what 
I wish him to make, and he makes it, and I make it through 
him. True; but before thou doest any thing, thou shewest 
it to thy son, that he raay do it for thy example, and thou 
by him ; but thou speakest to thy son words which are not 
thyself ; whereas the Son Himself is the Word of the Father ; 
and could He speak by the Word to the Word ? Or, because 
the Son vvas the great Word, were lesser words to pass be- 
tween the Father and the Son, or a certain sound and tem- 
porary creation, as it were, to go out of the raouth of the 
Father, and strike the ear of the Son? Put away these 
bodily notions, and if thou art siraple, see the truth in sira- 

VER. 19, 20. ST. JOHN. 185 

plicity. If thou canst not comprehend what God is, com- 
prehend at least what He is not. Thou wilt have advanced 
no little way, if thou thinkest nothing that is untrue of God. 
See what I am saying exeniplified in thine own mind. Thou 
hast memory, and thought, thy memory sheweth to thy 
thought Carthage : before thou perceivest what is in her, 
she sheweth it to thought, which is turned toward her : the 
memory then hath shewn, the thought hath perceived, and 
no words have passed between them, no outward sign been 
used. But whatever is in thy memory, thou receivest frora 
without : that which the Father sheweth to the Son, He 
doth not receive from without; the whole goes on within ; 
there being no creature existing without, but what the Father 
hath made by the Son. And the Father maketh by shew- 
ing, in that He makcth by the Son who sees. The Father'3 
shewing begets the Son's seeing, as the Father begets the 
Son. Shewiug bcgcts seeing, not seeing shewing. But it 
would be more correct, and more spiritual, not to view the 
Father as distinct from His shewing, or the Son from His 
seeing. Hilary. It must not be supposed that the Only Hilar. 
Begotten God needed such shewingon account of ignorance. ^'rj„*^j. 
For the shewing hcre is only the doctrine of the Nativity ^* ; 19. 
the self-existing Son, from the self-existing Father. Aug. Aug. 
For to see the Father is to see His Son. The Father so ''• ^^'* 
shews all His works to the Son, that tlie Son sees them frora 
the Father K For the birth of the Son is in His seeiug : lle 
sees from the same source, from which He is, and is born, 
and remains. IIilary. Nor did tlie heavenly discourse lack Hilar. 
the caution, to guard against our inferring from these words ^!^j,| ^ 19^ 
any difference in the nature of the Son and the Father. 
For He says that the works of the Father were shewn to 
Him, not that strength was suppHed Him for the doing of 
them, in order to teach that this shewing is substantially 
nothing else than His birth ; for that simultaneously with 
the Son Himself is born the Son's knowledge of the works 
the Father will do through Ilim. Aug. But now from Him Aug. 
whom we called coeternal with theFather, who saw the Father, s/sJ""' 

^" i.e. implying another person (who ' i.e. not looking foward the Fatlicr, 

shews) who is the aulhor : first in order but from Him ; i.e. being in the Father 

of succession, i.e. ihe Father. It is at the time. 
explained by the Aug. foUowing. 


and existed in that He saw, we return to the things of time, 
And He will shew Him greater woi'ks tlian these. But if He 
will shew Him, i.e. is about to shew Him, He hath not yet 
shewn Him : and when He does shew Him, others also will 

Tr. xix. see : for it follows, Tliat ye may believe. It is difficult to see 
what the eternal Father can shew in time to the coeternal 
Son, Who knows all that exists within the Father^s mind. 
For as the Father raiseth up the dead, and quickeneth them, 
even so the 8o7i quickeneih whom He will. To raise the dead 
was a greater work than to heal the sick. But this is ex- 
plained by considering that He Who a little before spoke as 
God, now begins to speak as man. As man, and therefore 
living in tirae, He will be shewn greater works in time. 
Bodies will rise again by the human dispensation by which 
the Son of God assumed manhood in time ; but souls by 
virtue of the eternity of the Divine Substance. For which 
reason it was said before that the Father loved the Son, and 
shewed Him what things soever He did. For the Father 
shews the Son that souls are raised up ; for they are raised 
up by the Father and the Son, even as they cannot live, 

Tr. xxi. except God give them hfe. Or the Father is about to shew 
this to us, not to Him ; according to what follows, That ye 
may believe. This being the reason why the Father would 
shew Him greater things than these. But why did He not 
say, shall shew you, instead of the Son? Because we are 
members of the Son, and He, as it were, learns in His 

Matt. 25, members, even as He suffers in us. For as He says, Inas- 

^^' much as ye have done it unto one of the least of these My 

brethren, ye have done it unto Me : so, if we ask Him, how 
He, the Teacher of all things, learns, He replies, When one 
of the least of My brethren learns, I learn. 

21. For as the Father raiseth up the dead, and 
quickeneth them ; even so the Son quickeneth whom 
He will. 

22. For the Father judgeth no man, but hath 
committed all judgment unto the Son : 

23. That all men should honour the Son, even as 

VER. 21 — 23. ST. JOHN. 187 

they honour the Father. He that honoureth not the 
Son honoureth not the Father which hath sent Him. 

AuG. Having said that the Father would shew the Son Aug. 

Tr. X 

s. 5. 6. 

greater works than these, He proceeds to describe these ^^' ^^^' 

greater works : Foj' as the Father raiseth up the dead, and 
quickeneth them, even so the Son quickeneth ivhom He uill. 
These are plainly greater works, for it is more of a miracle 
that a dead man should rise again, than that a sick man 
should recover. We must not understand from the words, 
that some are raised by the Father, others by the Son ; but 
that the Son raises to hfe the same whom the Father raiseth. 
And to guard agaiust any one saying, The Father raises the 
dead by the Son, the former by Ilis own power, the latter, hke 
au instrument, by another power, He asserts distinctly the 
power of the Son; The Son guickeneth whom He ivill. Observe 
here not only the power of the Son, but also His will. Father 
and Son hare the same power and will. The Father willeth 
nothing distinct from the Son ; but both have the same will, 
even as they have the same substance. Hila.ry. For to will llilar. 
is the free power of a uature, which by the act of choice, ^j^j J'"g 
resteth in the blessedness of perfect excellence. Aug. But Aujr. 
who are these dcad, whom the Father aud Son raise to Hfe? ^ "^-^^^^ 
He alludes to the general resurrection which is to be; not to 
the resurrection of those few, who were raised to hfe, that 
the rest might believe; as Lazarus, who rose again to die 
afterwards. Haviug said thcn, For as the Father raiseth up 
the dead, and quicktneth thcm, to prevent our taking the 
words to refer to tlie dead whom Ile raised up for the sake 
of the rairacle, aud not to the resurrection of hfe eterual, 
He adds, For the Father judyeth no man ; thus shewing that 
He spoke of that resurrection of the dead whicli would take 
place at the judgment. Or the words, As the Father raiseth Tr. xxiii. 
up the dead, ^c. refer to the resurrectiou of the soul ; For the ^' 
Father judydh no man, but hath committed all judgment unto 
the Son, to the resurrection of the body. For the resurrec- 
tion of the soul takes place by the substance of the Father 
and the Son '', and therefore it is the work of the Father 

^ For the soul becomes blessed from of another blessed soul, nor by par- 
paiiakiiig of God, uot from partaking taking in any Augelic nature. For 


and the Son together : but the resurrection of the body 

takes place by a dispensation of the Son's humanity, which is 

a temporal dispensation, and not coeternal with the Father. 

Tr. xxi. But see how the Word of Christ leads the mind in difFerent 

s. 12. 

directions, not allowing it any carnal resting place ; but by 

variety of motion exercising it, by exercise purifying it, by 

purifying enlarging its capacity, and after enlarging fiUing 

it. He said just before that the Father shewed what things 

soever He did to the Son. So I saw, as it were, the Father 

working, and the Son waiting : now again I see the Son 

Aug. de working, the Father resting. Aug. For this, viz. that the 

30."'(x1'h.') Father hath given all judyment unto the SoJi, does not mean 

that He begat the Son with this attribute, as is meant in the 

words, So hath Ue given to the Son to have life in Himself. 

For if so, it would not be said, The Father judgeth no man, 

because, in that the Father begat the Son equal, He judgeth 

with the Son. What is meant is, tbat in the judgraent, not 

the form of God but the form of the Son of man vftll appear; 

not because He will not judge Who hath given all judgment 

c. li). to the Son ; since the Son says of Him below, There is one 

that seeketh and judgeth, but the Father judgeth no man ; 

i.e. no one will see Him in the judgment, but all will see 

the Son, because He is tlie Son of man, even the ungodly 

Ze(h. 12. Mvh.0 tcill looJc on Him Whom they pierced. Hilary. Having 

^'If/: said that the Son quiekenefh u-hom Ile will, in order tliat 

de Irin. ■* ' 

vii. c. 20. we might not lose sight of the Nativity, and think that He 

stood upon the ground of His own unborn power, He im- 

mediately adds, For the Father judgeth no man, but hath 

given all judgment unto the Son. In that all judgment is 

given to Him, both His nature, and His Nativity are shewn; 

because only a self-existent nature can possess all things, 

and nativity cannot have any thing, except what is given it. 

Ciirys. CiiRYS. As Hc gavc Him life, i.e. begot Hira living; so He 

xxxviii. 1. gave Fim judgment, i.e. begot Hira a judge. Gave, it is 

said, that thou mayest not think Hira unbegotten, and im- 

agine two Fathers : Alljudgment, because He has the award- 

Ililar. vii, ing both of punishment and reward. Hilary. All judgment is 

delnn. c. gjyen to Him, because He quickens whom He will. Nor can 

as the soul being inferior to God cannot be endowed with heavenly life, 
gains life to that which is inferior to but by Him who is superior to the 
itself, i.e. tlie body ; so the soul again soul, even God. 


VER. 21—23. ST. JOHN. 189 

the judgment be looked on as taken away from the Father, 
iuasmuch as the cause of His not judging is, that the judg- 
ment of the Son is His. For all judgment is given from the 
Father. And the reason for which He gives it, appears im- 
mediately after : That all men may honour the Son, even as 
they honour the Father. Chrys. For, lest you should infer Chrys. 
from hearing that the Author of His power was the Father, ^°^^^ ^. 
any difference of substance, or inequality of honour, He 
connects the honour of the Son with the honour of the 
Fathcr, shewing that both have the same. But shall men 
then call Him tlie Father? God forbid; he who calls Him 
the Father, does not honour the Sou equally with the Father, 
but confounds both. Aug. First indeed, the Son appeared Aug. xici 

s 13 

as a servant, and the Father was honoured as God. But 

thc Son will be seen to be equal to the Father, that all men 

may honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. ^ But ' ref. not 

what if persons are found, who honour the Father, and do 

not honour the Son? It cannot be : Ile that honoureth not 

the Son, honoureth not the Futher which hath scnt Ilini. It 

is one thing to ackuowledgc God, as God : and another to 

acknowledge Ilim as the Father. When thou acknowledgest 

God thc Creator, thou acknowledgcst an almighty, supreme, 

etcrnal, invisible, immutable Spirit. When thou acknow- 

ledgest the Father, thou dost in reality acknowledge the 

Son ; for He could not be the Father, had Ile not the Son. 

But if thou honour the Fathcr as greater, the Son as less, so 

far as thou givcst lcss houour to the Son, thou takest away 

from tite honour of the Father. For thou in reality thinkest 

that the Father coukl not or woukl not begct the Son equal 

to Ilimself ; which if He woidd not do, Ile was envious, if He 

could not, He was weak. Or, That all men should honour -pr xxiii. 

thc Son even as they honour the Father ; has a rcference to ^* '*^- 

the resurrection of souls, which is the work of the Son, as 

well as of the Father. But the resurrection of thc body is 

meant iu what coraes after : Ile that honoureth not the Son, 

honoureth not the Father that sent Uim. Here is no as ; 

the man Christ is honoured, but not as the Father Who sent 

Hira, since with respect to His manhood He Himself saith, 

Mij Father is greater than I. But some one will say, if the xr. xxi. 

Sou is seut by the Futher, Ue is inferior to the Fathcr. s. 17. 


Leave thy fleshly actions, and understand a mission, not 

a separation. Human things deceive, divine things make 

clear; although even human things give testimony against 

thee, e.g. if a man offers marriage to a woman, and cannot 

obtain her by himself, he sends a friend, greater than himself, 

to urge his suit for him. But see the difference in human 

things. A man does not go with him whom he sends ; but 

the Father who sent the Son, never ceased to be with the 

c. 21. Son ; as we read, / am not alone, hut the Faiher is with Me. 

Aug. iv. AuG. It is not, however, as being born of the Father, that 

c.^28."xx.) *^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^° ^^ ^Qnt, but from His appearing in this 

John 16, world, as the Word made flesh; as He says, I went forth 

from the Father, and am come into the world : or from His 

being received into our minds individually, as we read ^, Send 

her, that she may be with me, and may lahour with me. 

Hilar.vii, HiLARY. The coiiclusion then stands good against all the 

J 2l'"' f^^y of heretical minds. He is the Son, because He does 

nothing of Himself: He is God, because, whatsoever things 

the Father doeth, He doeth the same : They are one, because 

They are equal in honour : He is not the Father, because 

He is sent. 

24. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth 
My word, and believeth on Him that sent Me, hath 
everlasting life, and shall not come into condemna- 
tion ; but is passed from death unto life. 

Gloss. Having said that the Son qnickeneth whom He 
will, He next shews that we attain to hfe through the Son : 
Verily, verihj, I say unto you, He that heareth My word, and 
^l'1\ helieveth on Him that sent Me, hath everlasting life. Aug. If 
in hearing and beUeving is eterual hfe, how much more in 
understanding ? But the step to our piety is faith, the fruit 
of faith, understanding. It is not, Beheveth on Me, but on 
Him that sent Me. Why is one to hear His word, and beheve 
another? Is it not that He means to say, His word is in 
Me ? And what is, Heareth My word, but heareth Me ? And 
it is, Believeth on Him that sent Me ; as to say, He that 

1 Wisd. 9, 10. The Vulgate is : Mitte illam ut mecum sit, et mecum laboret. 

VER. 24—26. ST. JOHN. 191 

believeth on Him, believeth on His Word, i.e. on Me, because 
I am the Word of the Father. Chrys. Or, He did not say, Chrys. 
He that heareth My words, and believeth on Me; as they ^j^^JI^^^ 2 
would have thought this empty boasting and arrogance. 
To say, Believeth on Ilim that sent Me, was a better way of 
making His discourse acceptable. To this end He says two 
things : one, that he who hears Him, believes on the Father ; 
the other, that he who hears and beheves shall not come into 
condemnation. AuG. But who is this favoured person? Will Aug. Tr. 
there be any one better than the Apostle Paul, who says, ^j^^'" ^* " 
We must all appear hefore the judgment-seat of Christ ? i Coi. 6. 
Now judgraent sometimes means punishment, sometimes 
trial. In the sense of trial, we must all appear before the 
judgment-seat of Christ : in the sense of condemnation, we 
read, some shall not come into judgment ; i.e. shall not be 
condemned. It follows, but is passed from death into life : 
not, is now passing, but liath passed from the death of un- 
belief, into the Hfe of faith ; from the death of sin, unto the 
life of righteousness. Or, it is so said perhaps, to prevent 
our supposing that faith would save us from bodily death, 
that penalty which we must pay for Adam's transgression. 
He, in whom we all then were, heard the divine sentence, 
Thou shalt surely die ; nor can we evade it. But when \ve Gen. 2. 
have suffered the death of the old man, we shall receive 
the life of the new, and by death make a passage to life. 
But to what life ? To life everlasting : the dead shall rise Tr. xix. 
again aUthe end of the world, and enter into everlasting hfe. 
Por this hfe does not deserve the name of hfe ; only that Tr. xxi:. 
life is true which is eternal. Aug. We see the lovers of this Aug. de 
present transitory hfe so intent on its welfare, that when j^^,^,^' 
in danger of death, they will take any means to delay its Seiin. 
approach, though they can not hope to drive it off altogether. 
If so much cai e and labour then is spent on gaining a httle 
additional length of life, how ought we to strive after Hfe 
eternal? And if they are thought wise, who endeavour in 
every way to put off death, though they can live but a few 
days longer ; how foolish are they who so live, as to lose the 
eternal day ! 

25, Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is 


coming, and now is, when the dead shall hear the 
voice of the Son of God : and they that hear shall 

26. For as the Father hath life in Himself ; so hath 
He given to the Son to have life in Himself. 

Aug. Tr. AuG. Some one might ask thee, The Father quickeneth 

. j^.^ ^j^^ beheves on Him; but what of thee? dost thou not 

quicken? Observe thou that the Son also quickens whom 

He will : Verily, verily, I say unto you, The hour is coming, 

and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son 

Chrys. of God ; and they that hear shall live. Chrys. After, The 

^°'"- o hour cometh, He adds, and now is ; to let us know that it 
xxxix. 2. ' 

will not be long before it comes. For as in the future resur- 
rection we shall be roused by hearing His voice speaking to 
us, so is it now. Theophyl. Here He speaks with a refer- 
ence to those whom He was about to raise from the dead : 
viz. the daughter of the ruler of the synagogue, the son 

Aug. Tr. of the widow, and Lazarus. Aug. Or, He means to guard 

XXII. s. 12. against our thinking, that the being passed from death to 
hfe, refers to the future resurrection ; its meaning being, 
that he who believes is passed : and therefore He says, Verily, 
verily, I say unto you, The hour cometh, (what hour ?) and 
now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of 
God, and they that hear shall live. He saith not, because 
they Hve, they hear; but in consequence of hearing, they 
come to Hfe again. But what is hearing, but obeying? For 
they who beheve and do according to the true faith, Kve, and 
are not dead ; whereas those who beheve not, or, believing, 
hve a bad life, and have not love, are rather to be accounted 
dead. And yet that hour is still going on, and will go on, 

1 Jolin the same hour, to the end of the world : as John says, It is 

' ' the last hour. Aug. When the dead, i. e. unbehevers, shall 

hear the voice of the Son of God, i. e. the Gospel : and they 

that hear, i. e. who obey, shall live, i. e. be justified, and no 

Aug. Tr. longer remain in unbehef. Aug. But some one will ask, 
Hath the Son Hfe, whence those who believe will Hve ? 
Hear His own words : As the Father hath life in Himself, so 
hath Ile givcn to the Son to have life in Eimself. Life is ori- 

VER. 25, 26. ST. JOHN. 193 

ginal and absolute in Ilira, cometh from no otlier source, de- 
pendeth on no other power. He is not as if Ile were partaker 
of a life, which is not Ilimself ; but has life in Ilimself : so 
as that He Himself is Ilis own life. Hear, O dead soul, the 
Father, speaking by the Son : arise, that thou mayest re- 
ceive that life which thou hast not in thyself, and enter into 
the first resurrection. For this life, which the Father and the 
Son are, pertaineth to the soul, and is not perceived by the 
body. The rational mind only discovers the life of wisdora. 
HiLAKY. The heretics, driven hard by Scripture proofs, are 
obliged to attribute to the Son at any rate a likeness, in 
respect of virtue, to the Father. But they do not admit 
a likeness of nature, not being able to see that a likeness of 
virtue could not arise but frora a likeness of nature ; as an 
infeinor nature can never attain to the virtue of a higher and 
better one. And it cannot be denied that the Son of God 
has the same virtue with the Father, when Ile says, IF/iat 
things soever [the Father) doethy the same doeth the Son like- 
wise. But an express mentiou of the likeness of nature 
follows : As the Faiher hath life in Himself, so hath He given 
to the Son to have life in Himsdf. \\\ life are comprchended 
nature and essence. And the Son, as He hath it, so hatli 
He it given to Him. For the same which is lifc in both, is 
essence in botli ; and the life, i. e. esscncc, which is begotten 
frora lifc, is born ; though not boru unlike the other. For, 
being life frora lifc, it rcmains bke in nature to its origin. 
AuG. The Father must he understand not to havc given life Au?. w. 
to the Son, who was existing without life, but so to have c.^47'/"" 
bcgottcn Ilim, indcpendently of tirae, that the life which (xxvi.) 
He gave Ilira iu begctting, was coeternal with Ilis own. 
HiLARY. Living born frora living, hath the perfection ofHilar. vii 
nativity, witliout the newness of nature. For there is nothing |._ 27 28. 
new implied in generation from living to living, the life not 
coming at its birth from nothing. And the life which de- 
rives its birth frora life, raust by the unity of nature, and 
the sacrament of a perfect birth, both be in the living being, 
and have the being who lives it, in itself. Weak huraan 
nature indeed is made up of unequal elements, and brought 
to life out of inaniraate mattcr ; nor does the human oflF- 
spring live for somo timc aftcr it is bc^ottcii. ^'evhcr locs 

V(JL. IV. o 


it wholly live frora life, since much grows up in it iusensibly, 

and decays insensibly. But in the case of God, the whole 

of what He is, lives : for God is life, and from life, can 

Aug. Tr. nothing be but what is living. Aug. Given to the Son, then, 

xxu. s. 10. jj^g ^YiQ meaning of, begat the Son ; for He gave Him the 

life, by begetting. As He gave Him being, so He gave Him 

to have life in Himself ; so that the Son did not stand in 

need of Hfe to come to Him from without; but was in Him- 

self the fulness of life, whence others, i. e. believers, re- 

ceived their life. What then is the difference between Them ? 

ciirys. This, that one gave, the other received. Chrys. The like- 

xx*!dx. 3. ^^^^ ^^ perfect in all but one respect, viz. that, in point of 

essence, one is the Father, the other the Son. Hilary. For 

the person of thc receiver, is distinct from that of the ffiver • 

it bemg incouceivable that onc and the same person shoukl 

give to and receive frora Hiraself Ile who lives of Ilimself 

is one person : Ile who acknowledges an Author of His life 

is anothcr. 

27. And liath given Him aiithority to execute judg- 
ment also, because He is the Son of man. 

28. Marvel not at this : for the hour is coming, in 
the which all that are in the graves shall hear His 

29. And shall come forth ; they that have done 
good, unto the resurrection oflife ; and they that have 
done evil, unto the resurrection of damnation. 

Theophyl. The Father granted the Son power not only 

to give hfe, but also to execute judgment. And hath given 

Chrys Sim authoritij to execute judgment. Chrys. But why does 

?x°xTx. ^^ ^'^^^1 «0 constantly on these subjects ; judgment, resur- 

S.3. rection, and life ? Because these are the most powerful 

arguments for bringing men over to the faitli, and the most 

likely ones to prevail with obstinate hearers. For one who 

is persuaded that he shall rise again, and be called by the 

Son to account for his misdeeds, will, though he know 

nothing more than this, be anxious to propitiate his Judge. 

It follows, Because He is the Son of man, marvel not at this. 

VER. 27 — 29. ST. JOHN. 195 

Paul of Samosata rearls it, Hath (jiven Him poiver to execiitc 
judgment also, bccause He is the Son of man. But this con- 
nexion has no meaning ; for He does not receive the power 
to judge because Ile is man, (as, on this supposition, what 
would prevent all men from being judges :) but becausc 
Ile is the ineffable Son of God ; therefore is He Judge. We 
must read it then, Because He is the Son of man, marvel 
not at tliis. As Chrisfs hearers thought Ilim a mere man, 
and as what He asserted of Himself was too high to be true 
of men, or even angels, or any bcing short of God Himself, 
there was a strong obstacle in the way of their believing, 
which our Lord notices in order to remove it : Marvel not, 
Ile says, that He is the Son of man : and then adds the 
reason why they should not raarvel : For the hour is coming, 
in the tvhich all that are in the graves shall hear the voice 
of the Son of God. Aud why did He not say, Marvel not 
that Ile is the Son of man : because in truth He is the Son 
of God. ? Bccause, having giveu out that it was He who 
should raise men from the dead, the resurrection being 
a strictly divine work, Ile lcaves Ilis hearers to infer that Ile 
is God, and the Son of God. Persons in argning often do 
tliis. When they have brought out grounds amply sufiicient 
to prove the conclusion they want, they do uot draw that 
conclusion themselvcs ; but, to make the victory greater, leave 
thc oppouent to draw it. In referring above to the resurrcc- 
tion of Lazarus and the rest, He said nothing about judgment, 
for Lazarus did not rise again for judgmcnt; whereas now, 
that He is spcaking of the geueral resurrection, Ile briugs 
in the mention of the judgment : And [theg) shall comeforth, 
Ile says, they that have done good unto the resurrection of life, 
and they that have done evil unto the resurrection of damna- 
tion. Having said above, He that heareth My words, and 
hdievetli on Ilim that sent Me, hath everlasting life ; that 
men might not suppose from this, that belief w^as sufficient 
for salvation, IIc proceeds to speak of works : And tliey that 
have done good, — and they that have done evil. Aug. Or thus : Aug. Tr. 
Inasmuch as the Word was in the beginning with God, the j^",*, "^ 
Father gave Ilim to have life in Himself ; but inasmuch as s. lo, li. 
the Word was made flesh of the Virgin Mary, being made 
man, He became thc Son of man : aud as tlic Son of man, 


xix. s. 14. 


He received power to execute judgment at tlie end of tlie 

world ; at wliich time the bodies of the dead shall rise again. 

The souls then of the dead God raises hy Christ the Son 

of God; their bodies by the sarae Christ, the Son of man. 

Wherefore Ile adds, Because He is tlie Son of man : for, as 

Aug. de to the Son of God, He always liad the power. Aug. At the 

^^^''■g^"™' judgment will appear the form of man, that form will judge, 

which was judged ; Ile will sit a Judge Who stood before the 

judge ; He will condemn the guilty, Who was coudemned 

innocent. For it is proper that the judged should see their 

Judge. Now the judged consist of both good and bad ; so 

that the form of the servant will be shewn to good and bad 

Matt. 5, 8. alike ; the form of God to the good only. Blessed are the 

Aiig. Tr. jmre in heart, for they shall see God. AuG. None of the 

founders of false rehgious sects have been able to deny the 

resurrection of the soul, but many have deiiicd tlie resur- 

rection of the body ; and, unlcss Thou, Lord Jcsus, hadst 

declared it, what answer could we give the gainsayer ? To 

set forth this truth, He says, Marvel not at this ; (i. e. that 

He hath given povver to the Son of man to execute judg- 

Aii^. (le mciit,) for the liour is coming, Sfc. AuG. He does not add, A7id 

noio is, herc ; because this hour woukl be at the end of the 

world. ]\Iarvel not, i. c. marvcl uot, men will all bc judgcd 

by a man. But what mcn? Not those ouly, whom He will 

find alive, For the hour cometh, in which all tltat are in their 

Anff. Su]). p-aves shall hear Ilis voice. AuG. What can be plaiuer ? 

oan. r. ]y/[gj^'g bodies arc in their graves, not their souls. Above 

XIX. s. 1/, ® ' 

18. when He said, The hour cometh, and added, and now is ; 

He proceeds, AVhen the dead shall hear the voice of the 
Son of God. He does not say, All the dead ; for by the 
dead are meant the wicked, and the wicked have not all 
been brought to obey the Gospel. But in the end of the 
world all that are in their graves shall hear Ilis voice, and 
come forth. He does not say, Shall live, as He said above, 
when He spoke of the eternal and blessed hfe ; which all 
will not have, who shall come forth from their graves. This 
judgmeut was coramitted to Him because He was thc Son 
of man. But what takes place in this judgment ? Thcy 
that have done good shall go unto the resurrection of life, i. e. 
to Hve with the Augels of God ; ihey that have done evil 

Ver. Dom 
Ser. (i-l 

Tr. xlx. 

VER. 30. ST. JOHN. 197 

unto the resurrection of judgment. Judguieut lieie meaning 

30. I can of Mine own self do nothing: as I hear, 
T judgG: and My judgment is just ; because I seek 
not Minc own will, but the will of the Father which 
hath sent Me. 

AuG. "We were about to ask Christj Thou wilt judge, and Aii?. 
the Father not judge : wilt not Thou then judge according 
to the Father? IIc auticipates us by saying, / can of Mine 
own Self do nothing. Chuys. Tliat is, nothing that is a de. Cbrys. 
parture frora, or that is unHke to, what the Father wishes, ^""^* ^ 

^ ' XXXIX. 4. 

sliall ye see done by Me, but as I hear, I judge. He is 
only shewing that it was impossible He should cver wish 
auy thing but what the Father wished. I judge, His mean- 
ing is, as if it were My Father that judged. Aug. When Aucr. 
Ile spoke of the resurrectiou of the soul, Ile did not say, ^ "^i^''^"^' 
llcar, but, See. Ilear implics a command issuing from thc v. 19. 
Father. He speaks as man, who is iiifcrior to the Father. 
AuG. As I hear, Ijudge, is said with rcfercnce eithcr to His Aug. 
liuman subordinatiou, as thc Son of man, or to that immu- ^0,,',^' 
table and simple nature of the Sonship derived from the Arrian. 

. . . c. 9. (xiv.) 

Father ; iu which nature hearing and seeing is ideutical 
M'ith bcing. AVhcrcfore as IIc liears, He judges. The AVord ut sup. 
is bcgotten oue with the Fathcr, and thcrcfore judges ac- *^" ''^"" 
cording to truth. It follows, And My judgment is just, be- c xvii. 
cause I seek not Mine oivn iviU, bitt the ivill of the Father 
ivJdch hath sent Me. This is intcuded to take us back to 
that mau who, by seeking his owu will, not the will of Ilim sc. Adam. 
who made him, did not judge himsclf justly, but had a just 
judgment pronouuced upon him. He did not bclicvc that, 
by doing his own will, not God's, he should die. So he did 
his own will, and died; because the judgment of God is 
just, wliich judgment the Son of God executcs, by not scck- 
ing His own will, i. e. His will as being the Son of man. 
Not that Ile has no will in judging, but Ilis will is not His 
own in such scnsc, as to be differcnt from the Father's. 
AuG. I seek not thcn Mine own will, i. e. the will of the Anrr. 
Son of man, in oppositioa to God : for meu do thcir own -^['^^^ 

Tr. xxi. 


will, not God^s, when, to do wliat they wish, they violate 

God's commands. But when tliey so do what they wish, as 

at the same tirae to follow the will of God, they do not their 

own will. Or, / seek not 3Iine own ivill : i. e. because I am 

Chrys. not of myself, but of the Father. Chrys. He shews that 

^"'T" . the Father's will is not a different one from His own, but 
xxxix. 4. 

one and the same, as a grouud of defence. Nor marvel 
if being hitherto thought uo more than a mere man, He 
defends Himself in a somewhat human way, and shews his 
judgment to be just on the same ground which any other 
person would have taken ; viz. that one who has his own 
ends in view, may incur suspicion of injustice, but that one 
Aug. who has not cannot, Auc. The only Son says, / seek not 
Mine oivn will : and yet men wish to do their ovvn will. Let 
us do the will of the Father, Christ, and Holy Ghost : for 
these have one will, power, and majesty. 

31. If I bear witness of Myself, My witness is not 

32. There is another that beareth witness of Me ; 
and I know that the witness which he witnesseth of 
Me is true. 

33. Ye sent unto John, and he bare witness unto 
the truth. 

34. But I receive not testimony from man : but 
these things I say, that ye might be saved. 

35. He was a burning and a shining light : and ye 
were wilhng for a season to rejoice in his light. 

36. But I have greater witness than that of John : 
for the works which the Father hath given Me to 
finish, the same works that I do, bear witness of Me, 
that the Father hath sent Me. 

37. And the Father Himself, which hath sent Me, 
hath borne witness of Me. Ye have neither heard 
His voice at any time, nor seen His shape. 

38. And ye have not His word abiding in you : for 
Whom He hath sent, Him ye believe not. 

39. Search the Scriptures ; for in them ye think 

VER. 31 — 40. ST. JOHN. 199 

ye have eternal life : and they are they which testify 

40. And ye will not come to Me, that ye might 
have life. 

Chrys. He now brings proof of those high deel?.rations ciirys. 
respecting Himself. Ile answers an objection : If I bear^°^- 
witness of MyseJf, My witness is not true. These are Christ's 
own words. But does not Christ in many places bear wit- 
ness of Himself ? And if all tliis is falsc, where is our hope 
of salvation ? Whence shall we obtain truth, when the 
Truth Itself says, 3Iy witness is not true. We must bcUeve 
then that t7'ue, here, is said, not with reference to the in- 
trinsic value of His testimony, but to their suspicions ; for 
the Jews might say, We do not beHeve Thee, because no 
one who bears witness to hiraself is to be depended on. la 
answer then, he puts forth three clear and irrefragable 
pvoofs, three witnesses as it were, to the truth of what He 
had said ; the works which He had done, the testimony of 
the Father, and the preaching of John : putting the least of 
these foremost, i. e. the preaching of John : There is an- 
other that beareth ivitness oj Me : and I know that the wit- 
ness which he ivitnesseth of Me is true. Aug. Ile knew Aup:. 
Himself that His witness of Himself was true, but in com- 1*" 

' Dom. s. 

passion to the weak and unbeHeving, the Sun sought for 43. 
candles, that their weak sight might not be dazzled by His 
fuH blaze. And therefore John was brought forward to give 
his tcstimony to the truth. Not that there is such testi- 
mony rcaHy, for whatever witnesscs bear witness to Him, it 
is reaHy He who bears witness to Himself ; as it is His dwcH- 
ing in the witnesscs, which moves them so to give their 
witness to the truth. Alcuin. Or thus ; Christ, being 
both God and man, He shews the proper existence of both, 
by sometimes speaking according to the nature He took 
from man, sometimes according to the majesty of the God- 
head. If I bear witness of Myself My witness is not irue : 
this is to be understood of His huraanity ; the scnse being, 
If I, 2i man, bear witness of Myself i. e. without God, My 
witness is not true : aud then foHows, There is another that 
beareth witness of Me. The Father bore witness of Christ, 


by the voice wliicli was heard at the baptism, and at the 
transfiguration on the mouut. Arid I knoio that His wit- 
ness is true ; because He is the God of truth. How then 
Ciirys. can His witness be otherwise than true? Chrys. But ac- 
^j"^ ■ cording to the former interpretation, they might say to Him, 
If Thy witness is not true, how sayest Thou, I know that the 
witness of John is true? But His answer meets the objec- 
tion : Ye sent unto John, and he bare tcitness of the truth : 
as if to say : Ye would not have sent to John, if ye had not 
thought him worthy of credit. And what is more remarkable, 
they did send to him, not to ask him about Christ, but 
about himself. For they who were sent out did not say, 
c. 1, 22, What sayest thou of Christ ? but, Who art thou ? what sarjcst 
thou of thyself? In so great admiration did they hold hira. 
Alcuin. But he bore witness not to himself, but to the 
truth : as the friend of the truth, he bore witness to the 
truth, i. e. Christ. Our Lord, on His part, does not reject 
the witness of John, as not being necessary, but shews only 
that men ought not to give such attention to John as to 
forget that Christ^s witness was all that was nccessary to 
Himself. But I receive jiot, He says, testimony from men, 
Bede. Because I do not want it. John, though he bore 
witness, did it not that Christ might increasc, but that men 
riiry<!. might be brought to the knowledge of Him. Cuiiys. Even the 
xi. 2. witness of John was the witness of God : for what he said, 
God taught him. But to anticipate their asking how it ap- 
peared that God taught John, as if the Jews had objected 
that John's witness might not be true, our Lord anticipates 
them by saying, "Ye sought him yourselves to enquire of 
him j that is why I use his testimony, for I need it not." He 
adds, But these things I say that ye mhjht be saved. As if He 
said, I being God, needed not this human kind of testimony. 
But, since ye attend more to him, and think him more w^orthy 
of credit than any one else, while ye do not believe me, though 
I work miracles ; for this cause I remind you of his testimony. 
But had they not received John's testimony ? Before they 
have tirae to ask this, He answers it : Ue was a burning and 
a slnning light, and ye were loilling for a season to rejoice in 
his light. He says this to shew, how lightly they had held 
by John, and how soou they had left hira, thus preventing 


VER. 31 10. ST. JOHN. 201 

him from leading them to Clirist. He calls him a candle, 
because John had not his Hght from himself, but from the 
grace of the Holy Spirit. Alcuin. John Avas a candle lighted 
by Christ, the Light, burning with faith and love, shining in 
word and deed. He was sent before, to confound the enemies 
of Christ, according to the Psalm, / have ordained a lantern Ts. 131, 
for Mine Anointed; asfor His enemies, I shall clothe them loith 
s/iame"^. Chrys. I therefore direct you to John, not because Chrys. 
I want his testimony, but that ye may be saved : for / have ^,°'"* 
(jreatcr tcitness than that of John, i. e. that of My ^vorks; Tlie 
loorks which the^Father hath given Me to finish, the same icorks 
that I do hear witness of Me, that the Fatlter hath sent Me. 
Alcuin. That He enlightens the blind, that He opens the 
deaf ear, looses the mouth of the dumb, casts out devils, 
raises tlie dead ; these works bear witness of Christ. IIilarv. Hiiar. vi. 
The Only-begotten God shcws Ilimself to be the Son, onc.^27." 
the testimony not of man only, but of His own power. The 
works which Hc does, bear witness to His being sent from 
the Father. Therefore tlie obcdience of the Son and the 
authority of the Fathcr are set forth in Ilim who was sent. 
But the testimony of works not being sufficient evidence, 
it follows, A7id thc Father Ilimself ivhich hath scnt JSIe, hath 
horne witness of Me. Open the Evangelic vohimcs, and 
examine their whole range : no testimony of thc Fatlier 
to the Son is givcn in any of the books, other than that Ile 
is the Son. So what a calumny is it in men now saying 
that this is only a name of adoption : thus making God 
a har, and nanics unmeaning. Bede. By His mission we Bede. 
nmst understand Ilis iucarnation. Lastly, Ile shews that^*"^"^"" 
God is incorporcal, and cannot be seen by the bodily eye : 
Ye have neither hcard Ilis voice at any time, nor seen Ilis shape. 
Alcuin. The Jews might say, \Ve heard the voice of the 
Lord at Sinai, and saw Ilim under the appearance of fire. 
If God then bears witness of Thee, vve should know His 
voice. To which He replies, I have the witness of the Father, 
though ye understand it not; because ye never hcard Ilis 
voice, or saw His shape. Ciirys. How theu says Moses, ciirys. 

»" Alcuin litcrally, John borewitness if liglited from liimself, but ligbted by ^t^ 3' 

of Clirist, like a candle, not in order to Cbrist. The words in tlie tcxt arc taken 

lual bis frieiids, but to confound bis froin an iuterlineary gloss and a serinon 

eneinies. . . . Jobn was not a caudle, as of St. Bernard 011 Jobn. Nic. 


Dent. 4, Ask — lokethcr tliere hath heen any such thing as this great 
thlng is : did ever people hear the voice qf God, speaJdng out 
of the midst of the fire, as thou hast heard and seen ? Isaiah 
too, and many others, are said to have seen Him. So vvhat 
does Christ mean here ? He means to impress upon them 
the philosophical doctrine, that God has neither voice, or 
appearance, or shape ; bnt is snperior to such modes of 
speaking of Him. For as in saying, Ye have never heard His 
voice, He does not mean to say that He has a voice, only not 
an audible one to them ; so when He says, Nor have even seen 
His shape, no tangible, sensible, or visible shape is implied to 
belong to God : but all such mode of speaking is pronounced 
inapplicable to God. Alcuin. For it is not by the carnal 
ear, but by the spiritual understanding, through the grace of 
the Holy Spirit, that God is heard. And they did not hear 
the spiritual voice, because they did not love or obey Him, 
nor saw they His shape; inasmuch as that is not to be seen 
Chrys. by thc outward eye, but by faith and love. Chrys. But it 
^j°g * was impossible for them to declare that they had received 
and obeyed God's commands : and thcrefore He adds, Ye 
have not His word ahiding in xjou ; i. c. the commandments, 
the law, and the prophets ; though God instituted them, ye 
have them not. For if the Scriptures everywhere tell you 
to beHeve on Me, and ye believe not, it is manifest that His 
word is gone from you : For ivhom He hath sent, Him ye 
helieve not. Alcuin. Or thus; they cannot have abiding in 
them the Word which was in the beginning, who came not to 
keep in mind, or fulfil in practice, that word of God which 
they hear. Having mentioned the testimonies of John, and 
tlie Father, and of His works, He adds now that of the 
Mosaic Law : Search the Scriptures, for in them ye tliink ye 
have eternal life ; and they are they xvhich testify of Me : 
as if He said, Ye think ye have eternal life in the Scrip- 
tures, and reject Me as being opposed to Moses : but you 
will find that Moses himself testifies to My being God, 
if you search the Scripture carefully. AU Scripture indeed 
bears witness of Christ, whether by its types, or by pro- 
phets, or by the ministering of Angels. But the Jews did 
not beheve these intimations of Christ, and therefore could 
not obtain eternal life : Ye ivill not come to Me, that ye may 

VER. 41 — 45. ST. JOHN. 203 

hace life ; meaniug, The Scriptures bear witness of Me, 
but ye will not come to Me notwithstanding, i. e. ye will 
not believe on Me, and seek for salvation at My hands. 
Chrys. Or the connection may be given thus. They might chrjs. 
say to Ilim, How, if we have never heard God's voice, has ^°™' 
God borne witness to you? So He says, Search the Scrip- 
tures ; meaning that God had borne witness of Him by the 
Scriptures. He had borne witness indeed at the Jordan, 
and on the mount. But they did not hear the voice on the 
mount, and did not attcnd to it at tlie Jordan. Wherefore 
He sends them to the Scriptures, when they wouhl also find 
the Father's testimony. He did not send thcm liowever to Hom. 
the Scriptures simply to read them, but to examine tliem ^ '• ' 
attentively, because Scripture ever threw a shade over its 
own meaning, and did not display it on the surface. The 
treasure was, as it were, hidden from their eye. He does 
not say, For in thcm ye have eternal life, but, For in thera 
ye think ye have eternal Hfe ; meaning that they did not reap 
much fruit from the Scriptures, thinking, as thcy dul, that 
they should be savcd by the mere reading of thcra, without 
faith. For which reason He adds, Ye tvill not come to Me ; 
i. e. yc will not believe on Me. Bede. That coraing is put Bede. 
for beheving we know, Come unto Ilim, and he li(j]itcne(V\ j" J^ 
He adds, That ye mifjht have life; For, if the soul which ps. 33. 
sinneth dies, thcy vverc dcad in soul and miud. And tliere- 
fore Ile promiscs the life of the soul, i. e. etcrnal happiness. 

41. I receive not honour from men. 

42. But I know you, that ye have not the love of 
God in you. 

43. I am comc in My Father's name, and ye receive 
Me not : if another shall come in his own name, hini 
ye will receive. 

44. How can ye believe, w^hich receive honour one 
of another, and seek not the honour that cometh 
from God only ? 

45. Do not think that I will accuse you to the 

" Vulg. They had an cye unto Him, and werc liglitened. 


Father : there is one that accuseth you, even Moses, 
in whom ye trust. 

46. For had ye believed Moses, ye would have 
believed Me : for he wrote of Me. 

47. But if ye believe not his writings, how shall ye 
beheve My words ? 

Chi-ys. Chrys. Our Lord havir.g made mention of Jolin, and the 

xli!^h witness of God, and His own works, many, who did not see 
that Ilis motive was to induce thera to beHeve, might suspect 
Plim of a desire for huraan glory, and therefore Ile says, 
I receive not honour from men : i.e. I do not want it. My 
nature is not such as to want that glory, which coraeth from 
raen. For if the Sun receives no addition frora the hght of 
a candle, rauch raore ara not I in want of huraan glory. 
Alcuin. Or, / receive not honoiir from men : i. e. I seek 
not huraan praise ; for I carae not to receive carnal honour 
from raen, but to give spiritual honour to men. I do not 
bring forward this tcstimony thcn, hccause I scck My own 
glory; but because I compassionate your wanderings, and 
wish to bring you hack to the way of truth. Ilence what 
follows, But I hnoio you, that ye have not the love of God 
ciirys. in you. Chrys. As if to say, I said this to prove that it 
xii. i' is not from your love of God, that you persecute Me ; for 
He bears witness to Me, by My own works, and by the 
Scriptures. So that, if ye loved God, as ye rejected Me, 
thinking Me against God, so now ye would come to Me. 
But ye do not love Ilim. And Ile proves this, not only 
from what they do now, but from what they will do in 
time to come : / am come in My Father^s name, and ye 
receive Me not ; if another shall come in his oivn name, him 
ye will reccive, Ile says plainly, / am come in the Father^s 
name, that they might never be able to plead ignorance as an 
excuse. Alcuin. As if He said, For this cause came I into 
the world, that through Me the narae of the Father might be 
glorified ; for I attribute all to Him. As then they would 
not receive Him, Who carae to do His Father^s will ; they 
had not the love of God. But Antichrist will corae not in 
the Father's uame, but in his own, to seek, not the Father's 

VER. 41 — 47. ST. JOHN. 205 

glory, but his own. And the Jews liaving rejected Christ, it 
was a fit punishraent on them, that they shoukl receive 
Antichrist, and believe a lie, as they would not believe the 
Truth. AuG. Hear Juhn, As ye have heard that Antichrist Auo^. 
shall comcj evcn noio are tliere vuinij Anticlirists. But wluit y^^^^^ 
dost tliou dread in Antichrist, exce[)t that he will exalt his Serra. 
owu narae, and despise the narae of the Lord ? And what \ joiin2,* 
else does he do, who says, "I justify;^^ or those who say, ^'^- 
" Unless we are good, ye must perish °?" AYIierefore my life 
shall depend on Thee, and my salvation shall be fastened to 
Thee. Shall I so forget ray foundation ? Is not my rock 
Christ? Chrys. Here is the crowning proof of their impiety. ciirys. 
He says, as it were, If it was the love of God that raadc you ^y^^^^z 
persecute Me, you would persecute Antichrist rauch more : 
for he does not profess to bc scnt by the Father, or to corae 
according to Ilis wili ; but, on the contrary, usurping what 
does not belong to him, will proclaim himself to be God 
over alh It is manifest that your persccution of ]Mc is from 
malice and hatrcd of God. Then He givcs the reason of 
thcir unbelief : IIow can ye helieve, ichich rcceive honour one 
of anotlter, and seek not the honour that cometh from God 
only? another proof this, that theirs was not a zeal for 
God, but a gratification of thcir own passions. Alcuin. IIow 
faulty then is the boasting temper, and that eagerness for 
human praise, whicli likcs to be thouglit to have what it has 
not, and would fain bc thouglit to have all that it has, by its 
own strength. Mcn of such temper cannot behevc; for in 
their hearts, they are bcut solcly on gaining praise, and sct- 
ting thcrasclvcs up above othcrs. IjiiDii:. Tlie best way of 
guarding against this sin, is to bring to our consciences the 
rcraerabrance, that we arc dust, and should ascribe all the 
good that we have not to ourselvcs, but to God. And we 
should endeavour always to be such, as we wish to appear 
to otlicrs. Thcu, as thcy raight ask, Wilt thou accuse us then 
to thc Father? Ile anticipates this qucstion : Do not tliink 
tluit Iwill accuse you to the Father. Chrys. For I am not Ciirys 
come to condcran, but to save. Tliere is one that accuseth xij."!* 
you, even Moses, in ivhom you trust. As He had said of the 

" Alluding to tlie Donatists, who denied the cfficacy of any but their own 
iTiade baptisnial justifiiation to de])end Baptisin. Nic. 
on the guodncss of tlie nunister, and 


Scriptures above : In them ye think ye have eternal life. So 

novv of Moses He says, in luhom ye trust, alvvays ansvvering 

them out of their authorities. But they will say, How will 

he accuse us? What hast Thou to do with Moses, Thou who 

hast broken the sabbath ? So He adds : For had ye bclieved 

Moses, ye tcould perhaps have believed Me, for he wrote of 

Me. This is connected with what was said before. For 

where evidence that He came from God had been forced 

upon them by His words, by the voice of John, and the testi- 

mony of the Father, it was certain that Moses would con- 

alluding dcmn thcm ; for he had said, If any one shall come, doing 

13 j^"^' miracles, leading men to God, and foretelling the future 

with certainty, you must obey him. Christ did all this, and 

they did not obey Him. Alcuin. Perhaps, He says, in ac- 

comraodation to our way of speaking, not bccause there is 

really any doubting in God. Moses prophcsicd of Christ, 

Deut. A Prophet shall the Lord your God raise up from among 

' ' your brethren lihe unto me: Him shall ye hear. Aug. But, 
Aug. cont. «^ . . 

Faust. I. in fact, the whole that Moses wrote, was written of Christ, 
i.e. it has reference to Hira principally ; whether it point 
to Him by figurative actions, or expressiou ; or set forth His 
grace and glory. 

But if ye believe not his writings, hoio shall ye believe My 
words. Theophyl. As if He said, He has even written, 
and has left his books among you, as a constant memento to 
you, lest you forget his words. And since you bcHeve 
not his writings, how can ye believe My unwritten words ? 
Alcuin. From this we may infer too, that he who kuows 
the coramandracnts against stcaling, and other criraes, and 
neglects them, will never fulfil the more perfect and refined 
Chrys. precepts of the Gospel. Chrys. Indeed had they attended 
3^li_ 2, ^o His words, they ought and would have tried to learn from 
Him, what the things were which Moses had written of Him. 
But they are silent. For it is the nature of wickedness to 
defy persuasion. Do what you will, it retains its venora to 
the hvst. 


1. After tlicse things Jesus went over the sea of 
Gahlee, which is the sca of Tiberias. 

2. And a great multitudc foliowed Him, because 
they saw His miracles which He did on thcm that 
werc diseased. 

3. And Jesus went up into a mountain, and there 
He sat with His disciples. 

4. And the Passover, a feast of thc Jews, was nigh. 

5. When Jesus then Hfted up His eyes, and saw 
a great company come unto Him, He saith unto 
Philip, Whence shall we buy brcad, that thcsc may 

6. And this He said to prove him : for He Him- 
self knew what He would do. 

7. Philip answered Him, Two hundred pennyworth 
of bread is not sufficient for thcm, that every onc of 
them may take a little. 

8. One of His disciplcs, Andrew, Simon Petcr's 
brother, saith unto Him, 

9. There is a lad here, which hath five barley 
loaves, and tw^o small fishcs : but what are they 
among so many ? 

10. And Jesus said, Make the men sit down. Nov/ 
there was much grass in tlie place. So the men sat 
down, in number about fiv^c thousand. 

11. And Jesus took the loaves ; and when He had 
given thanks, He distributed to the disciples, and the 
disciplcs to them that were set down ; and Hkcwise of 
the fishes as much as they would. 


12. "VYhen they were filled, He said unto His 
disciples, Gather up the fragments that remain, that 
nothing be lost. 

13. Therefore they gathered them together, and 
filled twelve baskets with the fragments of the five 
barley loaves, which remained over and above unto 
them that had eaten. 

14. Then those men, when they had secn the 
miracle that Jesus did, said, This is of a truth that 
Prophet that should come into the world. 

Chrys. Chkys. As missiles rebound with great force from a hard 

^|°.'"* body, and fly ofF in all dircctions, whercas a softer material 

retains and stops them ; so violent men are only exeited 

to greater rage by violence on the side of their opponents, 

whereas gentleness softens thera. Christ quieted the irrita- 

tion of the Jews by retiring from Jerusalem. He went into 

GaUlee, but not to Cana again, but beyond the sea : After 

these things Jesus tvent over the sea of Galilee, which is the 

sea of Tiberias. Alcuin. This sea hath difFerent names, 

from the difFerent places with which it is connected ; the 

sea of Galilee, from the province ; the sea of Tiberias, from 

the city of that name. It is called a sea, though it is not 

salt water, that name being apphed to all large pieces of 

water, in Hebrew. This sea our Lord often passes ovcr, in 

going to preach to the people bordering on it. Tiieophyl. 

He goes from place to place to try the dispositions of people, 

and excite a desire to hear Him : And a great multitude 

followed Him, because they saw Ilis miracles which He did 

on them that were diseased. Alcuin. viz. His giving sight 

to the blind, and other like miracles. And it should be 

iinderstood, that all, whom He healed iu body, He renewed 

Clirys. likewise in soul. Chrys. Though favoured with such teach- 

^^".'": ing, they were influenced less by it, than by the miracles ; 

a sign of their iow state of belief: for Paul says of.tongues, 

1 Cor. that tJiey ure for a sign, not to them Ihat believe, but to them 

' ' that believe not. They vvere wiser of whom it is said, tbat 

Matt. 7, they were astonished at His docirine. The Evangelist dogs 

VER. 1 — 14. ST. JOHN. 209 

not say what miracles He wrought, the great object of his 
book being to give our Lord's discourses. It follows : And 
Tesus wcnt up into a mountain, and there sat with His disciples. 
He went up into the mountain, on account of the miracle 
ivhich was going to be done. That the disciples aloue as- 
ccnded with Him, implies that the people who stayed be- 
hind were in fault for not following. He went up to the 
mountain too, as a lesson to us to retire from the tumult 
and confusion of the world, and leave wisdom iu sohtude. 
And the passover, a feast of the Jews, was nigh. Observe, 
in a whole year, the Evangelist has told us of no miracles 
of Christ, except His healing the impotent man, and the 
nobleman's son. His object was to give not a regular his- 
tory, but only a few of the principal acts of our Lord. But 
why did not our Lord go up to the feast? He was taking 
occasion, from the wickeduess of the Jews, gradually to 
aboHsh the Law. Theophyl. The persecutions of the Jews 
gave Him reason for retiring, and thus setting aside the 
Law. The truth being now revealed, types were at an end, 
and He was under no obligation to keep the Jewish feasts. 
Observe the expression, a feast of the Jews, not a feast of Matt. 14, 
Christ. Bede. If we compare the accouuts of the difFerent " 
Evangelists, we shall find very clearly, that there was an 
interval of a year between the beheading of John, and our 
Lord's Passion, For, since Matthew says that our Lord, oa 
heariug of the death of John, withdrew into a desert place, 
where He fed the multitude ; and John says that the Pass- 
over was nigh, when He fed the multitude ; it is evident 
that John was beheaded shortly before the Passover. Aud 
at the same feast, the next year, Christ suflFered. It foUows, 
When Jesus then lifted up Ilis eyes, and saw a grcat com- 
pany come unto Him, He saith unto Philip, Whence shall we 
huy bread, that these may eat ? When Jesus lifted up His 
eyes, this is to shevv us, that Jesus was not generally with 
His eyes lifted up, looking about Him, but sitting calm and 
attentive, surrounded by His disciples. Chrys. Nor did Chrys. 
He only sit with His disciples, but conversed with them j^j°."'| 
familiarly, and gained possession of their minds. Then He 
looked, and saw a crowd advancing. But why did He ask 
Philip that question? Because He knew that His disciples, 

VOL. IV. p 




c. 14. 8. 

Aug. de 
Serm. 17. 
1, 13. 


de Con. 
]. ii. c. 

25, 16. 

xlii. s. 1. 

and he especially, needed further teaching. For this Philip 
it was who said afterwards, Shew us the Father, and it sufficeth 
us. And if the miracle had been performed at once, with- 
out any introduction, the greatness of it would not have been 
seen. The disciples were made to confess their own in- 
abihty, that they might see the miracle more clearly ; And 
this He said io prove him. Aug. One kind of temptation 
leads to sin, with which God never tempts any one ; and 
there is another kind by which faith is tried. In this sense 
it is said that Christ proved His disciple. This is not meant 
to imply that He did not know what Pliilip would say ; but 
is an accomraodation to men's way of speaking. For as the 
expression, Who searcheth the hearts of men, does not mean 
the searching of ignorance, but of absolute knowledge ; so 
here, when it is said that our Lord proved PhiHp, we must 
understand that He kuew him perfectly, but that He tried 
him, in ordcr to confirra his faith. The Evangelist himself 
guards against the mistake which this imperfect mode of 
speaking might occasion, by adding, For lle IlimseJf knew 
what He would do. Alcuin. He asks him this question, not 
for His own information, but in order to shew His yet uu- 
formed disciple liis duluess of mind, which he could not per- 
ceive of himself. Theophyl. Or to shew others it. He was 
not ignorant of His disciple's heart Himself. Auo. But if 
our Lord, according to John's account, on seeing the mul- 
titude, asked PliiHp, tempting him, whence they could buy 
food for them, it is difficult at first to see how it can be true, 
according to the other account, that the disciples first told 
our Lord, to send away the multitude ; and that our Lord 
replied, The^ need not depart ; give ye them to eat. We 
must understand then it was after saying this, that our 
Lord saw the multitude, and said to Philip what John had 
related, which has been omitted by the rest. Chrys. Or 
they are two different occasions altogether. Theopiiyl. 
Thus tried by our Lord, Phiiip was found to be possessed 
with human notions, as appears frora what follows, Philip 
answered Him, Two hundred pennyworth of bread is not suf- 
ficient for them, that every one of them may take a litHe. Al- 
cuiN. Wherein he shews his dulness : for, had he perfect 
ideas of his Creator, he would not be thus doubting His 

VER. 1 — 14. ST. JOHN. 211 

power. AuG. The reply, whicli is attributed to Philip by Auir. 
John, Mark puts in the mouth of all the disciples, either |,-\,.,„, * 
meaninoj qs to understand that Philip spoke for the rest, or '• ".- °- 

. . . . xlvi. 

else putting the plural number for the singular, which is 
often done. Theophyl. Andrew is in the same perplexity 
that Philip is; only he has rather higher notions of our 
Lord : There is a lad here which hath five harley loaves and 
two small fishcs. Chrys. Probably he had some reason in ciirys. 
his raind for this speech. He would know of Elijah's mi- ,iii,"ii. 
racle, by which a hundred men were fed with twenty loaves. 
This was a great step ; but here he stopped. He did not 
rise any higher. For his next words are, But what are these 
among so many ? He thought that lcss could produce less 
in a miracle, and more more ; a great mistake ; inasmuch as 
it was as easy for Christ to feed the multitude from a few 
fishes as frora many. He did not really want any material 
to work frora, but only made use of creatcd things for this 
purpose in order to shew that no part of the creation was 
severed frora His wisdora. Tueopiiyl. This passage con- 
founds the Manichajans, who say that bread and all such 
things were created by an evil Deity. The Son of the good 
God, Jesus Christ, multiplicd the loaves. Thcrefore they 
could not have been naturally evil ; a good God would never 
have multipHed what was evil. Aug. Andrew's suggcstion Anpr. 
about the five loaves and two fishes, is given as comiug from ^vantj.' 
the disciples in gcncral, iu the other Evaugelists, aud the "• <=• '''v'"' 
plural number is used. Ciihys. Aud lct those of us, who Chrys. 
are given to pleasure, observe the plain and abstemious xiii'"ii. 
eating of those great and wonderful men^ Ile made the 
men sit down before the loaves appeared, to teach us that 
with Him, things that are not are as things that are ; as Paul 
says, Who calleth those things that be not, as though they Rom. 
loere. The passage proceeds then : And Jesus said, Make ""*' 
the men sit down. Alcuin. Sit down, i. e. lie down, as the 
ancient custom was, which they could do, as there was much 
grass in the place. Theophyl. i.e. green grass. It was the 
time of the Passover, which was kept the first month of 
the spring. So the men sat down, in number about five 
thousand. The Evangelist only counts the men, followiug 
*> Alluding to the five loaves and two fishes. 



the direction in the law. Moses numbered the people from 

twenty years old and upwards, making no meution of the 

women; to signify that the raanly and juvenile character 

is especially honourable in God's eyes. And Jesus took the 

loaves ; and when He had given thanks, He distributed '^ to 

them that were sat doicn : and likewise of the Jishes as much 

Chrys. as they would. Chrys. But why when He is going to heal 

^lH^il ^^® impotent, to raise the dead, to calm the sea, does He 

not pray, but here does give thanks ? To teach us to give 

thanks to God, whenever we sit down to eat. And He 

prays more in lesser matters, in order to shew that He 

does not pray frora any motive of need. For had prayer 

been really necessary to supply His wants, His praying 

would have been iu proportion to the importance of each 

particular work. But acting, as He does, ou His own 

authority, it is evident, He only prays out of condescension 

to us. And, as a great multitude was collected, it was au 

opportunity of impressing on them, that His coming was in 

accordance with God's will. Accordingly, when a miraclc 

was private, He did not pray; when numbers were preseiit, 

Hilar. iii. He did. HiLARY. Fivc loavcs are then set before the multi- 

^^jg*^'"' tude, and broken. The broken portions pass througli into 

the hands of those who break, that frora which tliey are 

broken all the time not at all diminishing. And yet there 

they are, the bits taken frora it, in the hands of the persons 

breaking \ There is no catching by eye or touch the 

miraculous operation : tliat is, which was not, that is seen, 

which is not understood. It only remains for us to believe 

Aug. Tr. that God can do all things. Aug. He multiplied in His 

XXIV. s. 1. }jands the five loaves, just as He produces harvest out of a 

few grains. There was a power in the hands of Christ ; and 

those five loaves were, as it were, seeds, not indeed com- 

mitted to the earth, but raultipUed by Him who raade the 

Chrys. earth. Chrys. Observe the difl^erence between the servant 

^°."^- and the lord. The Prophets received grace, as it were, by 

'^ Vulgate omits, to the disciples, and not lost its portion; meantime thfe heap 

tlie disciples. of fragnients increases ; those who 

^ Hilary literally. The operation break are engaged in supplying, those 

escapes the sight ; whilst you follow who eat in receiving. the hu!igry are 

with your eyes one hand filled with satisfied ; twelve haskets are filled with 

tvagments, you see that Ihe other has what remains. Nic. 

VER. 1 — 14. ST. JOHN. 213 

measure, and according to that measiire perforraed tlieir 
miracles : whereas Christ, working this by His own absolute 
power, produces a kind of superabundant result. WTien 
they were Jilled, He said unto His disciples, GatJier up the 
fragments that remaiyi, that notliing he lost. Therefore tlieg 
gathered them togetJier, and filled tivelve basJiets loitJi tJie frag- 
ments. This was not done for needless ostentation, but to 
prevent nien from thinkiug the whole a delusion; which 
was the reason why He made use of an existing raaterial to 
work frora. But why did He give the fragments to His 
disciples to carry away, and not to the raultitude ? Because 
the disciples were to be the teachers of the world, and there- 
fore it was raost iraportant that the truth should be im- 
pressed upon thera. Wherefore I admire not only the mul- 
titude of the loaves which were raade, but the defiuite 
quantity of the fragraents ; neither more nor less than 
tvvelve baskets fuU, and corresponding to the number of 
the twelve Apostles. Theophyl. We learn too from this 
miracle, not to be pusillanimous in the greatest straits of 
poverty. Bede. When the multitude saw the rairacle our 
Lord had done, they marvelled ; as they did not kuow yet 
that He was God. TJien tJiose men, the Evangelist adds, i.e. 
carnal men, whose understanding was carnal, ivJien tJiey Jiad 
perceived tJie miracle tJiat Jesus did, said, TJiis is of a trutJi 
tJiat TropJiet tJiat sJiouhl come into tJie icorld. Alcuin. Thcir 
faith being as yet weak, they only call our Lord a Prophet, 
not knowing that He was God. But the miracle had pro- 
duced considerable effect upon them, as it made them call 
our Lord tJiat PropJiet, singling Hira out from the rest. 
They call Him a Prophet, because some of the Prophets 
had worked miracles ; and properly, inasmuch as our Lord 
calls Hiraself a Prophet ; It cannot bs tliat a propJiet perisJi Lnke 
out of Jerusalem. AuG. Christ is a Prophet, and the Lord ' '^^ 
of Prophets j as He is an Angel, and the Lord of Angels. xxiv. s. 7. 
In that He came to announce something, He was an Angel ; 
in that He foretold the future, He was a Prophet ; in that 
He «ras the Word made flesh, He was Lord both of Angels 
and Prophets ; for none can be a Prophet without the word 
of God. Chrys. Their expression, tJiat sJiould come into tJie 
world, shews that they expected the arrival of some great 


Prophet. And tliis is why they say, This is of a truth that 
Prophet : the article being put in the Greek, to shew that 
Angf. He was distinct from other Prophets. Aug. But let us re- 
^'^j''^.'^' fl^ct a little here. Forasmuch as the Divine Substance is 
not visible to the eye, and the miracles of the divine govern- 
ment of the world, and ordering of the whole creation, are 
overlooked in consequence of their constancy j God has re- 
served to Himself acts, beside the estabhshed course and 
order of nature, to do at suitable times; in order that those 
who overlooked the daily course of nature, might be roused 
to wonder by the sight of what was different from, though 
not at all greater, than what they were uscd to. The govern- 
ment of the world is a greater miracle, than the satisfying the 
hunger of five thousand with five loaves; and yet no one 
wonders at this : the former excitcd wonder; not from any 
real superiority in it, but because it was uncommon. But 
it would be wrong to gather no more than this from Chrisfs 
miracles : for, the Lord who is on the mount % and the Word 
of God which is on high, the same is no humble person to be 
lightly passed over, but we must look up to Him reverently. 
Alcuin. Mystically, the sea signifies this tumultuous world. 
In the fulness of time, when Christ had entered the sea of 
our mortality by His birth, trodden it by His death, passed 
over it by His resurrection ^, then followed Him crowds of 
believers, both from the Jews and Gentiles. Bede. Our 
Lord went up to the mountain, when He ascended to hea- 
ven, which is signified by the mountain. Alcuin. His leav- 
ing the multitude below, and ascending the heights with 
llis disciples, signifies, that lesser precepts are to be given 
to beg"il>^6rsj higher to the more matured. His refreshing 
the people snCytly before the Passover signifies our refresh- 
ment by the bread of the diviue word ; and the body and 
blood, i.e. our spiritual passOyer, by which we pass over from 
vice to virtue. And the Lord^s {ijes are spiritual gifts, 
which He mercifuUy bestows on His Elect He turns His 
eyes upon them, i.e. has compassionate respect unto them. 
Aiicr. lib, AuG. The five barley loaves signify the old law ; eitu?r be- 
^olix^i cause the law was given to men not as yet spiritual, buL 

q. (il. in 

princ. e V. 15. departed into a mountain ' V. 1. Jesus went over the sea of 

Himself alone. Galilee. 

VER. 1 — 14. ST. JOHN. 215 

carnal, i.e. under the dominion of the five senses, (the mul- 
titude itself consisted of five thousand :) or because the Law 
itself was given by Moses in five books. And the loaves 
being of barley is also an allusion to the Law, which con- 
cealed the souFs vital nourishment, under carnal ceremonies. 
For in barlcy the corn itself is buried under the most tena- 
cious husk. Or, it alludes to the people who were not yet 
freed frora the husks of carnal appetite, which chng to their 
heart. Bede. Barley is the food of cattle and slaves : and Pede. 
the old law was given to slaves and cattle, i.e. to carnal men, Lu" 'c'"vi 
AuG. The two fishes again, that gave the pleasant taste to Aug. lib. 
the bread, seem to signify the two authorities by which the q^J'^^ 
people were governed, the Eoyal, viz. and the Priestly ; both qu. 61. 
of which prefigure our Lord, who sustained both characters. 
Bede. Or, by the two fishes are meant the sayings or writings 
of the Prophets, and the Psalmist. And whereas the num- 
ber five refers to the five senses, a thousand stands for per- 
fection. But those who strive to obtain the perfect govern- 
ment of their five senscs, are callcd men, in consequence of 
thcir superior powers : they have no womanly wcaknesses; 
but by a sober and chaste Hfe, earn the sweet refreshment 
of heavenly wisdom. Aug. The boy wlio had these is per- auoj. Tr. 
haps the Jewish pcople, who, as it were, carried the loaves ^^'^' ^" 
and fishes after a servile fashion, and did not cat thcm. 
That which they carried, while shut up, was only a burden 
to them ; when opened bccame their food. Bede. And well Bede. 
is it said, But what are these among so many ? The Law ^^^' ^ 
was of Httle avail, till Ile took it into Ilis hand, i.e. ful- 
fillcd it, and gave it a spiritual meaning. The Laio made ileb.7, in. 
nothing perfect. Aug. By the act of breaking He multiplicd Aug. Tr. 
the five loaves. The five books of Moses, when expounded ^^'^' ''*' "^' 
by breaking, i.e. unfolding them, raade many books. Aug. Au?. Hb. 
Our Lord by breaking, as it were, what was hard in the '?;'"^"'- 
Law, and opening what was shut, that time when He opened qu. 6i. 
the Scriptures to the disciples after the resurrection, brought 
the Law out in its full meaning. Aug. Our Lord's question Aug. Tr. 
proved the ignorance of His disciples, i.e. the people's igno- ^^'^" ^' "^' 
rance of the Law. They lay on the grass, i.e. were carnally 
minded, rested in carnal things, for all flesh isgrass. Men are Isa. 40, 6. 
filled with the loaves^ when what they hear with the ear, they 


Anp^. Tr. fulfil in practice. Aug. And what are the fragments, but the 
parts which the people could not eat ? An intimation, that 
those deeper truths, which the multitude cannot take in, 
should be entrusted to those who are capable of receiving 
them, and afterwards teaching them to others ; as were the 
Apostles. For which reason twelve baskets were filled with 
them. Alcuin. Baskets are used for servile work. The 
baskets here are the Apostles and their followers, who, 
though despised in this present life, are within filled with 
the riches of spiritual sacraments. The Apostles too are 
represented as baskets, because that, tlirough them, the 
doctrine of the Trinity was to be preached in the four parts 
of the world. His not making new loaves, but multiplyiug 
what there were, means that Ile did not reject the Old 
Testament, but only developed and explained it. 

15. When Jesus therefore perceived that they 
would come and take Him by force, to make Ilim 
a king, He departed again into a mountain Himself 

16. And when even was now come, Ilis disciplcs 
went down unto the sea, 

17. And entered into a ship, and went over the sea 
toward Capernaum. And it was now dark, and Jesus 
was not come to them. 

18. And the sea arose by reason of a great wind 
that blew. 

19. So when they had rowed about five and twenty 
or thirty furlongs, they see Jesus walking on the sea, 
and drawing nigh unto the ship : and they were 

20. But He saith unto them, It is I ; be not afraid. 

21. Then they willingly received Him into the 
ship : and immediately the ship was at the land 
whither they went. 

Bede. The multitude conchiding, from so great a miracle, 
that He was merciful aud powerful, wished to make Him 

VER. 15 21. ST. JOHN. 217 

a king. For men like having a merciful king to rule over 
them, and a powerful one to protect them. Our Lord 
knowing this, retired to the mountain : When Jesns therefore 
perceived that they would come and tale Him hy force to 
make Him a king, He departed again into a mountain Him- 
self alone. From this we gather, that our Lord went down 
from the mountain before, where He was sitting with His 
disciples, when He saw the raultitude coming, and had fed 
them on the plain below. For how could He go up to tlie 
mountain again, unless He had come down from it. Aug. Au?. <\e 
This is not at all inconsistent with what we read, that He .9""' '';\'. 

' 11. C. XlMl. 

wcnt up into a mountain apart to pray : the objcct of escape Matt. 1 1, 
heing quite compatible with that of prayer. Indced our '~'^' 
Lord teaches us here, that whenever escape is necessary, 
there is great necessity for prayer, Aug. Yet He who feared .Aug. Tr. 
to be made a king, was a kiug; not made king by men, (for ^^^' 
He ever reigneth with the Father, in that He is the Son of 
Gorl,) but making men kings : which kingdom of Ilis the 
Prophets had foretold. Christ by being made man, made 
the believers in Him Christians, i. e. members of Ilis king- 
dom, incorporated and purchased by His Word. And this 
kingdom will be made manifest, after the judgment ; when 
the brightness of His saints shall be revealcd. Thc dis- 
ciples however, and the multitude who believed on Him, 
thought that He had come to reign now ; and so would have 
taken Him by force, to make Hini a king, wishing to anti- 
cipate His time, which He kept secret. Chrys. See what Chrys. 
the belly can do. Tliey care no more for the violation ^|||'"^ 
of the Sabbath; all their zeal for God is fled, now that 
their bellies are filled : Christ has become a Prophet, and 
they wish to enthrone Him as king. But Christ makes 
His escape ; to teach us to despise the dignities of the 
world. He dismisses His disciples, and goes up into the 
mountain. — These, when their Master had left them, went Hnm. 
down in the evening to thc sea ; as we read ; Atid lolien 
even was now come, His disciples went down unto the sea. 
They waited till evening, thinking He would come to them ; 
and then, as He did not come, delayed no longer search- 
ing for Him, but in the ardour of love, entered into a ship, 
and went over the sea toward Capernaum. They weut to 


Aug. Tr. Capernaum thinking they should find Him there. Auo. 

XJ.V, s. 5. rpi^g Evangelist now returns to explain why they went, aud 

relate what happened to them while they were crossing the 

lake : And it loas dark, he says, and Jesus was not come to 

ciirys. them. Chrys. Tlie raention of the time is not accidental, 

xiii'."i. b"^ meant to shew the strength of their love. They did 

not make excuses, and say, It is evening now, and night is 

coming on, but in the warmth of their love went into the 

ship. And novv raany things alarra them: the time, And it 

was now dark ; and the weather, as we read uext, Atid the 

sea arose hy reason of a great wind that hlew ; their distance 

from land, So when thcij had rowed ahout Jive and twenty 

Bede in v. or thirty fiirlongs. Bede. The way of speaking we use, 

cap. oaii, ^ijgjj ^g g^j,g jjj doubt ; about five and twenty, we say, or 

Ciirys. thirty. Chrys. And at last He appears quite unexpectedly: 

xhii' 1 They see Jesus icalking upon the sea, drawing nigh. He re- 

appears after His retirement, teaching them what it is to be 

forsaken, aud stirring them to greater love ; His reappearance 

manifesting His power. Thcy were disturbed, luere afraid, 

it is said. Our Lord comforts them : But He saith unto them, 

Bede It is I, he not afraid. Bede. He does not say, I am Jesus, 

but only / am. He trusts to their casily rccognising a voice, 

which was so familiar to them, or, as is more probable, 

Exod. 3, He shews that He was the same who said to Moses, / am 

^'^* tliat T am. Chrys. He appeared to them in this way, to 

iiom. shew His power ; for He immediately calmed the tempest : 

xliu. s. 1. J^jigji i]ipy loished to receive Him into the ship ; and immediately 

the ship was at the land whither they went. So great was 

the calra, He did not even enter the ship, in order to work 

a greater rairacle, and to shew His Divinity more clearly §. 

Theophyl. Observe the three miracles here; the first, His 

walking on the sea ; the second, His stilling the waves ; the 

third, His putting thera imraediately on shore, which they 

Chrys. werc somc distance off, when our Lord appeared, Cheys. 

xiiii. 1. Jesus does not shew Himself to the crowd walking on the 

, - . . sea, such a miracle beiuar too much for thera to bear. Nor 

' Mattliew, ^ o 

iiiAquinas even to thc disciples did He shew Himself long, but dis- 
De Con? appeared immediately, Aug. Mark^s ' accotmt does not con- 

Ev. 1. ii. 

0. xlvii, s ij9f\ov Aa0e7i> avTov in the Greek: our translation, " they willingly re 

Mark ceived Him." 

6, id. 


VER. 15 — 21. ST. JOHN. 219 

tradict this. He says indeed that our Lord told the disciples 
first to enter the ship, and go before Him over the sea, while 
He dismissed the crowds, and that when the crowd was 
dismissed, He went up alone into the mountain to pray : 
Vvhile John places His going up alone in the mountain first, 
and then says, And ivhen even was now come, His disciples 
went doivn unto the sea. But it is easy to see that John 
relates that as done afterwards by the disciples, which our 
Lord had ordered before His departure to the mountain. 
Chrys. Or take another explanation. This miracle seems chrys. 
to me to be a diffcrent one, from the one given in i\Iatthew : 'l!^".'- 
for there they do uot receive Him into the ship immediately, 
whereas here thcy do '' : and there the storm lasts for some 
time, whereas here as soon as He speaks, there is a calm. 
He often repeats the same miracle in order to impress it on 
men's minds. Auo. There is a mystical meaning in our Auff. Tr. 
Lord's feeding the multitude, and ascending the mountain : ^J"'- '^- ^- 

o ' ° et seq. 

for thus was it prophcsied of Him, So shall the congrecjation Ps. 7. 
0/ the ■people come about Thee : for their sake therefore lift 
up Thyself again : i.e. that the congregation of the people 
may come about Thee, lift up Thyself again. But why is 
it flcd? for they could not have detained Ilim against Ilis 
will. This fleeing has a meaning; viz, that Ilis flight is 
above our comprehension ; just as, when you do not undcr- 
stand a thing, you say, It escapcs me. He fled alone unto 
the mountain, because He is ascendcd far above all heavens. 
But on Ilis ascension aloft a storm came upon the disciples 
in the ship, i.e. the Church, and it became dark, thc light, 
i.e. Jesus, having gone. As the eud of thc world draws nigh, 
error increases, iniquity abounds. Light again is love, ac- 
cording to John, He that hateth his brother is in darkness. 1 .rolm 
The waves and storms and winds then that agitate the ship, ' * 
are the clamours of the evil spcaking, and love waxing cokl. 
Howbeit the wind, and storm, and waves, and darkness were 
not able to stop, and sink the vessel ; For he that endureth Mntt. 
to the end, the same shall be saved. As the nuraber five ' *"" 
has reference to the Law, the books of Moses being five, the 

^ So in the Catena. But Cliryso- to be in doubt lonp;er in St. Mattliew 
stom, Why did not they at once receive whether it was our Lord. 
this ? alluding to the disciples seeming 


number five and twenty, being made up of five pieces, has 
the sarae meaning. And this law was imperfect, before the 
Gospel carae. Now the number of perfection is six, so 
therefore five is multiplied by six, which makes thirty : i.e. 
the law is fulfilled by the Gospel. To those then who fulfil 
the law Jesus comes treading on the waves, i. e. trarapling 
under foot all the swellings of the world, all the loftiness of 
raen : and yet such tribulations remain, that even they who 
believe on Jesus, fear lest they should be lost. Theophyl. 
Wheu either men or devils try to terrify us, let us hear 
Christ saying, It is I, be not afraid, i. e. I am ever near you, 
God unchangeable, imraoveable ; let not any false fears 
destroy your faith in Me. Observe too our Lord did not 
come when the danger was beginning, but when it was 
ending. lie suffers us to remain in the midst of dangers 
and tribulations, that we may be proved thereby, and flee 
for succour to Hira Who is able to give us deliverance when 
we least expect it. When man^s understanding can no 
longer help hira, then the Divine deliverance coraes. If we 
are willing also to receive Christ into the ship, i. e. to live in 
our hearts, we shall find ourselves imraediately in the place 
where we wish to be, i. e. heaven. Bede. This ship, how- 
ever, does uot carry an idle crew; they are all stout row- 
ers; i. e. in the Church not the idle and effeminate, but 
the strenuous and persevering in good works, attaia to 
the harbour of everlasting salvation. 

22. The day following, when the people which 
stood on the other side of the sea saw that there was 
none other boat there, save that one whereinto His 
disciples were entered, and that Jesus went not with 
His disciples into the boat, but that His disciples were 
gone away alone ; 

23. (Howbeit there came other boats from Tiberias 
nigh unto the place where they did eat bread, after 
that the Lord had given thanks :) 

24. When the people therefore saw that Jesus was 
not there, neither His disciples, they also took ship- 
ping, and came to Capernaum, seeking for Jesus. 

VER. 22—27. ST. JOHN. 221 

25. And when they had found Him on the other 
side of the sea, they said unto Him, Rabhi, when 
camest Thou hither ? 

26. Jesus answered them and said, Verily, verily, 
1 say unto you, Ye seek me, not because ye saw the 
miiacles, but bccause ye did eat of the loaves, and 
were filled. 

27. Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but 
for that meat which endureth unto everlasting Hfc, 
which the Son of man shall give unto you : for Hini 
hath God the Father sealed. 

Chrys. Our Lord, though He did not actually shew Ilim- Cbrys. 
self to the multitude walking on the sea, yet gave them the ^iH-' ^, 
opportunity of iuferring what had takcu place; The day 
following, the people which stood on the other side of the sea 
saw that there was none other boat there, save that one 
whereinto Ilis disciples were entered, and that Jesus went 
not with His disciples into the boat, but that Ilis disciples 
were gone away alone. What was this but to suspect that 
Ile had walked across the sea, on Ilis going away ? For 
He could not have gone over in a ship, as there was only 
mie there, that iu which Ilis disciplcs had entcrcd ; aud He 
had not gone in with them. Aug. Kuowledge of the Au-. Tr. 
miracle was couveyed to theni iudirectly. Othcr ships had ^''^' 
come to the place where they had eaten bread ; iu these 
they weut after Ilim ; Iloivbeit there came other boats from 
Tiberias, nigh unto the place where they did eat bread, after 
that the Lord had given thanks. When the people therefore 
saw that Jesus was not there, neither Ilis disciples, they also 
took shippiug, and came to Capernaum, seeking for Jesus. 
Chrys. Yet after so great a miracle, they did not ask Him Ciirvs. 
how He had passed over, or shew any couccrn about it : as xiiii. i. 
appears from what follows ; And wlien they had found Ilim 
on the other side of the sea, they said unto Him, Rabbi, when 
camest Thou hither ? Exccpt we say that this when meaiit 
huiv. And observe their hghtness of mind. After sayiug, 
This is that Prophet, and wishing to take Him by force to 
make Him king, wheu they find Him, uothing of the kiud 




Aug. Tr. 
XXV. 8. 

xliv. 1. 

Aug. Tr. 
XXV. 10. 

xliv. 1. 

Aug. Tr. 
XXV. 10. 

II om. 
xliv. 1. 

is thought of. AuG. So He Who had fled to the raountain, 
mixes and converses with the multitude. Only just now 
they would have kept Him, and made Him king. But after 
the sacrament of the miracle, He begins to discourse, and 
fills their souls with His word, whose bodies He had satisfied 
with bread. Alcuin \ He who set an exaraple of declining 
praise, and earthly power, sets teachers also an example of 
deliverance in preaching. Chrys. Kindness and lenity are 
not alvvays expedient. To the iudolent or insensible disciple 
the spur must be applied ; and this the Son of God does. 
For when the multitude comes with soft speeches, Rabbi, 
when camest Thou hither ? He shews thcm that He did not 
desire the honour that coraeth from man, by the severity of 
His answer, which both exposes the motive on which they 
acted, and rcbukes it. Jesus answered them and said, Verily, 
verily, I say unto you, Ye seek Me, not because ye saw the 
miracles, but because ye did eat of thc loaves, and were fiUed. 
AuG. As if He said, Ye seek Me to satisfy the flesh, not the 
spirit. CiiRYG. After the rebuke, howevcr, He proceeds to 
tcach them : Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for 
that meat which endureth unto everlasting life ; meaning, Ye 
seek for temporal food, whereas I only fcd your bodies, that 
ye might seek the more diligently for that food, which is not 
teraporary, but contains eterual life. Alcuin. Bodily food 
only supports the flesh of the outward man, and must be 
taken not once for all, but daily; whereas spiritual food 
remaineth for ever, imparting perpetual fulness, and im- 
mortality. Auo. Under the figure of food He alludes to 
Himself. Ye seek Me, He saith, for the sake of something 
else; seek Me for My own sake. Chrys. But, inasmuch 
as some who wish to live in sloth, pervert this precept, 
Labour not, ^c. it is well to notice what Paul says, Let 
him that stole steal no more, but rather let him labour, work- 
ing with his hands the thing tchich is good, that he may have 
to give to him that needeth. And he himself too, when he 
resided with Aquila and Priscilla at Corinth, worked with 
his hand. By saying, Labour not for the meat ivhich per- 
isheth, our Lord does not mean to tell us to be idle; but 
to work, and give alms. This is that meat which perisheth 

* Not found in Alcuin, but in a Gloss. 

VER. 22—27. ST. JOHN. 223 

not; to labour for the meat wliicli perisheth, is to be devoted 
to the interests of this life. Our Lord saw that the raultitude 
had no thought of believing, and only wished to fill their 
bellies, without working; and this He justly called the mcat 
which porisheth. Aug. As He told the woman of Samaria Aug. Tr. 
above, If thou knewest Who it is that saith to thee, Give Me ^'"^" ^* 
to drinli, thou wouldest have asked of Him, and He ivould 
have given thee living water. So he says here, Which the 
Son of man shall give unto you. Alcuin. "When, through 
the hand of the priest, thou receivest the Body of Christ, 
think not of the priest which thou seest, but of the Priest 
thou dost not see. The pricst is the dispenscr of this food, 
not the author. The Son of man gives Himself to us, that 
we may abide in Him, and He in us. Do not couceive that 
Son of man to be the same as other sons of men : He 
stands alone in abundance of grace, separate and distinct 
from all the rest : for that Son of man is the Son of God, as 
it follows, For Him hath God the Father sealed. To seal is 
to put a mark upon ; so the meaning is, Do not despise Me 
because I am the Son of man, for I am the Son of man in 
such sort, as that the Father hath sealed Me, i.e. given Me 
something pecuHar, to the end that I should not be con- 
founded with the human race, but that the human race should 
be delivered by Me. Hilary. A scal throws out a pcrfect iiiir. viii. 
impression of the stamp, at the same time that it takes in ^^ 
that impression. This is not a perfect illustration of the 
Divine nativity : for seaHng supposes mattcr, different kiuds 
of matter, the impression of harder upon softer. Yet He 
who was God Only-Begotten, and the Son of man only by 
the Sacrament of our salvation, makes use of it to express 
the rather's fulness as stamped upon Hiraself. He wishes to 
shew the Jews He has the power of giving the eternal meat, 
because He contained in Himself the fuhiess of God. Ciirys. Chns. 
Or sealed, i.e. sent Him for this purpose, viz. to briug us xUv] i. 
food ; or, sealed, was revealed the Gospel by means of His 
witness. Alcuin. To take the passage mystically : on the 
day following, i.e. after the ascension of Christ, the multi- 
tude standing in good works, not lying in worldly pleasurcs, 
expects Jesus to come to them. The one ship is the one 
Church : the othcr ships which come bcsides, are thc cou- 



venticles of lieretics, who seek their own, not the things of 

Phii. 2,21. Jesus Christ. Wherefore He well says, Ye seek Me, because 

Aug. Tr. ye did eat of the loaves. Aug. How many there are who 

seek Jesus, only to gain some temporary benefit. One man 

has a matter of business, in which he wants the assistance of 

the clergy ; another is oppressed by a more powerful neigh- 

bour, and flies to the Church for refuge : Jesus is scarcely 

Orpg. ever sought for Jesus' sake. Greg. In their persons too 

jvjorai. our Lord condemns all those within the holy Church, who, 

(c. XXV.) when brought near to God by sacred Orders, do not seek 

the recompense of righteousness, but the interests of this 

present Hfe. To follow our Lord, when filled with bread, is 

to use Holy Church as a means of livelihood ; and to seek 

our Lord not for the miracle's sake, but for the loaves, is to 

aspire to a religious office, not with a view to increase of 

grace, but to add to our worldly means. Bede. They too 

seek Jesus, not for Jesus' sake, but for soraething else, who 

ask in their prayers not for eternal, but temporal blessings. 

The mystical meaning is, that the conventicles of heretics 

are without the compauy of Christ and His disciples. And 

other ships coming, is the sudden growth of heresies. By 

the crowd, which saw that Jesus was not there, or His dis- 

ciples, are designated those who seeing the errors of heretics, 

leave them and turn to the true faith. 

28. Then said they unto Him, What shall we do, 
that we might work the works of God ? 

29. Jesus answered and said unto them, This is 
the work of God, that ye believe on Him Whom He 
hath sent. 

30. They said therefore unto Him, What sign 
shewest Thou then, that we may see, and believe 
Thee ? what dost Thou work ? 

31. Our fathers did eat manna in the desert; as it 
is written, He gave them bread from heaven to eat. 

32. Then said Jesus unto them, Verily, verily, 
I say unto you, Moses gave you not that bread from 
heaven ; but My Father giveth you the true bread 
from heaven. 

VER. 28 — 34. ST. JOHN. 225 

33. For tlie bread of God is He which cometh 
down from heaven, and giveth life unto the world. 

34. Then said they unto Him, Lord, evermore give 
us this bread. 

Alcuin. They understood that the meat, which remaineth 
unto eternal hfe, was the work of God : and therefore they 
ask Him what to do to work the work of God, i. e. obtain 
the meat : Then said they unto Him, What shall ive do that 
we might work the works of God? Bede. i. e. By keeping 
what coramandraents shall we be able to fulfil the law of 
God ? Chrys. But they said this, not that they might chrys. 
learn, and do them, but to obtain frora Him another exhi- '^'"": 

' ' xlv. 1. 

bition of His bounty. Theophyl. Christ, tliough He saw 
it would not avail, yet for the good of others afterwards, 
answered their question ; and shewed them, or rather the 
whole world, what was the work of God : Jesus answered 
and said unto them, This is the work of God, that ye believe 
on Ilim whoni Ue hath sent. Aug. He does not say, That Au?. 
ye beheve Him, but, that ye believe on Uim. For the devils . y^^"'- 
beheved Hira, and did not beheve on Hira ; and we beheve 
Paul, but do not beheve on Paul. To beheve on Hira is 
beheving to love, beheving to honour Ilim, beheving to go 
unto Hira, and be made membcrs incorporate of His Body. 
The faith, which God requires of us, is that wliich worketh 
by love. Faith indeed is distinguished frora works by the 
Apostle, who says, That man isjustified by faith without the Rom. 3, 
deeds of the law. But the works indeed which appear good, 
without faith in Christ, are not really so, not being referred 
to that end, which raakes them good. For Christ is the end Rom. 
of the law for righteousness to every one that believeth. And ' 
therefore our Lord would not separate faith from works, but 
said that faith itself was the doing the work of God ; He 
saith not, This is your work, but, This is the ivork of God, 
that ye believe on Ilim : in order that he that glorieth might 
glory in the Lord. Aug. To eat then that meat which eu- Aug. 
dureth unto everlasting hfe, is to believe on Hira. Why ^"^" 
dost thou make ready thy tooth and thy behy ? Only be- 
heve, and thou hast eaten already. As He called ou them 



to believe, tliey still asked for miracles whereby to believe ; 

They said therefore unto Him, What sign shewest Thou then, 

that we may see and believe Thee ? What dost Thou work ? 

riirys. Chrys. Nothing can be more unreasonable than their ask- 

^°^{ ing for another miracle, as if none had been given already. 

And they do not even leave the choice of the miracle to our 

Lord ; but would oblige Him to give them just that sign, 

which was given to their fathers : Our fathers did eat manna 

in the desert. Alcuin. And to exalt the miracle of the 

manna, they quote the Psalra, As it is written, He gave them 

Chrys. bread from heaven to eat. Chrys, Whereas many miracles 

xlv"i ^^^^ performed in Egypt, at the Red Sea, and in the desert, 

they remembered this one the best of any. Such is the 

force of appetite. They do not mention this miracle as the 

work either of God, or of Moses, in order to avoid raising 

Him on the one hand to an equality with God, or lowering 

Him on the other by a comparison with Moses ; but they 

take a middle ground, only saying, Our fathers did eat 

Aug. Tr. manna in the desert. Aug. Or thus ; Our Lord sets Him- 

XXV. s. 12. ggj^ above Moses, who did not dare to say that he gave the 

meat which perisheth not. The multitude therefore remem- 

bering what Moses had done, and wishing for some greater 

miracle, say, as it were, Thou promisest the meat which 

perisheth not, and doest not works equal to those Moses 

did. He gave us not barley loaves, but manna from heaven. 

Chrys. Chrys. Our Lord might have repHed, that He had done 

xxvTl. mirftcles greater than Moses : but it was not the time for 

such a declaration. One thing He desired, viz. to bring 

them to taste the spiritual meat : then Jesus said unto them, 

Verily, verily, I say unto you, Moses gave you not that bread 

from heaven ; but My Father giveth you the true bread from 

heaven. Did not the manna come from heaven ? True, but 

in what sense did it ? The same in which the birds are 

called, the birds of heaven ^ ; and just as it is said in the 

Ps. 17. Psalm, The Lord thundered out of heaven. He calls it the 

true bread, not because the miracle of the manna was false, 

but because it was the figure, not the reahty. He does not 

say too, Moses gave it you not, but I : but He puts God for 

Aug. Tr. Moses, Himself for the manna. Aug. As if He said, That 

XXV. 31. 

^ Volucres cceli, Vulgate translation of fowls of the air. 

VER. 28 — 34. ST. JOHN. 227 

manna was the type of this food, of which I just now spoke j 
and which all My miracles refer to. You like My miracles, 
you despise what is signified by them. This bread which 
God gives, and which this manna represented, is the Lord 
Jesus Christ, as we read next, For the bread of God is He 
which cometh down from heaven, and giveth life unto the 
world. Bede. Not to the physical world, but to men, its 
inhabitants. Theophyl. He calls Himself the true bread, 
because the Only-begotten Son of God, made man, was 
principally signified by the manna. For manna means lite- 
rally, What is this ? The Israehtes were astouished at first 
on finding it, and asked one another what it was. And the 
Son of God, made man, is in an especial sense this mys- 
terious manna, which we ask about, saying, What is this? 
How can the Son of God be the Son of Man ? How can 
one person consist of two natures? Alcuin. Who by the 
humauity, which was assumed, came down from heaven, and 
by the divinity, which assumed it, gives life to the world. 
Theophyl. But this bread, being essentially life, (for He is 
the Son of the living Father,) in quickening all things, does 
but what is natural to Him to do. For as natural bread 
supports our weak flesh, so Christ, by the operations of the 
Spirit, gives hfe to the soul ; and evcn incorruption to the 
body, (for at the resurrection the body will be made incor- 
ruptible). Wherefore He says, that He yiveth Jfe unto the 
world. Chrys. Not only to the Jews, but to the whole world. Chrys. 
The multitude, however, still attached a low meaning to His 'I"'"- 
words : Then said they unto Him, Lord, evermore give us this 
bread. They say, Give us this hread, not, Ask Thy Father 
to give it us : whereas He had said that His Father gave 
this bread. Aug. As the woman of Samaria, when our Lord Aug. Tr. 
told her, Whosoever drinketh of this water shall ncver thirst, ^^^* ^*^' 
thought He meant natural water, and said, Sir, give me this 
water, that she might never be in want of it again: in the 
same way these say, Give us this bread, which refreshes, 
supports, and fails not. 

35. And Jesus said unto them, I am the bread of 
life : he that cometh to Me shall never hunger ; and 
he that believeth on Me shall never thirst. 



36. But I said unto you, That ye also have seen 
Me, and beUeve not. 

37. AU that the Father giveth Me shaU come to 
Me; and him that cometh to Me I wiU in no wise 
cast out. 

38. For I came down from heaven, not to do Mine 
own wiU, but the wiU of Ilim that sent Me. 

39. And this is the Father's will whicli hath sent 
Me, that of all which He hath given Me I should 
lose nothing, but should raise it np again at the 
last day. 

40. And this is the will of Him that sent Me, that 
every one which seeth thc Son, and bcUeveth on Ilim, 
may have everlasting life : and I will raise him up at 
the last day. 

CJuEjs. CnRYS. Our Lord now procceds to sct forth mysterics ; 

xlv"2. ^"^ ^^^^ speaks of Ilis Divinity : And Jesus said unto them, 

I am the bread qf life. He does not say this of His body, 

for He speaks of tliat at tlie end ; The brcad that I ivill yive 

you is My flesh. Here He is speaking of His Divinity. The 

flesh is bread, by virtuc of the Word ; this bread is heavenly 

bread, on account of thc Spirit which dweUeth in it. Theo- 

PHYL. He does not say, I am the bread of nourishment, but 

of Ufe, for, whereas aU things brought death, Christ hath 

quickened us by Hiraself. But thc Hfe here, is not our 

coramon life, but that which is not cut short by death : He 

that cometh to Me shall never hunger ; and he that believ- 

Aug. Tr. eth on Me shall never tliirst. Aug. He that cometh to Me, 

^^ ' ' i. e. tliat believeth on Me, shall never hunger, has the sarae 

meaning as shaU nevcr thirst ; both signifying that eternal 

society, where there is no want. Theophyl. Or, shall never 

^ non kunger or thirst, i. e. shaU ncver bc wearicd ^ of hcaring the 

feiet ac- word of God, and shaU never thirst as to thc understanding : 

cipieucU as though Hc had not the water of baptism, aiid thc sauc- 

seniio- ... 

nem. tification of the Spirit. Aug. Ye desire bread frora heavcn ; 

Aufj; Tr. but, though you have it before you, you eat it not. This is 

what I told you : But I said unto you, that ye also have seen 

VER. 35—40. ST. JOHN. 229 

Me, and believe not. Alcuin. As if He said, I did not say 
what I did to you about the bread, because I thought you 
would eat it, but rather to convict you of unbelief. I say, 
that ye see Me, and believe not. Chrys. Or, I said to yoii, Chrys. 
refers to thc testimony of the Scriptures, of which He said ^y™'^ 
above, They are they ivhich testify qf Me ; and again, / am ^^ 5^ 
come in My Father's Name, and ye receive 3fe not. That ye 
have seen Me, is a silent allusion to His miracles. Aug. But, Auar. Tr. 
because ye have seen Me, and believed not, I have not 
therefore lost the people of God : All that the Fatlier giveth 
Me, shall come vnto Me ; and him that conieth to 3Ie, I will in 
no wise cast out. Bede. AIl, He saith, absolutely, to shcw 
the fulness of the nuraber who should believe. These are 
they which the Father gives the Son, when, by His sccrct 
inspiration, He makes them believe in the Son. Alcuin. 
Whomsoever therefore the Father draweth to belief in Me, 
he, by faith, shall corae to Me, that he may be joined to Me. 
And tJiose, who in the steps of faith and good works, shall 
come to Me, I will in no ivise cast out ; i. e. in the secret habi- 
tation of a pure conscience, he shall dwell with Me, and at 
the last I will receive him to everlasting felicity. Aug. That Aug. Tr. 
inner place, whencc there is no casting out, is a great sanc- ^^^' 
tuary, a secret charabcr, where is ncithcr weariness, or the 
bitterness of evil thoughts, or the cross of pain and tempta- 
tion : of which it is said, Enter thou into thejoy of thy Lord. Matt. 2,5. 
CiiRYS. The cxpression, that the Father rjivcth Me, shews that Chrys. 
it is no accident whether a man believes or not, and that j.iiv?2. 
bchef is not the work of human cogitation, but rcquires 
a revelation from on high, and a raind dcvout cnough to 
receive the revelation. Not that tlicy are free from blame, 
whom the Father does not give, for they are deficieut even in 
that which lies in their own power, the will to believe. Tliis 
is a virtual rebuke to their unbelief, as it shews that who- 
ever does not believe in Hira, transgresses the Fathcr's will. 
Paul, however, says, that He gives them up to the Father : 
When Ile shall have given up the kingdom to God, even the 1 Cor. 5, 
Father. But as the Father, in giving, does not take from ^^' 
Himself, so neither does the Son when He gives up. The 
Son is said to give up to thc Father, because we are brought 
to the Father by Him. Aud of the Father at the same time 


1 Cor. 1, we read, By Whom ye were called unto the fellowship qf Mis 

Son. Whoever then, our Lord says, cometh to Me, shall 

be saved, for to save such I took up flesh : For I came doion 

from heaven not to do Mine own will, but the will of Him that 

sent Me. But what? Hast Thou one will, He another ? No, 

certainly. Mark what He says afterwards ; And this is the 

will of Him that sent Me, that every one which seeth the Son, 

and believeth on Him, should have everlasting Ufe. And this 

c. 5, 21. is the Son's will too ; For the Son quickeneth whom He will. 

He says then, I came to do nothing but what the Father 

wills, for I have no will distinct from My Father^s : all 

things that the Father hath are Mine. But this not now : 

He reserves these higher truths for the end of His ministry. 

Aug. Tr. AuG. This is the reason why He does not cast out those who 

■^' come to Him. For I came downfrom lieaven not to do Mine 

own will, but the will of Him that sent Me. The soul de- 

parted from God, because it was proud. Pride casts us out, 

humility rcstorcs us. When a physician in the treatment 

of a disease, cures certain outward symptoms, but uot the 

cause which produccs them, his cure is only temporary. So 

long as the cause remains, the diseasc may return. That 

the cause then of all diseases, i.e. pride, might be eradicated, 

the Son of God humbled Himself. Why art thou proud, 

O man ? The Son of God humbled Himself for thee. It 

might shame thee, perhaps, to imitate a humble man; but 

imitate at least a humble God. And this is the proof of His 

humility : / came not to do Mine own will, but the will of 

Him that sent Me. Pride does its own will ; humility the 

lliiar. iii. will of God. HiLARY. Not that Hc does what He does not 

c, 9 ' wish. He fulfils obediently His Father's will, wishing also 

Aug. Tr. Himself to fulfil that wiU. Auo. For this very reason 

'T''^' "L therefore, I will not cast out him that cometh to Me : be- 

Joau 16. ' _ _ ' 

cause I came not to do Mine own wiU. I came to teach 
humility, by being humble Myself. He that cometh to Me, 
is made a member of Me, and necessarily humble, because 
He will not do His own will, but the will of God ; and 
therefore is not cast out. He was cast out, as proud ; he 
returns to Me humble, he is not sent away, except for pride 
again; he who keeps his humility, falleth not from the truth. 
And further, that He does not cast out such, because He 

VER. 35 — 40. ST. JOHN. 231 

came not to do His will, He shews when He says, And this 
is the Father's will which hath sent Me, that of all which 
He hath given Me, I should lose nothing. Every one of an 
humble mind is given to Him : It is not the will of your Msitt. \8, 
Father, that one of these little ones should perish. The swell- ^^' 
ing ones may perish ; of the little ones none can; for except Matt 18, 
ye he as a little child, ye shalt not enter into the kingdom of 
heaven. Aug. They thercfore who by God's unerring pro- Aug. de 
vidence are foreknown, and predestined, called, justified, Gratia' 
glorified, even before their new birth, or before they are c- '^ 
born at all, are already the sons of God, and cannot possibly 
perish; these are they who truly come to Christ. By Him 
there is given also perseverance in good unto the end ; which 
is given only to those who will not perish. Tliose who do 
not persevere will perish. Chrys. I should lose nothing ; He Chrys, 
lets them know, He does not desire His own honour, but ^y^^'^ 
their salvation. After these declarations, / will in no wise 
cast out, and / should lose nothing, He adds, But should raise 
it up at the last day. In the general rcsurrection the wicked 
will be cast out, according to Matthew, Take him, and cast Matt. 22, 
him into outer darkness. And, Who is able to cast hoth soul ^^' 
and body into hell. He often brings in mention of the re- ^g. ' 
surrection for this purpose : viz. to warn men not to judge of 
God's providence from present events, but to carry on their 
ideas to another world. Aug. See how the twofold resur- Aug. Tr. 
rection is expressed here. He who cometh to Me, shall forth- ^^^* ^^' 
with rise again ; by becomiug humble, and a member of Me. 
But then Hc proceeds ; But I will raise him up at the last 
day. To explain the words, AII that the Father hath given 
Me, and, / should lose nothing, He adds ; And this is the will 
of Him that hath sent Me, that every one ichich seeth the Son, 
and believeth on Him, may have everlasting life ; and I will 
raise him up at the last day. Above He said, Whoso heareth c. 5, 24. 
My word, and believeth on Ilim that sent Me : now it is, Every 
one which seeth the Son, and believeth on Him. He does not 
say, beheve on the Father, because it is the same thing to 
beUeve on the Father, and on the Son ; for as the Father 
hath life in Himself, evcn so hath Ile given io the Son to have 
life in Himself ; and again, That whoso secth the Son and 
believeth on Him, should have everlasting life ; i. e. by be- 


lieving, by passing over to life, as at the first resurrection. 
But this is only the first resurrection, He alludes to the 
second when He says, And I will raise him up at the 
last day. 

41. The Jews then murmured at Him, because He 
said, I am the bread which came down from heaven. 

42. And they said, Is not this Jesus, the Son of 
Joseph, whose father and mother we know ? how is 
it then that He saith, I came down from heaven ? 

43. Jesus therefore answered and said unto them, 
Murmur not among yourselves. 

44. No man can come to Me, except the Father 
which hath sent Me draw him : and I will raise him 
up at the last day. 

45. It is written in the prophets, And they shall 
be all taught of God. Every man therefore that 
hath heard, and hath lcarned of the Fathcr, cometh 
unto Me. 

46. Not that any man hath seen the Father, save 
He whicli is of God, He hath seen the Father. 

chrys. Chrys. Thc Jcws, so long as they thought to get food for 

y.\J\'\ their carnal eating, had no misgivings ; but when this hope 

was taken away, then, we read, the Jeivs murmured at Ilim 

because Ile said, I am the hread which came doivnfrom heaven. 

This was only a pretence. The real cause of their complaint 

was that they were disappointed in their expectation of a 

bodily feast. As yet however they reverenced Him, for His 

miracle; and only expressed their discontent by murmurs. 

What these were we read next: Jnd they said, Is not this 

JesuSy the Son qf Joseph, whose father and mother we know ? 

how is it then that He saith, I came down from heaven? 

Aiip:. Tr. AuG. But they were far from being fit for that heavenly 

bread, and did not hunger for it. For they had not that 

Ciirys. hunger of the inuer man. Chrys. It is evident that they 

xlvi. 1. did not yet know of His miraculous birth : for they call Him 

the Son of Joseph. Nor are they blamed for this. Our 

VER. 41 46. ST. JOHN. 233 

Lord does not reply, I am not the Son of JosepTi : for the 
mh'acle of His birth would have overpowered them. And 
if the birth according to the flesh were above their behef, 
how much more that higher and ineffable birth. Aug. He Aug. 
took man's flesh upon Him, but not after the manner of ^' ^^"^' 
menj for, His Father being ia heaven, He chose a mother 
upon earth, and was born of her without a father. The 
answer to the raurmurers next foUows : Jesus tlierefore an- 
swered and said unto them, Murmur not among yourselves ; 
as if to say, I know why ye hunger not after this bread, and 
80 cannot understand it, and do not seek it : No man can 
come to Me except the Father who hath sent Me draw Jiim. 
This is the doctrine of grace : none cometh, except he be 
drawn. But whom the Father draws, and whom not, and 
why He draws one, and not another, presumc not to decide, 
if thou wouhlest avoid falling into error. Take the doctrine 
as it is given thee : and, if thou art not drawn, pray that 
thou maycst be. Chrys. But hcre the Manichees attack chrys. 
us, asserting that nothinof is in our own power. Our Lord's M"'"- 
words however do not destroy our free agency, but only 
shcw that we nced Divine assistance. For He is speaking 
not of one who comes without the concurrence of his own 
will, but one who has many hindrances in the way of his 
coming. Aug. Now if wc are drawn to Christ without our Aug. 
own will, we beheve without our own will : the will is not J'"* ^^"^" 

2. et sq. 

exercised, but compulsion is apphed. But, though a man can 
enter the Church involuntarily, he cannot believe other than 
voluntarily ; for with the heart man believeth imto rir/hteous- 
ness. Therefore if he who is drawn, comes without his will, 
he does not beheve; if he does not believe, he does not come. 
For we do not come to Christ, by running, or walking, but 
by beheving, not by the motion of the body, but the will of 
the mind. Thou art drawn by thy wilh But what is it to 
be drawn by the will ? Belight thou in the Lord, and He vnll Ps. sg. 
give thee thy hcarfs desire. There is a certain craving of 
the heart, to which that heavenly bread is pleasant. If the 
Poet could say, " Trahit sua quemque vohiptas," how much 
more strongly may we speak of a man being drawn to Christ, 
i.e. being delighted with truth, happiness, justice, etcrnal hfe, 
all which is Cln-ist ? Havc thc bodily senses their pleasures, 


and has not tlie soul liers ? Give me one who loves, who 

longs, who burns, who sighs for the source of his beiug and 

his eternal home ; and he will know what I mean. But 

why did He say, Except My Father draw him ? If we are 

to be drawn, let us be drawn by Him to whom His love 

Cant. 1, 4. saith, Draw me, we will run after Thee. But let us see what 

is meant by it. The Father draws to the Son those who 

believe on the Son, as thinking that He has God for His 

Father, For the Father begat the Son equal to Himself; 

and whoso thinks and believes really and seriously that He 

on Wliom he believes is equal to the Father, him the Father 

draws to the Son. Arius bcHeved Hira to be a creature ; 

the Father drew not him. Thomas says, Christ is only a 

man. Because he so believes, the Father draws him not. 

Matt, 16, He drew Peter who said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of the 

living God; to whom accordingly it was told, For flesh and 

blood hath not revealed it unto thee, but My Father which is 

in heaven. That revelation is the drawing. For if earthly 

objects, when put before us, draw us ; how much more shall 

Christ, when revealed by the Father? For what doth the 

soul more long after than truth ? But here men hunger, 

there they will be fiUed. Whereforc He adds, And I will 

raise him up at the last day : as if He said, He shall be filled 

with that, for which he now thirsts, at the resurrection of 

Aug. de the dead ; for I will raise him up. Aug. Or the Father 

et Vet.°^ draws to the Son, by the works which He did by Him. 

Chrys. Chrys. Grcat indeed is the Son's dignity ; the Father draws 

^"!"' men, and the Son raises thera up. This is no division of 

works, but an equality of power. He then shews the way 

in which the Father draws. // is written in the Prophets, 

And they shall all be taught of God. You see the excellence 

of faith ; that it cannot be learnt from men, or by the teach- 

ing of man, but only from God Himself, The Master sits, 

dispensing His truth to all, pouring out His doctrine to all. 

But if all are to be taught of God, how is it that some be- 

lieve not ? Because all here only means the generahty, or, 

Aug. de fill that have the will. Aug. Or thus ; When a schoolmaster 

SaiTcto-^ is the only one iu a town, we say loosely, This man teaches 

rum, all here to read ; not that all learn of hira, but that he 

teaches all who do learn. And in the same way we say that 

C. Vlll. 

VER. 41 — 46. ST. JOHN. 235 

God teaches all men to come to Christ : not that all do 
come, but that no one comes in any other way. Aug. AU Au^. 
the men of that kingdom shall be taught of God ; they shall j"P^' 
hear nothing from men : for, though in this world what they Tr. xav. 7. 
hear with the outward ear is from men, yet what they un- 
derstand is given them from within ; from within is light 
and revelatiou, I force certain sounds into your ears, but 
unless He is within to reveal their meaning, how, O ye Jews, 
can ye acknowledge Me, ye whom the Father hath not 
taught ? Bede. He uses the plural, In the Prophets, because 
all the Prophets being filled with one and the same spirit, 
their prophecies, though diiferent, all tcnded to the same 
end ; and with whatever any onc of them says, all the rest 
agree; as with the prophecy of Joel, All shall be taught o/Joel 2, 23. 
God. Gloss. These words are not found iu Joel, but somc- ^^^^^ \'^],l^ 
thing like them ; Be glad then ye children of Sion, and rejoice ^orem 
in the Lord your God, for Jle hath given you a Teacher. vuig. 
And more expressly in Isaiah, And all thy children shall be J^^' ^*» 
taught of the Lord. Chkys. An important distinction. All chrys. 
men before learut the things of God through men ; now they i^"'"- 
learn them through the Only Son of God, and the Holy Aug. de 
Spirit. AuG. AU that are taught of God come to the Sou, s^^^[q'^'' 
bccause thcy have heard and learnt from the Father of the rum, 
Son: wherefore Ile procecds, Every man that hath ^e«^^*etseq! 
and hath learned of the FatJier, cometh to Me. But if every 
one that hath heard and learnt of the Father cometh, every 
one that hath not heard of the Father hath not learnt. For 
beyond the rcach of thc bodily senses is this school, in 
which the Father is heard, and men taught to come to the 
Son. Here we have not to do with the carnal ear, but the 
ear of the heart ; for here is the Son Himsclf, the Word by 
which the Father teacheth, and together with Hira the Holy 
Spirit : the operations of the three Persons being insepa- 
rable from each othcr. This is attributed however princi- 
pally to the Father, because from Him proceeds the Son, 
and the Holy Spirit. Therefore the grace which the Di- 
vine bounty imparts in secret to men's hearts, is rejccted 
by none from hardness of heart : seeing it is given in the 
first instance, iu order to take away hard-hearteduess. Why 
then does Ile not teach all to come to Christ? Because 


tliose whora He teaches, He teaches in mercy ; and those 
whom He teaches not, He teaches not in judgment. But 
if we say, that those, whom He teaches not, wish to learn, 
Ps. 84, 6. we shall be answered, Why then is it said, Wilt Thou not 
turn again, and quicken us ? If God does not make willing 
minds out of unwilling, why prayeth the Church, according 
to our Lord's command, for her persecutors? For no one 
can say, I believed, and therefore He called me : rather the 
preventing mercy of God called him, that he might believe. 
Au^. Tr. AuG. Behold then how the Father draweth ; not by laying 
etle ^ necessity on man, but by teaching the truth. To draw, 
belongeth to God : Every one that hath heard, and hath 
learned of the Father, cometh to Me. What then ? Hath 
Christ taught nothing ? Not so. What if men saw not the 
Father tcaching, but saw the Son. So then the Fathcr 
taught, the Son spoke. As I teach you by My word, so 
the Father teaches by His Word. But He Himself explains 
the matter, if we read on : Not that any man hath seen the 
Father, save He ivhich is of God, Ue hath seen the Father ; 
as if He said, Do not when I tell you, Every man that hath 
heard and learnt of the Father, say to yourselves, We have 
never seen the Father, and how then can we have learnt 
from Him ? Hear Him then in Me. I know the Father, 
and am from Him, just as a word is from him who speaks 
it ; i.e. not the mere passing sound, but that which remain- 
Chrys. cth with tlic speaker, and draweth the hearer. Chrys. We 
^l^^^s 1 ^^^ ^^ from God. That which belongs pecuharly and prin- 
cipally to the Son, He omits the mention of, as being un- 
suitable to the weakness of His hearers. 

47. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that believ- 
eth on Me hath everlasting life. 

48. I am that bread of life. 

49. Your fathers did eat manna in the wilderness, 
and are dead. 

50. This is the bread which cometh down from 
heaven, that a man may eat thereof, and not die. 

51. I am the living bread which came down from 
heaven : if any man eat of this bread, he shall live 
for evei'. 

YER. 47 — 51. ST. JOHN. 237 

AuG. Our Lord wishes to reveal what He is ; Verily, Aug. Tr. 
verily, I say unto you, He that believeth on Me, hath ever- ^^^'•^•i"* 
lasting life. As if He said; He that believeth on Me hath 
Me : but what is it to have Me ? It is to have eterual hfe : 
for the Word which was in the beginning with God is hfe 
eternal, and the life was the hght of luen. Life uuderwent 
death, that hfe might kill death. Chrys. The multitude ciirys. 
being urgent for bodily food, and rerainding Him of that Ij^!^ J^^^^j^ 
which was given to their fathers, He tells them that the 
manna was only a type of that spiritual food which was now 
to be tasted in reahty, I am that bread ofUfe. Chkys. He Chns. 
calls Himself the bread of hfe, because He constitutes one ^,'J'"j 
life, both present and to come. Aug. And because they au<j- Tr. 
had taunted Him with the manna, He adds, Your fathers ■''^^'* ^'* 
did eat manna in the ivilderness, and are dead. Your fathers 
they are, for ye are like them ; murmuring sons of raurmur- 
ing fathers. For in nothing did that people offend God 
more, than by their raurmurs against Hira. And thcrefore 
are they dead, because what they saw they beHeved, what 
they did not see they believed not, nor understood. Chrys. ciirys. 
Tlie addition, In the ivilderness, is not put in without mcan- xivu-j. 
ing, but to remind thcm how short a time the raanna lasted ; 
only till the entrance into tlic land of proraise. And be- 
cause the bread which Clirist gave seemcd inferior to the 
manna, in that the latter had come down from heaven, while 
the former was of this world, He adds, This is the bread 
ivhich cometh doivn from heaven. Aug. Tliis was the bread Anp;. Tr. 
the manna typified, this was the bread the altar typificd. ^*^'* ^" 
Both the one and the other were sacraments, differing in 
symbol, alike in the thing signified, Hear the Apostle, 
They did all eat the same spiritual meat. Chrys. He then i Cor. lo. 
gives them a strong reason for believing that they were Cinys. 
given for higher privileges than their fathers. Their fathers xhi. '2. 
eat manna and were dead ; whereas of this bread He says, 
tliat a man may eat thereof, and not die. The difference of 
the two is cvident from the difiference of their ends. By 
bread here is meant wholesome doctrine, and faith in Him, 
or His body : for thcse are the preservatives of the souh 
AuG. But are we, who eat the bread that coraeth down from Au^-. Tr. 
heaven, reUeved frorn deatli? Frora visible and carnal death, ''^^'" '* 


the death of tlie body, we are not : we shall die, even as 

they died. But frora spiritual death which their fathers 

suffered, we are delivered. Moses and many acceptable of 

God, eat the manna, and died not, because they understood 

that visible food in a spiritual sense, spiritually tasted it, 

and were spiritually filled with it. And we too at this day 

receive the visible food; but the Sacrament is one thing, 

the virtue of the Sacrament another. Many a one receiveth 

1 Cor. 11, from the Altar, and perisheth in receiving; eating and drhik- 

^^* ing his own damnation, as saith the Apostle. To eat thea 

the heavenJy bread spiritually, is to bring to the Altar an 

innocent mind. Sins, though they be daily, are not deadly. 

Before you go to the Altar, attend to the prayer you repeat : 

Matt. 6, Forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors. If thou for- 

*^' givest, thou art forgiven : approach confidently ; it is bread, 

not poison. None then that eatcth of this bread, shall die. 

But we speak of the virtue of the Sacrament, not the visible 

Sacrament itself; of the inward, not of the outward eater. 

Alcuin. Therefore I say, He that eateth this bread, dieth 

not : / am the living bread which came down from heaven. 

Theoph. Theophyl. By becoming incarnate, He was not then first 

in V. 83. man, and afterwards assumed Divinity, as Nestorius fables. 

Aug. Tr. AuG. The manna too came down from heaven ; but the 

XXVI. 13. manna was shadow, this is substance. Alcuin. But men 

must be quickened by My life : If any man eat of this bread, 

he shall live, not only now by faith and righteousness, but 

for ever. 

51. — And the bread that I will give is My flesh, 
which I will give for the life of the world. 

Qiogg AuG. Our Lord pronounces Himself to be bread, not only 

(Nic.) in respect of that Divinity, which feeds all things, but also 
in respect of that human nature, which was assumed by the 
Word of God : A?id the bread, He says, that I will give is 
My flesh, which I will give for the life of the world. Bede. 
This bread our Lord then gave, when He dehvered to His 
disciple the mystery of His Body and Blood, and offcred 
Himself to God the Father on the altar of the cross. For 
the life of the world, i. e. not for the elements, but for man- 

VER. 47—51. ST. JOHN. 239 

kind, who are called tlie world. Theophyl. Which I shall 

give : this shews His power ; for it shews that He was not 

crucified as a servant, in subjection to the Father, but of His 

own accord ; for though He is said to have been given xip by 

the Father, yet He delivered Hiraself up also. And observe, 

the bread which is taken by us in the mysteries, is not only 

the sign of Christ's flesh, but is itself the very flesh of 

Christ; for He does not say, The bread which I will give, 

is the sign of My flesh, but, is My flesh. The bread is by 

a mystical benediction conveyed in unutterable words, and 

by the indwelling of the Holy Ghost, trausmuted into the 

flesh of Christ. But why see we not the flesh? Because, 

if the flesh were seen, it would revolt us to such a degree, 

that we should be unable to partake of it. And therefore 

in condescension to our infirmity, the mystical food is given 

to us under an appearance suitable to our minds. He gave 

His flesh for the life of the world, in that, by dying, He 

dcstroyed death, By the hfe of the workl too, I understand 

the resurrection ; our Lord's death having brought about 

the resurrection of the whole human race. It may mean 

too the sanctified, beatified, spiritual life ; for though all 

have not attained to this life, yet our Lord gave Himself 

for the world, and, as far as lies in Him, the whole world 

is sanctificd. Aug. But when does flesh receive the bread Au<r. Tr. 

which He calls His flesh ? The faithful know aud rcceive '"' 

the Body of Christ, if they labour to be the body of Christ. 

And they become the body of Christ, if they study to live 

by the Spirit of Christ : for that which lives by the Spirit 

of Christ, is the body of Christ. This bread the Apostle 

sets forth, where he says, IVe being many are one body. \.^°^' 

O sacrament of mercy, O sign of unity, O boud of love ! 

Whoso wishes to live, let him draw nigh, believe, be iucor- 

porated, that he may be quickened. 

52. The Jews therefore strove among themselves, 
saying, How can this man give us His flesh to cat ? 

53. Then Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, 1 
say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of 
man, and drink His blood, ye have no Ufe in you. 




Aiis'. Tr. 
xxvi. s. H 

xlvii. 1, 

Au^. Tr. 
xxvi, 15. 

Aug. Tr. 
xxvi. 15. 

in V. 52. 

Aug. de 
Civ. Dei, 
Ixxi. c. 25. 

Gal. 5, 19, 
et seq. 

54. Whoso eateth My flesh, and drinketh My 
blood, hath eternal life; and I will raise him up 
at the last day. 

AuG. The Jews not understanding what was the bread of 
peace, strove among themselves, saying, How can this man 
give us His flesh to eat ? Whereas they who eat the bread 
strive not among themselves, for God makes them to dwell 
together in unity. Bede. The Jews thought that our Lord 
would divide His flesh into pieces, and give it thera to eat : 
and so raistaking Hira, strove. Chrys. As they thought it 
irapossible that He should do as He said, i. e. give thcra His 
flesh to eat, He shews thera that it was not only possible, 
but necessary : Then said Jesus unto them, Verily, verily, 
I say unto you, Except ye eat the flesh of the Son of man, 
and drink IIis blood, ye have no life in you. Aug. As if He 
said, The sense in which that bread is eaten, and the mode 
of eating it, ye know not ; but, Except ye eat the flesh of 
the Son of man, and drink His blood, ye have no life in you. And that this raight not sccra addressed to thcra 
alone, He declares universally, Whoso eateth My flesh, and 
drinketh My blood, hath eternal life. Aug. And that they 
might not understand Hira to speak of this hfe, and make 
that an occasion of striving, He adds, Ilath eternal life. 
This then he hath not who eateth not that flesh, nor drink- 
eth that blood. The temporal hfe raen may have without 
Hira, the eternal they cannot. This is not true of raaterial 
food. If we do not take that indeed, we shall not live, 
neither do we hve, if we take it : for either disease, or old 
age, or sorae accident kills us after all. Whereas this meat 
and drink, i. e. the Body and Blood of Christ, is such that 
he that taketh it not hath not Kfe, and he that taketh it hath 
life, even hfe eternal. Theophyl. For it is not the flesh of 
man siraply, but of God : and it makes man divine, by in- 
ebriating him, as it were. with divinity. Aug. There are 
sorae who proraise men dehverance from eternal punishment, 
if they are washed in Baptism and partake of Christ's Body, 
whatever hves they Hve. Tlie Apostle however contradicts 
them, where he says, The works of the flesh are manifest, 
which are these; adultery, fornication, uncleanness, lasciviouS' 

VER. 52 — 54. ST. JOHN. 241 

ness, idolatry, ivitchcraft, hatred, variance, emulatio7is, tvrath, 
strife, seditions, heresies, envyings, murders, drunkenness, re- 
vellings, and such like ; of the which I tell you before, as I 
have also told you in time past, that they ivhich do such things 
shall not inherit the kingdom of God. Let us examine what 
is meant here. He who is in the unity of His body, (i. e. one 
ofthe Christian members,) the Sacrament of which body the 
faithful receive when they comraunicate at thc Altar ; he is 
truly said to eat the body, and drink the blood of Christ. 
And heretics and schismatics, who are cut ofF from thc unity 
of the body, may receive the same Sacrament ; but it does 
not profit them, nay, rather is hurtful, as tending to make 
their judgment heavier, or their forgiveness later. Nor ought 
they to feel secure in their abandoned and damnable ways, 
who, by the iniquity of their lives, desert righteousness, 
i. e. Christ ; either by fornication, or other sins of the like 
kind. Such are not to be said to eat the body of Christ ; 
forasmuch as they are not to be counted among the members 
of Christ. For, not to mention other things, men cannot be 
members of Christ, and at the same time members of an 
harlot. AuG. By this meat and drink then, He would liave Ancr. 
us understand the society of His body, aud His raembers, t"'"^"^ 

_ •' ^ ' ' .Toan. c. 

which is the Church, in the prcdcstined, and called, and xxvi ].'>. 
justified, and glorificd saints and behevers. The Sacrament 
whereof, i. e. of the unity of the body and blood of Christ, is 
adrainistcred, in some placcs daily, in others on such and 
such days from the Lord's Table : and frora the Lord'a 
Table it is received by some to their salvation, by others to 
their condemnation. But the thing itself of which this is 
the Sacrament, is for our salvation to every one who par- 
takes of it, for conderanation to none. To prevent us sup- 
posing that those who, by virtue of that meat and drink, 
were promised eternal life, would not dic in the body, Hc 
adds, And I will raise him up at the last day ; i. e. to that 
eternal life, a spiritual rest, which the spirits of the Saints 
enter into. But neither sliall the body be defrauded of 
eternal Hfe, but shall be endowed with it at the resurrection 
of the dead in the last day. 



55. For My flesh is meat indeed, and My blood is 
drink indeed. 

56. He that eateth My flesh, and drinketh My 
blood, dwelleth in Me, and I in him. 

57. As the Uving Father hath sent Me, and I Uve 
by the Father : so he that eateth Me, even he shall 
Hve by Me. 

58. This is that bread which came down from 
heaven : not as your fathers did eat manna, and are 
dead : he that eateth of this bread shall hve for ever. 

59. Tliese things said He in the synagogue, as He 
taught in Capernaum. 

Bede. He had said above, Whoso eateth Mtj flesh and 

drinketh My hlood, hath eternal life : and now to shew the 

great difference between bodily meat and driuk, and the 

spiritual mystery of His body and blood, He adds, For My 

Chrys. flesh is meat indeed, and My blood is drink indeed. Chrys. 

^°I"' i. e. this is no enigraa, or parable, but ye raust really eat the 

body of Christ; or He means to say that the true meat 

Ang. Tr. was He who saved the soul. Aug. Or thus : Whereas men 

XXVI, 17. (Jesire meat and drink to satisfy hunger and thirst, this 

effect is only really produced by that meat and driuk, which 

makes the receivers of it immortal and incorruptible ; i. e. 

the society of Saints, where is peace and unity, full and 

perfect. On which account our Lord has chosen for the 

types of His body and blood, things which become one out 

of many. Bread is a quantity of grains united into one 

mass, wine a quantity of grapes squeezed together. Then 

He explains what it is to eat His body and drink His blood : 

He that eateth My flesh, and drinketh My blood, dwelleth in 

Me, and I in him. So then to partake of that meat and 

that drink, is to dwell in Christ and Ciirist in thee. He 

that dwelleth not in Christ, and in whom Christ dwelleth 

not, neither eateth His flesh, nor drinketh His blood : but 

rather eateth and drinketh the sacrament of it to his own 

Chiys. damnation. Chrys. Or, having given a promise of eternal 

xlvi"'l ^^^^ ^^ those that eat Him, He says this to confirm it : He 

that eateth My flesh, and drinketh My blood, dwelleth in Me, 

VER. 55 — 59. ST. JOHN. 243 

and I in him. Aug. As for tliose, as indeed there are many, Anor. de 
who either eat that flesh and drink that blood hypocritically, ^^^,1' 
or, who having eaten, become apostates, do they dwell in 
Christ, and Christ in them? Nay, but there is a certain 
mode of eating that flesh, aud drinking that blood, in the 
which he that eateth and drinketh, dwelleth in Christ, and 
Christ in him. Aug. That is to say, such an one eateth the Aug. de 
body and drinketh the blood of Christ not in the sacra- j 'i^^. ^^^^ 
mental sense, but in reality. C"hrys. And because I hve, it Chrjs. 
is manifest that he will Hve also : As the living Father hath ^jyj'"* 
sent Me, and I live by the Father, even so he that eateth Me, 
even he shall live by Me. Aug. As if He said, As the Father Auor. de 
liveth, so do I Hve; adding, lest you should tliink him unbe- ^^"u,' 
gotten, By the Father, meaning that He has His source in (Nic.) 
the Father. He that eateth Me, even he shall live by Me; the 
life here raeant is not hfe simply, but the justified Ufe : for 
even unbelievers live, who never eat of that flesh at alh Nor 
is it of the general resurrection He speaks, (for all will rise 
again,) but of the resurrcction to glory, and rcward. Aug. Ahc. Tr, 
He saith not, As I eat the Father, and live by the Father, ''^^'•^' • 
so he that eateth Me, even he shall Uve by Me. For the 
Son does not grow bctter by partaking of the Father, as we 
do by partaking of the Son, i. e. of His one body and blood, 
which this eating and drinking signifies. So that His say- 
ing, I live by the Father, bccause He is from Him, must not 
be understood as detractiug from His equality. Nor do the 
words, Even he that eateth Me, the same shall live by Me, 
give us the equahty that He has. He does not equahze, 
but only mediates between God aud man. If, however, we 
understand the words, / live by the Father, in the sense of 
those below, My Father is greater than I, then it is as if He c. 14, 28. 
said, That I hve by the Father, i. e. refer My life to Him, 
as My superior, My humihation ' in My incarnation is the ' exin- 
cause ; but He who hves by Me, lives by Me by virtue of 
partaking of My flcsh. 

HiLARY. Of the truth then of the body and blood of Fiilar. vii. 
Christ, no room for doubting remaius : for, by the declara- (.^14" 
tion of our Lord Himself, aud by the teaching of our own 
faith, the flesh is really flesh, and the blood really blood. 
This then is our principle of hfe. While we are in the flesh, 

K 2 


c. 14, 19. Christ dwelletli in us by His flesh. And we shall live by 

Him, according as He liveth, If then we live naturally by 

partaking of Him according to the flesh, He also liveth 

naturally by the in-dwelling of the Father according to the 

Spirit. His birth did not give Hira an alien or differeut 

Aug. Tr. nature frora the Father. Auo. That we who cannot obtain 

XXVI. c. . g|.gj.jjr^} }jfg Qf ourselves, might live by the eating that bread, 

He descended from heaven : This is the bread which cometh 

Hilar. down from heaven. Hilary. He calls Hiraself the bread, 

c^is"" because He is the origin of His own body. And lest it 

should be thought that the virtue and nature of the Word 

had given way to the flesh, He calls the bread His flesh, 

that, inasmuch as the bread came down from heaven, it 

might be seen that His body was not of human couception, 

but a heavenly body. To say that the bread is His own, 

is to declare that the Word assumed His body Himself. 

Theophyl. For we do not eat God simply, God being impal- 

pable and incorporeal ; nor again, the flesh of man simply, 

which would not profit us. Eut God having taken flesh 

into union with Hiraself, that flesh is quickening. Not 

that it has clianged its own for thc Divine nature ; but, just 

as heated iron reraains iron, with the actiou of the heat in 

it ; so our Lord^s flesh is quickening, as being the flesh of 

the Word of God. Bede. And to shew the wide interval 

between the shadow and the light, the type aud the reality, 

He adds, Not as your fathers did eat manna, and are dead : 

Aug. Tr. he that eateih of this bread shall live for ever. Aug. The 

XXVI. 20. jjgjj^jj here meant is death eternal. Tor even those who eat 

Christ are subject to natural death ; but they live for ever, 

Clirys. because Christ is everlasting life. Chrys. For if it w^as 

xivii 1 possible without harvest or fruit of the earth, or any such 

thing, to preserve the lives of the IsraeHtes of old for forty 

years, much more will He be able to do this with that spiri- 

tual food, of which the manna is the type. He knew how 

precious a thiug life was in men's eyes, and therefore re- 

^o^\2 P^^ts His promise of life often; as tlie Old Testament 

Deut. had done: only that it only ofl^ered length of life, He life 

99 7 

1 kiiigs without end. This promise was an abolition of that sen- 

3. 14. tence of death, which sin had brought upon us. These 

91. 16.' ' things said He in the synagoguCy as He taught in Capernaum ; 
Prov. 3, 2. 

VER. 60 — 71. ST. JOHx. 245 

where many displays of His power took place. Tle taught 
in the synagogue and in the temple, with the view of attract- 
ing the multitude, and as a sign that He was not acting in 
opposition to the Father, Bede, Mystically, Capernaum, 
which means beautiful town, stands for the world : the 
synagogue, for the Jewish people, The meaning is, that 
our Lord hath, by the mystery of the incarnation, mani- 
fested Himself to the world, and also taught the Jewish 
people His doctrines. 

60. Many therefore of His disciples, when they had 
heard this, said, This is an hard saying ; who can 
hear it ? 

61. When Jesus knew in Himself that His dis- 
ciples murmured at it, He said unto them, Doth this 
offend you ? 

62. What and if ye shall see the Son of man ascend 
up where He was before ? 

63. It is the spirit that quickencth ; the flesh pro- 
fiteth nothing : the words that I spcak unto you, they 
are spirit, and they are Hfe. 

64. But there are some of you that believe not. 
For Jesus knew from the beginning who they were 
that bclieved not, and who should betray Him. 

65. And Ile said, Thercfore said I unto you, that 
no man can come unto Me, except it were given unto 
him of My Father. 

66. From that time many of His disciples went 
back, and walked no more with Him. 

67. Then said Jesus unto the twelve, Will ye also 
go away ? 

68. Then Simon Pcter answered Him, Lord, to 
whom shall we go ? Thou hast the words of eternal 

69. And we beheve and are sure that Thou art that 
Christ, the Son of the living God. 


70. Jesus answered them, Have not I chosen you 
twelve, and one of you is a devil ? 

71. He spake of Judas Tscariot the son of Simon : 
for he it was that should betray Him, being one of 
the twelve. 

Aug. Tr. AuG. Such is oui' Lord's discourse. The people did not 

^^^'^' ' perceive that it had a deep meaning, or, that grace went 
along with it : but receiving the matter in their own way, 
and taking IJis words in a human sense, understood Him as 
if He spoke of cutting of the flesh of the Word into pieces, 
for distribution to those who believed on Him : Many there- 
fore, not of His enemies, but even of His disciples, when they 
heard tJiis, said, This is an hard saying, loho can Jiear it ? 

cinys. Chrys. i.c. difiicult to receive, too much for their wcakness. 

xlvii. 2. They thought He spoke above Himself, and more loftily than 
He had a right to do : and so said tliey, Who can hear it ? 
which was answering in fact for themselves, that they could 

Au£^. Tr. not. AuG. And if His disciples thought that saying hard, 

xxvii 2 

what would His enemies thiuk? Yet it was necessary to de- 
clare a thing, which would be unintelligible to men. God's 
mysteries should draw men's attention, not enmity. Theo- 
PHYL. When you hear, however, of His disciples murmur- 
ing, understand not those really such, but rather some who, 
as far as their air and behaviour went, seemed to be receiv- 
ing instruction from Him. For among His disciples were 
some of the people, who were called such, because they 
AuK. Tr. stayed some time with His disciples. Aug. They spoke, 
however, so as not to be heard by Him. But He, who knew 
what was in them, heard within Himself : JFhen Jesus hiew 
within Himself that His disciples murmured at it, He said 
unto them, Doth this offend you? Alcuin. i.e. that I said, 
ciirys. you should eat My flesh, and drink My blood, Chrys. The 
xivii! 2. revelation however of these hidden things was a mark of 
His Divinity : hence the meaning of what follows ; And if 
ye shall see the Son of man ascend up where He was before ; 
supply, What will ye say ? He said the same to Nathanael, 
Because I said to thee, I saw thee under the fig tree, believest 
thou? Thou shalt see greater things than these. He does 

VER. 60—71. ST. JOHN. 247 

not add difficulty to difficulty, but to convince them by the 
number and greatness of His doctrines. For if Ile had 
merely said that He came down from heaven, without addiug 
any thing further, He would have offended His hearers 
more ; but by saying that His flesh is the hfe of the world, 
and that as He was sent by the Hving Father, so He Uveth by 
the Father ; and at last by adding that He came down from 
heaven, He removed all doubt. Nor does He mean to scan- 
dahze His disciples, but rather to remove their scandah For 
so long as they thought Hira the Son of Joseph, they could 
not receive His doctrines ; but if they once beheved that He 
had come down from heaven, and would ascend thither, they 
would be much more williug and able to admit them. Auo. 
Or, these words are an answer to their mistake. They sup- 
posed that He was going to distribute His body in bits : 
whereas He tells thcm now, that He should ascend to heaven 
whole and entire : IVhat and if ye shall see the Son of man 
ascend vp ivhere He was before ? ye will then see that He 
does not disti'ibute Ilis body in the way ye think. Again; 
Christ .became the Son of man, of the Virgin Mary here 
upon earth, and took flesh upon Him : He says then, What 
and if ye shall see the Son of man ascend up where lle ivas 
before ? to let us know that Christ, God and man, is one 
person, not two ; and the object of one faith, not a qua- 
ternity, but a Trinity. He was the Son of man in heaven, 
as Ile was Son of God upon earth ; the Son of God upon 
earth by assumption of the flesh, the Son of man in heaven, 
by the unity of thc person. Theophyl. Do not suppose 
from this that the body of Christ came down from heaven, 
as the heretics Marcion and ApolHnarius say ; but only that 
the Son of God aud the Son of man are one and the same. 
Chrys. He tries to remove their difficulties in another way, ciirys. 
as follows, // is the spirit that quickeneth, the flesh profiteth ^°.'"- 
nothing : that is to say, You ought to understand !My words 
in a spiritual sense : he who undcrstauds them carnally is 
profited nothing. To interpret carnally is to take a propo- 
sition in its bare literal meaning, and allow no other. But 
we should not judge of mysteries in this way ; but examine 
them with the inward eye; i.e. understand them spiritually. 
It was carnal to doubt how our Lord could give His flesh 


to eat. What then ? Ts it not real flesh ? Yea, verily. In 

saying then that the fiesh profiteth nothing, He does not 

speak of His own flesh, but that of the carnal hearer of His 

Aug. Tr. word. AuG. Or ihus, the flesh profiteth nothinff. They had 

■ understood by His flesh, as it were, of a carcase, that was to 
be cut up, and sold in the shambles, not of a body animated 
by the spirit. Join the spirit to the flesh, and it profiteth 
much : for if the flesh profited not, the Word would not 
have become flesh, and dwelt among us. The Spirit hath 
done much for our saivation, by means of the flesh. Aug. 
For the flesh does not cleanse of itself, but by the Word 
who assumed it : which Word, being the principle of life in 
all things, having taken up soul and body, cleanseth the 

\ souls and bodies of those that believe. It is the spirit, then, 

rj that quickeneth : the fiesh profiteth nothing ; i. e. the flesh 

1 as they understood it. I do not, He seems to say, give My 

body to be eaten in this sense. He ought not to think of 

the flesh carnally : The ivords that I speak unto you, they 

Chrys. o?'e spirit, and they are life. Chrys. i. e. are spiritual, have 

^lvT 2 "othing carnal in them, produce no eff^ects of the natural 

sort ; not being under the dominion of that law of necessity, 

Aug. Tr. and order of nature established on earth. Aug. If then 

''^^"' thou understandest them spiritually, they are life and spirit 

to thee : if carnally, even then they are life and spirit, but 

not to thee. Our Lord declares that in eating His body, and 

drinking His blood, we dwell in Him, and He in us. But 

Rom.5, .'j. what has the power to effect this, except love? The love of 

God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Spi7'it, which 

cinys. Tr. is givcn to us. Chrys. Ilaving spoken of His words being 

^ ^"' ' taken carnally, He adds, But there are some of you that 

believe not. Some, He says, not including Ilis disciples in 

Au^. Ti, the number. This insight shews His high nature. Auo. He 

■ says not, There are some among you who understand not ; 
but gives the reason why they do not understand. The 

la. 7,9. Propket said, Except ye believe, ye shall not understand^. 
For how can he who opposes be quickened ? An adversary, 
though he avert not his face, yet closes his mind to the ray 
of light which should penetrate him. But let men believe, 

ciirys. Tr. aud opcu their eyes, and they will be enlightened. Chrys. 

' Be establisheJ. Non permanebilis, Vulg, 

VER. 60 — 71. ST. JOHN. 249 

To let you know that it was before these words, and not 
after, that the people murmured and were ofFended, the 
EvangeHst adds, For Jesus knew from ihe beginning, who 
they were that believed not, and who shoidd betray Him. 
Theophyl. The Evangelist wishes to shew us, that He 
knew all things before the foundation of the world : which 
was a proof of His divinity. Auo. And after distinguishing Aug. Tr. 
those who believed from those who did not believe, our ^^^"' ^' 
Lord gives the reason of the unbelief of the latter, And Ile 
said, Therefore said I unto you, tJtat no man can come unto 
Me, except it were given him of My Father. Chrys. As if Chrys. 
He said, Men's unbelief does not disturb or astonish Me : xivh2. 
I know to whom the Father hath given to come to Me. He 
mentions the Father, to shew first that He had no eye to 
Ilis own glory ; secondly, that God was His Father, and not 
Joseph. AuG. So then (our) faith is given to us : and no Aug. Tr. 
small gift it is. Whercfore rejoice if thou behevest ; but be ^qq^ ^'y 
not lifted up, for what hast thou which thou didst not re- 
ceive? And that this grace is given to some, and not to 
others, no one can doubt, without going agaiust the plainest 
declarations of Scripture. As for the question, why it is not 
given to all, this cannot disquict the believer, who knows 
tliat iu consequence of the sin of one man, all are justly 
liable to condemnation; and that no blame could attach to 
God, even if none were pardoned; it being of His great 
mercy only that so many are. Aud why He pardons one 
rather than another, rests with Him, whose judgments are 
unsearchable, and His ways past finding out. 

And from that time many of the disciples went back, and 
walked no more with Him. Chrys. He does not say, with- ciirys, 
drcvv '', but went back, i.e. from bcing good hearers, from the ^^°!"'- 

ii>/ii*« xlvii. 3« 

behef which they once had. Aug. Being cut off from the au"^. Tr. 
body, their life vvas goue. They were no longer in the body . ^^vii. 8. 
they were created amoug the unbeheving. There went back 
not a few, but many after Satan, not after Christ; as the 
Apostle says of some women, For some had already turned \ Tim. 5, 
aside after Sutan. Our Lord says to Peter, Get thee behind ^^- 
Me. He does not tell Peter to go after Satan. Chrys. But chrys. 
it may be asked, what reason vvas there for speakiug words ^V"."* 

, , „ , , , xlvi. 2. 

ovK &j'€;^£ip7jaaf, hKK' hitriKQop eis ra oirLaw. 


to them wliich did not edify, but might rather have injured 
them ? It was very useful and necessary ; for this reason, 
they had been just now urgent in petitioning for bodily 
food, and reminding Him of that which had been given to 
their fathers. So He reminds them here of spiritual food ; 
to shew that all those miracles were typical. They ought 
not then to have been ofFended, but should have enquired 
of Him further. The scandal was owing to their fatuity, 
not to the difficulty of the truths declared by our Lord. 
A"g. Tr. AuG. And perhaps this took place for our consolation ; since 
xxvn. 8. ^^ sometimes happens that a man says what is true, and 
what He says is not uuderstood, and they which hear are 
offended and go. Then thc man is sorry he spoke what 
was true ; for he says to himsclf, I ought not to have spoken 
it; and yet our Lord was in the same case. He spoke the 
truth, and dcstroyed many. But He is not disturbed at it, 
because He knew from the beginning which would believe. 
We, if this happens to us, are disturbcd. Let us desire con- 
solation then from our Lord's example ; and withal use cau- 
tion in our specch. Bede. Our Lord knew well the inten- 
tions of the other disciples which stayed, as to staying or 
going; but yet Ile put the question to them, in order to 
prove their faith, and hold it up to iraitation : Then said 
Chrys. Jesus unto the twelve, JFill ye also go away ? Chrys. This 
xlvi^s ^^^ ^^^ right way to retain them. Had He praised them, 
they would naturally, as men do, have thought that they 
were conferring a favour upon Christ, by not leaving Him : 
by shewing, as He did, that He did not need their company, 
He made them hold the more closely by Him. He does not 
say, however, Go away, as this would have been to cast them 
off, but asks whether they wished to go away; thus pre- 
ventiug their staying with Him from any feeling of shame 
or necessity : for to stay from necessity would be the same 
as going away. Peter, who loved his bretbren, replies for 
Aug. Tr. the whole number, Lord, to whom shall we go ? Aug. As 
xxvn. s. 9. jf ijg %2ddi, Tliou castcst us from Thee : give us another to 
ciirys. whom we shall go, if we leave Thee. Chrys. A speech of 
xivii! 3. ^^^® greatest love : proving that Christ was more precious to 
them than father or mother. And that it might not seem 
to be said, from thinking that there was no one whose 

VER. 60 — 71. ST. JOHN, 251 

guidance they could look to, he adds, Thou hast the words cf 
eternal life : which shewed that he remerabered his ]Master's 
words, 7 will raise Him up, and, hath eternal life. The Jews 
said, Is not this the Son of Joseph ? how differently Peter : 
We believe and are sure, that Thou art that Christ, the Son 
of the living God. Auo. For we beheved, in order to know. An^. Tr. 
Had we wished first to know, and then to believe, we could '''^^"* ^' " " 
never have been able to believe. This we believe, and know, 
that Thou art the Christ the Son of God ; i.e. that thou art 
eternal life, and that in Thy flesh and blood Thou givest 
what Thou art Thyself. Chrys. Peter howcver having said, Chrys. 
We believe, our Lord excepts Judas from the number of j^jyj^^g^ 
those who believed : Jesus answered them, Have not I chosen 
you twelve, and one of you is a devil? i.e. Do not suppose 
that, because you have followed Me, I shall not reprove the 
wicked among you. It is worth enquiring, why the disciples 
say nothing here, whereas afterwards they ask in fear, Lord, Matt. 
is it I? But Peter had not yet been told, Get thee behind'^^'^^' 
Me, Satan ; and therefore had as yet no fear of this sort. 16, 23. 
Our Lord however does not say here, One of you shall be- 
tray Me, but, is a devil : so that they did not know what the 
speech meant, and thought that it was only a case of wicked- 
ness in general, that Ile was reproving. The Gentiles on 
the subjcct of elcction blame Christ foolishly. Ilis election 
does not impose any necessity upon the person with respect 
to the future, but leaves it iu the power of His will to be 
saved or pcrish. Bfde. Or we must say, that Ile elected 
the eleven for onc purpose, the twelfth for anothcr : the 
eleven to fiU the place of Apostles, and persevere in it unto 
the end ; the twelfth to the service of betraying Him, which 
was the means of saving the human race. Aug. Ile was Ausr. Tr. 
elected to be an involuntary and unconscious iustrument of s. lo* 
produciug the greatest good. For as the wicked turn the 
good works of God to an evil usc, so reversely God turns 
the evil works of man to good. What can be worse than 
what Judas did? Yet our Lord made a good use of his 
wickedness ; allowing Himself to be betrayed, that He might 
redeem us. In, Have I not chosen you twelve, twelve seems 
to be a sacred number used in the case of those, who were 
to spread the doctrine of the Trinity through the four quar- 


ters of the world. Nor was the virtue of that number im- 

paired, by one perishing; inasrauch as another was substi- 

Grep:. tuted in his room. Greg. One of you is a devil: the body ^' 

, "^:'.' is here named after its head. Chrys. Mark the wisdora of 

J. Xlll. c. 

xxxiv. Christ : He neither, by exposing hira, makes him shameless 
Y[Qm' ^^^ contentious ; nor again emboldens him, by allowiug him 
xlvii. 4. to think himself concealed. 

•> i.e. the whole body of wicked. Judas, as being one of that body, is named 
after its head, the devil. 


1 . After these things Jesus walked in Galilee : 
for He would not walk in Jewry, because the Jews 
sought to kill Him. 

2. Now the Jews' feast of tabernacles was at hand. 

3. His brethren therefore said unto Him, Depart 
hence, and go into Judtea, that Thy disciples also 
may see the works that Thou doest. 

4. For there is no man that doeth any thing in 
secret, and he himself seeketh to be known openly. 
If Thou do these things, shew Thyself to the world. 

5. For neither did His brethren believe in Him. 

6. Then Jesus said unto them, My time is not yet 
come : but your time is alway ready. 

7. The world cannot hate you : but Me it hateth, 
bccause I testify of it, that the works thereof are eviL 

8. Go ye up unto this fcast : I go not up yet unto 
this feast ; for My time is not yet fully come. 

AuG. As the believer in Christ would have in time to Aup. Tr. 
come to hidc himself from persecution, that no guilt might ^^^^^^' '^- 
attach to such concealment, the Head began with doing 
Himself, what He sanctioned in the member; After these 
things Jesus walked in Galilee : for Ile would not walk in 
Jewry, because the Jews sought to kill Ilim, Bede. The 
connexion of this passage admits of much taking place in 
the interval previously. Judsea and Galilec are divisious of 
the province of Palestine. Juda^a has its name from the 
tribe of Judah ; but it embraces not only the territories of 
Judah, but of Benjamin, all of which were called Judsea, be- 
cause Judah was the royal tribe. Gahlee has its name, from 


the railky, i.e. white, colour of its inhabitants ; Galilee being 
Aug;. Tr. Greeli for milk. Aug. It is not meant that our Lord could 
not walk among the Jews, and escape being killed ; for He 
had this power, whenever He chose to shew it : but He set 
the example of so doing, as an accommodation to our weak- 
ness. He had not lost His power, but He indulged our 
Chrys. frailty. Chrys. That is to say, He displayed the attribute 
xlviii 1 both of divdnity and humanity. He fled from His perse- 
cutors as man, He remained and appeared amongst them as 
God ; being really both. Theophyl. He withdrew too now 
to Galilee, because the hour of His passion was not yet 
come ; and He thought it useless to stay in the midst of His 
enemies, when the effect would only have been to irritate 
them the more. The tirae at which this happened is then 
given; Now the Jews' feast of tubernacles was at hand. 
Aug. Tr. AuG. What the feast of tabernacles is, we read iu the Scrip- 
xxvm. 3. |.^^gg_ They used to raake tents on the festival, hke those 
in which they lived during their journey in the desert, after 
their departure from Egypt. They celebrated this feast in 
commemoration of the good things the Lord had done for 
them ; though they were the very people who were about to 
slay the Lord. It is called the day of the feast % though it 
Chrys. lastcd many days. Chrys. It appears here, that a consider- 
xlviii*. 1, able time had passed since the last events. For when our 
Lord sat upon the mount, it was near the feast of the 
Passover, and now it is the feast of tabernacles : so that in 
the five intermediate months the Evangelist has related 
nothing but the rairacle of the loaves, and the conversation 
with those who ate of thera. As our Lord was unceasingly 
working miracles, and holding disputes with people, the 
EvangeHsts could not relate all ; but ouly aimed at giving 
those, in which complaint or opposition had followed on the 
part of the Jews, as was the case here. Theophyl. His 
brethren saw that He was not preparing to go to the feast : 
Ilis brethren therefore said unto Him, Depart hence, and go 
into Judcea. Bede, Meaning to say, Thou doest miracles, 
and only a few see them : go to the royal city, where the 
rulers are, that they may see Thy miracles, and so Tliou 
obtain praise. And as our Lord had uot brought all His 

* St. Augustine goes by the Vulgate, dies festus. 

VER. 1 — 8. ST. JOHN. 255 

disciples with Him, but left many behind in Judsea, they 
add, That Thy disciples ako may see the ivorhs that Thou 
doest. Theophyl. i. e. the multitudes that follow Thee. 
They do not mean the twelve, but the others that had com- 
munication with Ilim. Aug. When you hear of our Lord's Aug. Tr. 
brethren, you must understand the kindred of Mary, not ^''^"'" 
her offspring after our Lord's birth. For as the body of our 
Lord once only lay in the sepulchre, and neither before, 
nor after that once; so could not the womb of Mary have 
possibly conceived any other mortal offspring. Our Lord's 
works did not escape His disciples, but they escaped His 
brethren; hence their suggestion, That Thy disciples may 
see the works that Thoii doest. They speak according to the 
wisdom of the flesh, to the Word that was made flesh, and 
add, For there is no man that doeth any tJdng in secret, and 
he himself seeketh to be known openly. If Thou do these 
things, shew Thyself to the world ; as if to say, Thou docst 
miracles, do them in the eyes of the world, that the world 
may honour Thee, Their admonitions aim at procuring 
glory for Him ; and this very thing, viz. aiming at human 
glory, proved that thcy did not beUeve in Ilim, as we next 
read, For neither did His brethren believe on Him. They 
were Christ^s kindred, but they werc on that very account 
above beheving in Him. Chrys. It is striking to observe ciirys, 
the great sincerity of the Evangelists; that they are not ^|"!"j' 
ashamed to mention things which appcar to be to our Lord's i. ^- 
disadvantage, but take particular care to tell us of thera. 
It is a considerable reflexion on our Lord, that His brethren 
do not beheve on Him. The beginning of their speech has 
a friendly appearance about it : but there is much bitternesa 
in it, thus charging Him with the motives of fear and vain 
glory; No man, say they, doeth any thing in secret : this 
was reproaching Him tacitly with fear ; and was an in- 
sinuation too that His miracles had not been real and soHd 
ones. In what follows, And Jie himseJf seeketh to be known 
openJy, they taunt Him with the love of glory. Christ 
however answers thera miklly, teaching us not to take the 
advice of people ever so infcrior to ourselves angrily; Then 
Jesus said unto tJiem, My time is not yet come : but your 
time is aJway ready. Bede. This is no contradiction to 


Gal. 4, 4. what the Apostle says, But when the fulness of thne was 
come, God sent forth His Son. Our Lord referring here to 
Aug. Tr. the time not of His nativity, but of His glorification, Aug. 
They gave Him advice to pursue glory, and not allow Hira- 
self to remain in concealment and obscurity ; appealing 
altogether to worldly and secular motives. But our Lord 
was laying down another road to that very exaltation, viz. 
huraility : My time, He says, i. e. the tirae of My glory, 
when I shall come to judge on high, is not yet come ; but 
your time, i. e. the glory of the world, is always ready. And 
let us, who are the Lord's body, when insulted by the 
lovers of this world, say, Your tirae is ready : ours is not 
yet come. Our country is a lofty one, the way to it is low. 
Whoso rejccteth the way, why seeketh he the country ? 
Chrys, Chrys. Or therc seems to be another meaning concealcd 
xlviii! 2. in the words ; perhaps they intended to betray Him to the 
Jews ; and therefore He says, My time is not yet come, 
i. e. the time of My cross and death : but your time is 
always ready ; for though you are always with the Jews, 
they will not kill you, because you are of the sarae mind 
with them : Tlie world cannot hate you ; but Me it hateth, 
because I testify of it, that the works thereof are evil : as if 
He said, How can the world hate thera who have the sarae 
wishes and airas with itself ? It hateth Me, because I re- 
prove it. I seek not then glory from men ; inasmuch as I 
hesitate not to reprove thera, though I know that I ara 
hated in consequence, and that My life is airaed at. Here 
we see that the hatred of the Jews was owing to His re- 
proofs, not to His breaking the sabbath. Theophyl. Our 
Lord brings two arguraents in answer to their two charges. 
To the charge of fear He answers, that He reproves the 
deeds of the world, i. e. of those who love worldly things ; 
which He would not do, if He were under the influence of 
fear; and He replies to the charge of vain glory, by sending 
thera to the feast, Go ye up unto this feast. Had He been 
possessed at all with the desire for glory, He would have 
kept them with Him : for the vain glorious like to have 
Chrys. many followers, Chrys. This is to shew too, that, while 
xlviii! 2. He does not wish to humour them, He still allows thera 
Aug. Tr. to observe the Jewish ordinances. Aug. Or He seems to 



VEK. 9 — 13. ST. JOHN. 257 

say, Go ye up to fhis feast, aud seek for huraan glory, aud 
eularge your carnal pleasures, and forget heavcnly things. 

I go not up unto this feast ; Chiiys. i. e. not with you, ciirvs. 
for My time is not yet full come. Tt was at the next pass- 'l"ll'.- 

^ xlvui. 2. 

over that He was to be crucified. Aug. Or My time, i. e. au»^. Tr. 
the time of My gloiy, is not yet come. That will be My ^*^^"'- ^- 
feast day; not a day which passeth and is gone, like holi- 
days here : but one which reraaineth for ever. Then will 
be festivity ; joy without eud, etcrnity without stain, sun- 
shine without a cloud. 

9. When He bad said these words unto them, He 
abode still in Galilee. 

10. But wben His brethren were gone up, then 
went He also up unto the feast, not opcnly, but as 
it were in secret. 

1 1 . Tben tbe Jews sought Him at the feast, and 
said, Where is He ? 

12. And there was much murmuring among the 
people concerning Him : for some said, Ile is a 
good man : others said, Nay : but He deceiveth 
the people. 

13. Howbeit no man spake openly of Him for 
fear of the Jews. 

Theophyl. Our Lord at first declares that He will not 
go up to tlie feast, (/ go not up with you,) in order not to 
expose Hiraself to the rage of the Jews ; and therefore we 
read, that, When Ile had said these ivords unto them, He 
abode still m Galilee. Afterwards, however, He goes up ; 
But ivhen Ilis brethren were gone up, tJien went He also up 
unto the feast. Aug. He went up, however, not to get Au». Tr. 
teraporary glory, but to teach wholesorae doctrine, and ''■''^'"- • 
remiud raen of the eternal feast. Chrys. He goes up, not chrys. 
to suffer, but to teach. And He goes up secretly ; because, ^"!",- 
though Ile could have gone openly, and kept the violence 
and irapetuosity of the Jews in check, as He had often done 
before; yet to do this every time, would have disclosed His 
diviuity ; and He wished to estabUsh the fact of His iucar- 

VOL. IV. s 




Ps.45, 14, 
ITim. 1,5, 
Ang. Tr. 
xxviii. 9. 

xlix. 1. 

Aug. Tr. 
s. 11. 

nation, and to teach us the way of life. And He went up 
privately too, to shew us what we ought to do, who cannot 
check our persecutors. It is not said, however, in secret, 
but, as it were in secret ; to shew that it was doiie as a kiud 
of economy. For had He doue all things as God, how 
should we of this world kiiow what to do, when we fell into 
danger? Alcuin. Oi', He went up in secret, because He 
did not seek the favour of men, and took no pleasure in 
pomp, and being followed about with crowds. Bede. The 
mystical meaning is, that to all those carnal persons who 
seek huraan glory, the Lord remains in Galilee ; the mean- 
ing of which name is, "passing over;" applying to those 
his members who pass from vice to virtue, and muke pro- 
gress in the latter. And our Lord Himself delayed to go 
up, signifying that Christ's members seek not temporal but 
otcrnal glory. And He went up sccrctly, because all'' glory 
is frora within : that is, from a pure heart and good con- 
science, and faith unfeigned. Aug. Or the meaning is, that 
all the ccrcraonial of the ancicnt pcople was the figure of 
what was to be ; such as tlie feast of tabernacles. Which 
figure is now unvciled to us. Our Lord went up in secret, 
to represent the figurative system. He conccalcd Himself 
at the feast itself, because the feast itself signified, that the 
members of Christ were in a strange country. For he 
dwells iu the tents, who regards himself as a stranger in 
the world. The word scenopegia here means the feast of 
tabernacles. Chrys. Then the Jews sought Him at the feast, 
and said, Where is He ? out of hatred and enraity ; for they 
would not call Hira by His name. Tliere was not much 
reverence or rehgion in this observance of the feast, when 
they wanted to make it an opportuuity of seizing Christ. 
AuG. And there was much murmuring in the people con- 
cerning Hini. A murmuring arising from disagreement. 
For some said, He is a good man : others said, Nay ; but He 
seduceth the people. "Whoever had any spark of grace, said, 
He is a good man ; the rest, Nay, hut He seduceth the people. 
That such was said of Hira, Who was God, is a consolation 
to auy Christian, of whora the same may be said. If to 
seduce be to decide, Christ was not a seducer, nor can any 

^ The king's daughter is all glorious within. 

VER. 14— 18. ST. JOHN. 259 

Christian be. But if by seducing be meant bringing a per- 
son by persuasion out of one way of thinking into another, 
then we must enquire from what, and to what. If from 
good to evil, the seducer is an evil man ; if from evil to 
good, a good one. Aud would that we were all called, and 
really were, sucli seducers. Chrys. The former, I think, ciuys. 
was the opinion of the multitude, the one, viz. who pro- ^i|'^'''i 
nounced Him a good man ; the hitter the opinion of the 
priests and rulers ; as is shewn by their saying, Ue deceiveth 
the people, not, He deceiveth us. Aug. Uowbeit no man .\iisr. Tr. 
spake openly of Hini, for fear of the Jews ; none, that is, ' 
of those who said, He is a yood nuui. They who said, Ue 
deceiveth the people, proclainied their opinion openly enough ; 
while the former only dared whisper theirs. Chrys. Ob- cinys. 
serve, the corruption is in the rulers ; thc common people xUx. i. 
are sound in their judgiuent, but have not liberty of speech, 
as is geuerally their case. 

14. Now about the midst of the feast Jesus went 
up into the temple, and taught. 

15. And the Jews marvelled, saying, How knoweth 
this Man letters, having never learned ? 

1 6. Jesus answered them, and said, My doetrine is 
not Mine, but Ilis that sent Me. 

17. If any man will do Ilis will, he shall know of 
the doctrine, whether it be of God, or whether I 
speak of Myself. 

18. He that speaketh of himself secketh his own 
glory : but He that seeketh II is glory that sent nim, 
the same is true, and no unrighteousness is m Him. 

Chrys. Our Lord delays His visit, in order to excite Chrys. 
raen's attention, and goes up not the first day, but about xiix" i. 
the middle of the feast : Now about the midst of- the feast 
Jesus wcnt up into the tempk, and taught. Those who had 
been searching for Him, when they saw Him thus suddenly 
appear, would be more attentive to His teaching, both fa- 
vourers and enemies; the one to admire and profit by it; 
thc other to fiud au opportunity of iayiug hands ou Him. 


Theophyl. At the comraencement of tlie feast, men would 

be attending more to tlie preachings of the festival itself; 

and afterwards would be better disposed to hear Christ. 

Aug. Tr. AuG. Tlie feast seems, as far as we can judge, to have lasted 

s. 60. several days. And therefore it is said, " about the middle 

of the feast day '^ :" i. e. when as many days of that feast 

had passed, as were to come, So that His assertion, / (/o 

not up yet to this feast day, (i. e. to the first or second day, 

as you would wish Me,) was strictly fulfilled, For Ile went 

Au^. de up afterwardsj about the middle of the feast. Aug. In 

Nov.Vt go^"g there too, He went up, not to the feast day, but 

Vet. Test. to the Hght. They had gone to enjoy the pleasures of the 

festival, but Chrisfs feast day was that on which by Ilis 

Aug. Passion He redeemed the world. Aug. He who had before 

Joam concealed Himself, taught and spoke openly, and was not 

Jract, laid hold on. The one was intended for an example to us, 

xxix. 2. . r ' 

Chrys ^^'^ othcr to tcstify His power. Chrys, What Ilis teachiiig 

Hom, is, the Evangebst does not say; but that it was very won- 
derful is shewn by its efFect evcn upon those who had 
accused Him of deceiving the people, who turned round 
and began to admire Him : And the Jews marvelled, saying, 
Ilow knoweth this Man letters, having never learned? See 
how perverse they are even in their admiration. It is not 
His doctrine they admire, but another thing altogether. 

Aug, Tr. Aug. All, it would appear, admired, but all were uot con- 
verted. Whence then the admiration? Many knevv where 
He was born, and how He had been educated ; but had 
never seen Him learning letters, Yet now they heard Ilira 
disputing on the law, and bringing forvvard its testimonies. 
No one could do this, who had not read the law ; no one 
could read who had not learnt letters ; and this raised their 

Chrys. wondcr. Chrys. Their wonder might have led them to 

Hom. . ... 

xlix. 1. infer, that our Lord became possessed of this learning in 
sorae divine way, and not by any human process. But they 
would not acknowledge this, and contented themselves with 
wondering. So our Lord repeated it to thera : Jesus an- 
swered them and said, My docfrine is not Mine, but His that 

Auo;. Tr. gQyii Mq^ Aug. Mi7ie is not Mine, appears a contradiction ; 
wliy did He not say, This doctrine is not Mine ? Because 

' Vulgate takeu as above literally. 

VER. 11 — 18. ST. JOHN. 261 

the doctrine of the Father being the Word of the Father, 
and Christ Himself being that Word, Christ Himself is the 
doctrine of the Father. And therefore He calls the doc- 
trine both His own, and the Father's. A word must be 
a word of sorae one's. What is so much Thine as Thou, 
and what is so rauch not Thine as Thou, if what Thou art, 
Thou art of another. His saying then, My doctrine is not 
Mine own, seeras briefly to exprcss the truth, that He is 
not frora Himself; it refutes the Sabellian heresy, which 
dares to assert that the Son is the same as the Father, 
there being only two names for one thing. Chrys. Or He ^^^^ 
calls it His owu, inasrauch as He taught it ; not His own, Hcm. 
inasrauch as the doctrine was of the Father. If all thingrs ' '" • 
however which the Father hath are His, the doctrine for 
this very reason is His; i. e. because it is the Father's. 
llather that He says, Is not Mine own, shews very strongly, 
that His doctrine and the Father's are one : as if He said, 
I differ nothing frora Him ; but so act, that it may be 
thought I say and do nothing else than doth the Father. 
AuG. Or thus : In one sense He calls it His, in another ^ ^^ 
sense not His ; according to the forra of the Godhcad Ilis, 'I''''"/ '• 

c, xi. 

according to the form of the servant not His. Aug. Should ^ Tr, 
any one however not understand this, let hira hear the '^^'''- ^- ^- 
advice which iraraediately follows from our Lord : If any 
man vnll do Ilis will, he shall knoiv of the doctrine, whether 
it be of God, or whether I speak of Myself. What racaneth 
this, If any man will do Ilis will? To do His will is to 
])elieve on Hini, as He Himself says, T]ns is the work of ^ q ^d. 
God, that ye believe on Ilim whom He hath sent. And who 
does not know, that to work the work of God, is to do His 
will? To know is to understand. Do not then seek to 
understand in order to believe, but believe in order to 
understand, for, Except ye believe, ye shall not understand. j, ^ g 
Chrys. This is as much as to say, Put away the anger, ^^ulg- 
envy, and hatred which you have towards Me, and there ^^^^' 
will be nothing to prevent your knowing, that the words xiix. l. 
which I speak are from God. Then He brings in an irre- 
sistible arguraent taken from huraan experience : Ile that 
speaketh of himself, seeketh his own glory : as if to say, Ile 
who aims at establishing sorae doctrine of his own, does so 

xxix. s. 8. 

xlix. 2 


for no purpose, but to get glory. But I seek the glory of 
Him tliat sent Me, and wish to teach you for Ilis, i. e, an- 
other's sake : and then it follows, But he that seeketh His 
glory that sent Him, the same is true, and there is no un- 
righteousness in Him. Theophyl. As if Ile said, I speak 
the truth, because My doctrine containeth the truth : there 
is no unrighteousness in Me, because I usurp not another's 

Aug. Tr. glory. AuG. He who seeketh his own glory is Antichrist. 
But our Lord set us an example of humility, in that beiug 
found in fashion as a man, He sought His Father's glory, 
not His own. Thou, when thou doest good, takest glory to 

Chrys. thysclf ; when thou doest evil, upbraidest God. Chrys. Ob- 
serve, the reason why He spake so humbly of Ilimself, is to 
let men know, that He does not aim at glory, or powcr; 
and to accommodate nimsclf to thcir weakncss, and to tcach 
thera moderation, and a humble, as distinguished from an 
assuming, way of speaking of themselves. 

19. Did not Moses give you the law, and yet 
none of you keepetli the law? Why go ye about 
to kill Me ? 

20. The people answered and said, Thou hast a 
devil : who goeth about to kill Thec ? 

21. Jesus answered and said unto them, I have 
done one work, and ye all marvel. 

22. Moses therefore gave unto you circumcision : 
(not because it is of Moses, but of the fathers :) and 
ye on the sabbath day circumcise a man. 

23. If a man on the sabbath day receive circum- 
cision, that the law of Moses should not be broken ; 
are ye angry at Me, because I have made a raan every 
whit whole on the sabbath day ? 

24. Judge not according to the appearance, but 
judge righteous judgment. 

Chrys. Chiiys. Thc Jews brought two charges against Christ ; 

xi°x"*2. ^"^' *^^* H^ broke the sabbath ; the other, that Ile said 

God was His Father, makiug Himself equal with God. The 

VER. 19 24. ST. JOHN. 263 

latter He confirmed first by shewing, that He did nothing 
in opposition to God, but that both taught the same. Then 
turning to the charge of breaking the sabbath, He says, Did 
not Moses give you a laio, and none of you keepeth the law ? 
as much as to say, The law says, Thou shalt not kill, where- 
as ye kill. And then, Why go ye about to kill Me ? As if 
to say, If I broke a law to heal a raan, it was a transgression, 
but a beneficial one ; whereas ye transgress for an evil end ; 
so you have no right to judge I\Ie for breaking the law. 
He rebukes them then for two things ; first, bccause they 
went about to kill Hira ; secondly, because thcy were going 
about to kill another, when they had uot eveu any right to 
judge Him. Aug. Or He means to say, that if they kept Aug. Tr. 
the law, they would see Hira pointed to in every part of it, ^'"'^* ^" 
and would not seek to kill Ilim, when He carae. The 
people return an answer quite away from the subject, and 
only shewing their angry fecUngs : Tlie people ansivered and 
said, Thou hast a devil : who goeth about to kill Thee ? Ile 
who cast out devils, was told that He had a devil. Our 
Lord hovvever, in no way disturbed, but retaining all the 
serenity of truth, returned not evil for evil, or railing for 
railing. Bede. Wherein He left us an example to take it 
patiently, whenever wrong censures are passed upon us, and 
not answcr thera by asscrting the truth, though able to do 
so, but rather by some wholesome advice to the persons ; as 
doth our Lord : Jesus answered and said unto them, I have 
done one work, and ye all marvel. Aug. As if Ile said, Wliat Aug. Tr. 
if ye saw all My works ? For all that they saw going on iu ^^^' ^' 
the world. was of His working, but they saw not Hira Who 
made all things. But He did one thing, made a man whole 
on the sabbath day, and they were in commotion : as if, 
when any one of them recovered from a disease on the sab- 
bath, he who made him whole were any other than He, 
who liad offended them by making one man whole on the 
sabbath. Chrys. Ye m,arvel, i.e. are disturbed, are in com- ciirys. 
motion. Observe how well He argues with thera frora tlie j.["^"' 3 
law. He wishes to prove that this work was not a violation 
of the law ; aud shews accordingly that there are many 
things more important than the law for the observance of 
the sabbath, by the observance ot which that law is not 

XXX. s. 4. 


broken but fulfilled. Moses therefore, He says, gave unto 
you circumcision, not because it is of Moses, but of the fathers, 

Aiifr. Tr. and ye on the sabbath day circumcise a man. Aug. As if 
He said, Ye have done well to receive circumcision frora 
Moses, not because it is of Moses, but of the fathers ; for 
Abrahara first received circuracision frora the Lord. And 
ye circumcise on the sabbath. Moses has convicted you : ye 
received a law to circuracise on the eighth day ; and ye re- 
ceived a law to rest on. the seventh day. If the eighth day 
after a child is born happen to be the sabbath, ye circuracise 
the child ; because circumcision appertaineth to, is a kind 
of sign of, salvation ; and raen ought not to rest frora the 
work of salvation on the sabbath. Alcuin. Circumcision 
was given for three reasons ; first, as a sign of Abraham's 
great faith ; secondly, to distinguish the Jews frora other 
nations ; thirdly, tliat the receiving of it on the organ ot 
viriHty, might admonish us to observe chastity both of body 
and mind. And circumcision then possessed the sarae virtue 
that baptisra do3S now; only that the gate was not yet open. 
Our Lord concludes ; If a man on the sabbath day receive 
circumcision, that the laio of Moses should not be broken ; 
are ye anrjry at Me because I have made a man every whit 

Ciirys. whole on the sabbath day ? Chrys. Which is as rauch as to 
tell them, The breaking of the sabbath in circuracision is 
a keeping of the law ; and in the sarae way I by healing on 
the sabbath have kept the law. Ye, who are not the legis- 
lators, enforce the law beyond its proper bounds ; whereas 
Moses made the law give way to the observance of a com- 
mandment, which did not corae frora the law, but frora the 
fathers. His saying, / have made a man every whit whole 
on the sabbath day, implies that circumcision was a partial 

A p. Tr. recovering. Aug. Circuracision also was perhaps a type of 

XXX. 0. Q^j. Lqj.(J Hiraself. For what is circuracision but a robbing 
of the flesh, to signify the robbing the heart of its carnal 
lusts. And therefore it was not without reason that it was 
applied to that member by which the raortal creature is 

Rtnii. 5, propagated : for by one man sin entered into the world. And 
therefore every oue is born with the foreskin, because every 

vite pro- t>ne is born with the fault of his propagation. And God 

pageius j^Qgg jjq|. ciiange us either from the corruption of our birth, 

xlix. 3. 

VER. 19 — .24. ST. JOHN. 265 

or frora that we have contracted ourselves by a bad life, ex- 
cept by Christ : and therefore they circumcised with knives 
of stone, to prefigure Christ, who is the stone ; and on the 
eighth day, because our Lord's resurrection took place ou the 
day after the seventh day ; which resurrection circumcises 
us, i. e. destroys our carnal appetites. Regard this, saith 
our Lorrl, as a type of My good work in making a raan every 
whit whole on the sabbath day : for he was healed, that he 
raight be whole in body, and he believed, that he might be 
whole in mind. Ye are forbidden indeed to do servile work 
on the sabbatli ; but is it a servile work to heal on the 
sabbath? Ye eat and drink ou the sabbath, because it is 
necessary for your hcalth : which shews that works of heal- 
ing are by no mcans to be omitted on the sabbath. Chrys. Chrys. 
Ile does not say, however, I have done a greater work thau xHx?3 
circumcision ; but only states the matter of fact, aud leaves 
the judgmcnt to them, saying, Judge not according to the 
appearance, but judge righteous judgment : as if to say, Do 
not, because Moses has a greater narae with you than I, 
decide by degrce of personal erainence ; but decide by the 
nature of the tiiing itself, for this is to judge righteously. 
No one however has blaraed ]\loses for raaking the sabbath 
give place to the coraraandment of circumcision, which was 
not derived frora the law, but from another source. ]Moses 
then commands thc law to be broken to give effect to a com- 
mandment not of the law : and he is more worthy of credit 
than you. AuG. What our Lord here tcUs us to avoid, in Au». Tr. 
judging by the person, is very dilHcult in this worid not to ^^^ *" '' 
do. His admonition to the Jews is an admonition to us as 
well ; for every sentence which our Lord uttered, was written 
for us, and is prcservcd to us, and is read for our profit. 
Our Lord is above ; but our Lord, as the truth, is here as 
well. The body with which He rose can be only in onc 
place, but His truth is diftused every where. Who thcn is 
he who judges not by the pcrson? He who lovcs all ahke. 
For it is not the paying raen difi^erent degrees of hoaour 
according to their situation, that will raake us chargeable 
with acccptiug pcrsons. Tliere raay be a case to decide 
between father and son : we should not put the son on an 
equality with the father in poiut of houour; but, iu respcct 


of truth, if he have the better cause, we should give him the 
preference; and so give to each their due, that justice do 
not destroy desert ^. 

25. Then said some of tbem of Jerusalem, Is nof 
this He, whom they seek to kill ? 

26. But, lo, He speaketh boldly, and tbey say 
notbing unto Him. Do the rulers know indeed tbat 
tbis is tbe very Cbrist ? 

27. Howbeit we know tbis man wbence He is : but 
when Cbrist cometb, no man knowetb wbence He is. 

28. Tben cried Jesus in tbe temple as He taugbt, 
saying, Ye botb know Me, and ye know wbence I 
am : and I am not come of Myself, but He tbat sent 
Me is true, wbom ye know not. 

29. But I know Him : for I am from Him, and 
He hatb scnt Me, 

30. Tben they sougbt to take Him : but no man 
laid bands on Hiin, because His bour was not yet 

Aug. Tr. AuG. It was said above that our Lord went up to the 
XXXI. 1. fgast secretly, not because He feared being taken, (for He 
had povver to prevent it,) but to shew figuratively, that even 
in the very feast which the Jews celebrated, He was hid, and 
that it was His mystery. Now however the power appears, 
which was thought timidity : He spoke pubhcly at the feast, 
in so much that the multitude marvelled : Then said some 
of them at Jerusalem, Is not this Ile, ivhom therj seek to kill ? 
buty lo, Ile speaketh bolcUy, and they say nothivg to Him. 
They knew the fierceness with which He had been sought 
for; they marvelled at the power by which He was not 
ciirjs. taken. Chrys. The Evangehst adds, from Jerusalem : for 
Hom. 1. 1. ^|-^gj,g ^.^^ j^gg^ j.jjg greatest display of miracles, and there 
the people were in the worst state, seeing the strongest 
proofs of His divinity, and yet wilHng to give up all to the 
judgraeut of their corrupt rulers. Was it not a great mira- 
cle, that those who raged for His hfe, now that they had 

'^ ut uou perdat equitas meritum. 

VER. 25—30. ST. JOHN. 2G7 

Him in their grasp, becarae on a sudden quiet ? Aug. So, ^^i[ x. ' 
iiot fuUy uuderstaudiug Christ's power, they supposed that 
it was owing to the knowledge of the rulers that He was 
spared : Do the rulers kuoiv indeed that this is the very Christ? 
Chrys. But they do uot follow the opinion of the rulers, but Hom! i. l. 
put forth another most perverse and absurd one ; Hoivbeit 
we know this Man, whence He is ; but ivhen Ckrist cometh, 
no man knoiveth ivhence He is. Aug. This notion did not ^xxi! s. "2. 
arise without foundation. We find indeed that the Scrip- 
tures said of Christ, He shall be called a Nazarene, and thus ^a, 
predicted whence He would come. Aud the Jews again told 
Hcrod, when he enquircd, that Christ would be born in 
Bethlchem of Judah, aud adduced the testiraony of the 
Prophet. * How then did this notion of the Jews arise, that, 
when Christ carae, no one would know whcnce He was? 
Frora this rcason, viz. that the Scriptures asserted both. 
As man, they foretold whence Christ would be ; as God, He 
was hid from the profane, but revealed Ilirasclf to thc godly. 
This uotion they had taken from Isaiah, Who shall declare Isa. 53. 
His generation ? Our Lord rcplies, that they both knew Him, 
and knew Ilim not : TJien cried Jesus in the temple as He 
tauyht, saying, Ye both knoiv Jle, and knoiv whence I am : 
that is to say, Ye both know whence I am, and do not know 
whence I am : ye know whcnce I am, that I am Jesus of 
Nazarcth, whose parents ye know. The birth from the 
Virgiu was the only part of the raatter unknown to them : 
with this cxception, thcy knew all that pcrtaiued to Jesus 
as man. So He well says, Ye both knou) 2Ie, and know 
ichence I am : i.e. according to the flesh, and the likeness of 
raan. But in respect of Ilis divinity, He says, / am not 
come of Myself, but He that sent Me is true. Chrys. By Chrys. 

1-1TT1'T 1 •!• -T T J_TT Hoin. 1. 1. 

which tle discioses what was in thcu* mmds. 1 am not, He 

seems to say, of the nuraber of those who have corae without 

reason, but He is true tliat sent jNIc ; and if Ile is true, Ile 

hath sent Me in truth; and thcrefore He who is sent must 

needs speak the truth. He then convicts them from thcir 

OAvn asscrtions. For whercas they had said, When Christ 

cometh, no man knoweth whence He is, He shews that Chri^t 

did come from one whom they knew not, i.e. thc Father. 

Wherefore He adds, Whom ye knoiv not. Hilary. Every ^^ Trin. 

ult. med. 

Hom. 1. 1 
Tit. 1, 16. 


man, ever born in the flesh, is in a certain sense frora God. 

IIow then could He say that they were iguorant who He 

was, and whence He was^? Because our Lord is here re- 

ferring to His own pecuhar birth from God, which they were 

ignorant of, because they did not know tliat He was the 

Son of God. His very saying then that they did not knovv 

whence He was, was telling them whence He was. If they 

did not kijow whence He was, He could not be from nothing ; 

for then there would be no whence to be ignorant of. He 

must therefore be from God. And then not knowing whence 

He is, was the reason that they did not know ivho Ile is. 

He does not know the Son who does not know Ilis birth 

Ciirys. from the Father. Cniivs. Or thc ignorance, Ile here speaks 

of, is the ignorance of a bad life ; as Paul s;iith, They profess 

that they know God, but in ivorks they deny Hini. Our 

Lord's reproof is twofold : Ile first publish(;d what they were 

speaking secretly, crying out, in ordcr to put thcm to shame. 

Aug. Tr. AuG. Lastly, to shew whence they could get to know Him 

XXXI. 4. ^\yi,o had sent liim), He adds, I knoiv llim : so if you would 

c. 8, 55. kiiow Ilim, enquire of Me. No one knoweth the Father, save 

the Son, and he to whom the Son ivill reveal Him. And 

if I should say, I know Him not, I should be a liar like iinto 

Ciirys. you. CiiKYs. Which is irapossible: for He that seut Me is 

iium. 1. 1. ^mg^ and therefore Ile that is sent must be true likewise. 

He every where attributes the knowledge of the Father to 

Himself, as being frora the Father : thus here, But I know 

Hilar. vi. IUm, for I am from Him. Hilary. I ask however, does 

ultra med. ^^^ bcing frora Hira express a work of creation, or a birth 

by generation ? If a work of creation, then every thing 

which is created is from Him. And how then does not all 

crcation know the Father, if the Son knows Ilira, because 

He is frora Hira ? But if the knowledge of the Father is pe- 

uliar to Hira, as being from Him, then the being frora Him 

is pecuhar to Ilim also ; i.e. the being the true Son of God 

by nature. So you have then a peculiar knowledge spring- 

ing from a peculiar generation. To prevent however any 

heresy applying the being from Ilira, to the time of His 

advent, He adds, And He hath sent Me : thus preserving the 

" Because even considering Him man, He would be boru of God in tlie 

common sense. 

VER. 31 36. ST. JOHN. 2fi9 

order of the gospel sacraraent; first announcing Hiraself 
born, and then sent. Aug. I am Jrom Him, He says, i.e. Au^. Tr. 
as the Son from the Father : but tliat you see Me iu the '^^'^•- *• 
flesh is because Ile hath sent Jle. Wherein understand not 
a difference of nature, but the authority of a father. Ciiryj. rhrys. 
His saying however, Wliom ye know not, irritated the Jews, "'"'•!• 2- 
who professed to have knowledge ; and they sought to take 
Ilim, but no man iaid hands on Him. ]\Iark the invisible 
check which is kept upou their fury : though the Evangelist 
does not mention it, but preserves purposely a humble and 
humau way of speaking, in order to irapress us with Christ's 
humanity; and therefore only adds, Because Ilis hour was 
not yet come. Aug. That is, because He was uot so pleased, Aug. Tr. 
for our Lord was not born subject to fate. Thou niust not ^'^-'^'- ^- ^- 
bclieve this even of thyself, much less of Iliiu by Whom 
thou wert made. And if thine hour is in Ilis will, is not 
His liour in His own will? His hour then here does not 
mean the tinie that Ile was obliged to die, but the time that 
Ile deigned to be put to death. 

31. And many of the people believed on Him, and 
said, When Christ cometh, will Ile do more miracles 
than these which this man hath donc ? 

32. The Piiarisees heard that tlie people murmured 
sucli things concerning Him ; and the Pharisees and 
the chief priests sent officers to take Him. 

33. Then said Jesus unto them, Yet a little while 
am I witli you, and tben I go unto Him tliat sent Me. 

34. Ye shall seek Me, and shall not find Me : and 
where I am, thither ye cannot come. 

35. Then said the Jews among themselves, Whither 
will He go, that we shall not find Ilim? will Ile go 
unto the dispersed among the Gentiles, and teach the 
Gentiles ? 

36. What manner of saying is this that He said, 
Ye shall seek Me, and shall not find Me : and where 
I am, thithcr ye cannot come ? 


Au<r. Ti-. AuG. And many of the people believed on Him. Our Lord 

XXXI. 7. broiiglit the poor and hurable to be saved. The common 

people, who soon saw their own infirmities, received His 

Chrys. medicine without hesitation. Chrys. Neither had these 

Hom. 1. 2. Iiowever a sound faith ; but took up a low way of speaking, 

after the manner of tlie multitude : When Christ cometli, 

will He do more miracJes than this Man hath done ? Their 

sayiug, When CJirist cometh, shews tliat they were not steady 

in believing that He was the Christ : or rather, that they did 

not believe He was the Christ at all ; for it is the same as if 

they said, that Christ, when He came, Avould be a superior 

person, and do more miracles. ISIinds of the grosser sort 

Aufr. Tr. are influenced not by doctrine, but by miracles. Auo. Or 

XXXI. 7. ^i^gy mean, If there are not to be two Christs, this is He. 

Ihc rulers however, possessed with madness, not only refused 

to acknowlcdgc thc physician, but cven wishcd to kill llim. 

The Pharisees heard that the people murmured such things 

concerniny Uim, ayid the Pharisees and chief priests sent 

officers to take Ilim. Chrys. He had discoursed often be- 

fore, but they had never so treated Him. The praises of tlie 

multitude however now irritated them ; though the trans- 

gression of the Sabbath still continued to be the reason put 

forward. Nevertheless, they were afraid of taking this step 

Aug.Tr. themselves, and sent officers instead. Aug. Not being ablc 

XXXI. s. 8. ^Q i^^Q Him against His will, they sent men to hear Hira 

teach. Teach what? TJien said Jesus unto tJiem, Yet a little 

Chrys. ivJiile I am witJi you. Chrys. He speaks with the greatest 

Hom. 1. 2. humility : as if to say, Why do ye make such haste to kill 

Auff. Tr. Me? Only wait a little time. Aug. That which ye wish to 

XXXI. 8. jJq uow, ye sliall do sometime, but not now : because it is 

not My wilL For I wish to fulfil My mission in due course, 

Cbrys. and so to come to My passion. Chrys. In this way He 

Hom. 1. 2. astonished the bolder part of the multitude, and made the 

earnest among them more eager to hear Ilim , so little time 

being uow left, during which they could have the benefit of 

His teaching. He does not say, I am here, simply ; but, / 

am witJi you ; meaning, Though you persecute Me, I will 

not cease fulfiUing my part towards you, teaching you the 

way to salvation, and admonishing you. What follows, And 

I go unto Him ihat sent Me, was enough to excite some fcar. 

VER. 31 — 3G. ST. JOHN. 271 

Theophyl. As if He were jjoing to complain of them to the 
Father : for if they reviled Ilim who was seut, no doubt they 
did an injury to Him that sent. Bede. / go to Him tliat 
sent 3Ie : i.e. I return to My Father, at whose command I 
became incarnate. He is spealdng of that departure, froni 
which He has never returned. Cniiys. That they wanted Chrys. 
His presence, appears from His saying, Ye seek Me, and '^"^"^ '' ^' 
shall not find Me. But when did the Jews seek Him? Luke 
relates that the womeu lamented over Him : and it is pro- 
bable that many otliers did the same. And especially, when 
the city was taken, would they call Christ and Ilis miraclcs 
to remembrance, and desire His presence. Aug. Here Hc Aug. Tr. 
foretels His resurrection : for the search for Hira was to ^''^'" 
take place after His resurrection, when mcn were conscicnce- 
stricken. They would not acknowledge Him, when present ; 
afterward they sought Him, when they saw the multitude 
believing on Him ; and many pricked in their hearts said, 
What shall we do ? They perceived that Christ^s death was 
owing to their sin, and believed in Chrisfs pardon to sin- 
ners ; and so despaired of salvation, until tliey drank of that 
blood which they shed. Chrvs. Then lest any should think Ciirys. 
that His death woukl take place in the common way, He ^i|'"'*3 
adds, Jnd where I am, thitlier ije cannot come. If He con- 
tinued in dcath, they would be able to go to Him : for we 
all are going tliitherwards. Auo. Ile docs not say, Where Aus:. Tr. 

I shall be, but Where I am. For Christ was always there 

in that place whither He was about to rcturn : He returncd 
in such a way, as that Ile did not forsake us. A^isibl}' and 
according to the flesh, He was upon earth; according to His 
invisible majesty, He was in heaven and earth. Nor agaia 
is it, Ye will not be al)le, but, Ye are not able to come : for 
they were not such at the time, as to be able. That this is 
not meant to drive men to despair, is shewn by His say- 
ing the very same thing to His disciples; Whither I go, ye 
cannot come ; and by Ilis explanation last of all to Peter, 
Whither I go, ye cannot foUow Me now, but ye shall follow 
Me afterwards. Chrys. He wauts them to think seriously chrys. 
how little tirae longor He should be with them, and what i l./ 
regret they will feel when He is gone, and they are not able 
to find Him. I go unto Ilim that sent Me ; this shews that 


no injury was done Him by their plots, and tliat His passion 
was voluntary. The words had some efifect upon the Jews, 
who asked each other, where they were to go, which was 
like persons desiiing to be quit of Him : Then said the Jews 
among themselves, Whither will He go, that we shall not find 
Ilini ? Will He go to the dispersed among the Gentiles, ana 
teach the Gentiles ? Tn the fulness of their self-satisfaction, 
they call them Gentiles, as a term of reproach ; the Gen- 
tiles being dispersed everywhere; a reproach which they 
themselves underwent afterwards. Of old all the nation 
was united together : but now that the Jews were raixed 
with the Gentiles in eveiy part of the world, our Lord would 
not have said, Whither I go, ye cannot come, in the sense 
Au^. Tr. of going to thc Gentiles. Aug. IfldtJier I go, i. e. to the 
^''^'' ■ bosom of the Father. This they did not at all understand : 
and yet even their mistake is an unwitting prophecy of our 
salvation ; i. e. that our Lord would go to the Gentiles, not 
in His own person, but by His feet, i.e. His members. He 
sent to ns tho^e whom He had made His members, and so 
Clirys. made us His merabers. Chrys. They did not mean, that 
Hom. 1. 3. Q^j, Lord was going to the Genliles for their hurt, but to 
teach them. Their anger had subsided, and they believed 
what He had said. Else they would not have thought of 
asking each other, What manner of saying is this that He 
said, Ye shall seek Me and shall not find Me : and whither 
I am, ye cannot come. 

37. In the last day, that great day of the feast, 
Jesus stood and cried, saying, If any man thirst, let 
him come unto Me, and drink. 

38. He that believeth on Me, as the Scripture hath 
said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of Uving water. 

39. (But this spake He of the Spirit, which they 
that beUeve on Him should receive : for the Holy 
Ghost was not yet given ; because that Jesus was not 
yet glorified.) 

Chrys. Chrys. The feast being over, and the people abont to re- 

om. . . i^Y^^ home, our Lord gives them provisious for the way : In 

VER. 37 — 39. ST. JOHN. 273 

tke last day, that great day of the feast, Jesus stood and 
cried, saying, If any man thirst, let him come unto Me, and 
drink. Aug. The feast was then going on, which is called Aus. Tr. 
scenopegia, i. e. building of tents. Chrys. Which lasted ^■^''"" 
seven days. The first and last days were the niost import- 
ant; In the last day, that great day of the feast, says the 
Evangelist. Those between were given chiefly to amuse- 
ments. Ile did not then make the ofl^er on the first day, or 
the second, or the third, lest araidst the excitements that 
were going on, people should lct it slip from their minds. 
He cried out, on account of the great multitude of people 
present. Theophyl. To makc Ilimself audible, inspire con- 
fidence in others, and shew an absence of all fear in Ilimself. 
Chrys. If any thirsteth : as if to say, I use no compulsion riirys. 
or violence : but if any have the desire strong enough, let ""'" 
him come. Aug. For there is an inner thirst, because there Aujr. Tr. 
is an inner man : and the inner man of a certainty loves ^ ' ' 
more than the outer. So then if we thirst, let us go not on 
our feet, but on our affections, not by change of place, but 
by love. Chrys. He is speaking of spiritual drink, as His ci.rvs. 
next words shew : Ile that helieveth on Jle, as the Scripture '''""•"- • 
hath said, out of his belly shall Jlow rivers of living water. 
But where does the Scripture say this? No vvhere. What 
then? We should read, He that believeth in Me, as saith 
the Scripture, putting the stop here ; and then, out of his 
belly shall flow rivers of living water : the meaning being, 
that that was a right kind of bclicf, which was formcd on 
the evidence of Scripture, not of miracles. Search the Scrip- 
tures, He had said before. Jerome. Or this testimony is Hierom. 
taken from the Proverbs, where it is said, Let thy fountains "ISJcQn, 
be dispersed abroad, and rivers of waters in the streets. Aug. Prov,5.i6. 
The belly of the inner mau, is the lieart's conscience. Let '^"^:'^'"' 
him drink frora that water, and his conscience is quickened 
and purificd ; he drinks in the whole fountain, nay, becoraes 
the very fountain itself. But what is that fountaiu, and what 
is that river, which flows frora the belly of the inner man ? 
The love of his neighbour. If any one, who drinks of the 
water, thinks that it is meant to satisfy himself alone, out of 
his belly there doth not flow living water, But if he does 
good to his neighbour, the stream is not dried up, but flows. 



Greg. Greg. When sacred preaching floweth from the soul of the 

Ezedi. faithful, rivers of living water, as it were, run dowu from the 

Hom. X. hellies of believers. For what are the entrails of the belly 
but the inner part of the mind; i.e. a right intention, a holy 

Chrys. desire, humihty towards God, mercy toward man. Chrys. 

Hom. li. 1. jjg says, rivers, not river, to shew the copious and overflow- 
ing power of grace : and living loater, i. e. always moving; 
for when the grace of the Spirit has cntered into and settlcd 
in the mind, it flows freer than any fountain, and neither 
fails, nor empties, nor stagnates. Thc wisdom of Stephen, 
the tongue of Peter, the strength of Paul, are evidences of 
this. Nothing hindered them ; but, like impetuous torrents, 

Aug. Tr. they went on, carrying every thing along with them. Aug. 

xxxu. 5. What kind of drink it vvas, to which our Lord invited them, 
the Evangelist next explains ; Bul ihis He spahe of tlie Spirit, 
wJiich they tliat believe on Uim should receive. Whom does 
the Spirit mean, but the Iloly Spirit? For every man has 
within him his own spirit. Alcuin. He promised the Holy 
Spirit to the Apostles before the Ascension; Ile gave it to 
them in ficry tongues, after the Ascension. The Evangelist's 
words, PFhich they ihat helieve on Ilim shouJd receive, refer 

Au?. Tr. to this. AuG. The Spirit of God was, i. e. was with God, 

xxxii. 6. |3gfQj.g jiow; but was not yct given to those who believed on 
Jesus ; for our Lord had dctcrmincd not to give them the 
Spirit, till Ile was risen again : The lloly Ghost was not yet 

Chrys. given, because that Jesus was not yet glorified. Chrys. The 
"'"■ '■ ■ Apostles indeed cast out devils by the Spirit before, but only 
by the power which they had from Christ. For when Ile 
sent thcm, it is not said, He gave them the Holy Spirit, but, 
He gave unto them poiver. With respect to the Prophets, 
however, all agree that the Iloly Spirit was given to them : 

Aug. iv. but this grace had been withdrawn from the world. Aug. 

de Trin. yet wc rcad of Johu the Baptist, He shall be fiiled tcith the 

Lukei,i5. Holy Ghost even from his mot?ier's womb. And Zacharias 
was filled with the Iloly Ghost, and prophesied. Mary was 
filled with the Holy Ghost, and prophesied of our Lord. 
And so were Simeon and Anna, that they might acknow- 
ledge the greatness of the infant Christ. We are to under- 
stand then that the giving of the Holy Spirit was to be 
certain, after Christ's exaltation, in a way in which it never 


VER. 37 — 39. ST. JOHN. 275 

was befure. It was to have a peculiarity at His coming, 
which it had not before. For we no where read of nien 
under the influence of the Holy Spirit, speaking with tongues 
which they had never knowu, as then took pLice, when it 
was necessary to evidence Ilis comiug by sensible miracles. 
AuG. If the Iloly Spirit then is received now, why is there 
no one who speaks the tongues of all nations? Because 
now ihe Church herself speaks the tongues of all nations. 
Whoso is not in her, ncither doth he now receive tiie Iluly 
Spirit. But if only thou lovest uuity, whoever hath any 
thing in her, hath it for thee. Put away envy, and that 
which I have is thine. Euvy separateth, luve unites : have 
it, and thou hast all tliings : whereas without it nothing that 
thou canst have, will profit thee. The love of God is shed Rom. r», o. 
abroad in our hearts by the Holy Spirit which is given to us. 
But why did our Lord give the lloly Spirit after Ilis resur- 
rection? That the flame of love might mount upwards to 
our own resurrection : scparatiug us from the world, and 
devoting us wlioUy to God. Ile who said, Ue that believeth 
in Me, out of his belly shall floio rivers of liviny water, hath 
promised life eterual, free frora all fear, and change, and 
death. Such then bcing the gifts which He promiscd to 
those in whom the Holy Spirit kindlcd thc flamc of love, Ile 
would not give that Spirit till He was glorified : in order 
that in His own person Ile might shcw us that life, which 
we hope to attain to iu the resurrection. Aug. If this then An<T. cont. 
is the cause why tlie Iloly Spirit was not yet given; viz. be- j/^xVii. 
cause Jesus was not yet glorified; doubtless, the glorification '^- 17. 
of Jesus when it took place, was the cause immediately of its 
being given. The Cataphryges, however, said that tliey first 
received the promised Paraclete, and thus strayed from the 
Catholic faith. The Mauichaiaus too apply all the promises 
made respecting the Iloly Spirit to Manichaeus, as if there 
were no Holy Spirit given before. Chrys. Or thusj By the Chrys. 
glory of Christ, Ile means the cross. Por, whereas we were ""^" '' " 
enemies, and gifts are not made to enemies, but to frieuds, 
it was necessary that the victim should be first offered up, 
and the enmity of the flesli removed ; that, being made 
friends of God, we might be capable of receiving the gift. 


40. Many of the people therefore, when they heard 
this saying, said, Of a truth this is the Prophet. 

41. Others said,This is the Christ. But some said, 
Shall Christ come out of GaUlee ? 

42. Hath not the Scripture said, That Christ cometh 
of the seed of David, and out of the town of Beth- 
lehem, where David was ? 

43. So tliere was a division among the people be- 
cause of nim. 

44. And some of them would have taken Ilim ; 
but no man laid hands on Ilim. 

45. Then came the officers to the chief priests and 
Pharisees ; and they said unto them, Why have ye 
not brought Him ? 

46. The officers answered, Never man spake hke 
this Man. 

47. Then answered them the Pharisees, Are ye also 
deceived ? 

48. Have any of the rulcrs or of the Pharisces be- 
lieved on Him ? 

49. But this people who knoweth not the law are 

50. Nicodemus saith unto them, (he that came to 
Jesus by night, being one of them,) 

51. Dotli our law judge any man, before it hear 
him, and knovv what he doeth ? 

52. They answered and said unto him, Art thou 
also of Galilee? Search, and look : for out of Galiiee 
arisetli no prophet. 

53. And every man went unto his own house. 

Aug. Tr. AuG. Our Lord having invitcd tliose, wlio believed in 

xxxiii. 1. Yi\Ya, to drink of the Holy Spirit, a dissension arose among 

the multitude : Many of the people therefore, when they heard 

this saying, said, Of a truth this is the Prophet. Theophyl. 

The one, that is, who was expected. Others, i. e. the people, 

VER. 40 — 53. ST. JOHN. 277 

said, This is the Christ. Alcuin. These had now begun to 
drink in that sjjiritual thirst^ and had laid aside the unbe- ' Nic. 
lieving thirst. But otliers still remained dried up in their 
unbelief : But some said, Shall Christ come out of Galilee ? 
Tlath not the Scripture said, That Clirist cometh of the seed 
of David, and out of the toion of Bethlehem, where Bavid 
was? They knew what were the predictions of the Prophets 
respecting Christ, but knew not that they all were fulfilled 
in Him. They knew that He had been brought up at Naza- 
reth, but thc place of His birth they did not know ; and 
did not beHeve that it answered to the prophecies. Chrys. Clirys. 
But be it so, they knew not His birth-place : were they jj "| 'J' 
ignorant also of His extraction ? that He was of the house 
and faraily of David? Why did they ask, Ilath not ihe 
Scripture said, that Christ cometh of the seed of David? 
They wished to conceal His extraction, and therefore put 
forward where He had been educated. For this reason, they 
do not go to Ciirist and ask, How say thc Scripturcs that 
Christ raust come from Bcthlehera, whereas Thou comest 
frora Galilee ? purposely and of malice prepense they do 
not do this. And because they were thus inattentive, and 
indifferent about knowing the truth, Christ did not answer 
them : though He had lauded Nathanael, when He said, Can 
any good thing come out of Nazareth ? and called Hira an 
Israelite indeed, as being a lover of truth, and well learned 
in the ancient Scriptures. 

So there was a division among the people concerning Him. 
Theopuyl. Not among tlie rulers; for thc}' were resolved 
one way, viz. not to acknowledge Hira as Christ. The raore 
raoderate of thera only used raahcious words, in ordcr to op- 
pose Christ's path to glory ; but the raore mahgnant wished 
to lay hands on Him : And some of them would Jiave taken 
Him. Chrys. The Evangehst says this to shew, that they Chrys. 
had no concern for, and no anxiety to learn, the truth. Hom. I1.2. 

But no man laid hands on Him. Alcuin. That is, because 
He Who had the power to control their designs, did not 
permit it. Chrys. This were sufficient to have raised sorae Chrys. 
corapunction in thera ; but no, such malignity believes no- f^°'"-''-2- 
thing; it looks only to one thing, blood. Aug. They how. Aii<;. Tr. 
ever who were seut to take Hira, returned guiUless of thc ^^'""' ^* 


ofFence, and full of admiration : Then came the officers to 
the chief priests and Pharisees ; and they said nnto them, 
Why have ye not brought Him? Alcuin. They who wished 
to take and stone Him, reprove the officers for not bringing 
Chrys. Him. Chrys. The Pharisees and Scribes profited nothing 
^?.""^' bv seeinsc the miracles, and reading the Scriptures; but their 
officers, who had done neither, were captivated with once 
hearing Him ; and they who went to take hold of Hira, were 
themselves taken hold of by the rairacle. Nor did they say, 
We could not because of the multitude : but made them- 
selves proclaimers of Chrisfs wisdora : The officers answered, 
Aug.Tr. Never man spake like this 3Ian, Aug. He spoke thus, bc- 
xxxiii. 1. gj^ygg jjg ^yj^s both God and man. Ciirys. Not only is thcir 
Hom! wisdora to be admired, for not wanting miracles, but bcing 
'ii- i- convinced by His teacliing only, (for they do not say, Never 
man did such rairacles as this Man, but, Never man spake 
Uke this 3Ian,) but also their boldness, in saying this to the 
Pharisees, who were such enemies of Christ. Tliey had not 
hcard a long discourse, but minds unprepossessed against 
\uff. Tr. Him did not require one. Auo. The Pharisces however re- 
xxxiii i. jected their testiraony : Then answered them the Pharisees, 
Arc ye also led away ? As if to say, We see that you are 
charraed by His discourse. Alcuin. And so they were lcd 
away; and laudably too, for they had left the evil of un- 
Chrys. bclief, and were gone over to the faith. Chrys. They make 
l'j'"'j^' use of the raost foolish arguraent against thcra : Have any 
of the riders or of the Pharisees helieved on Him ? but this 
people ivho knoiveth not the law are cursed ? This then was 
their ground of accusation, that the people believed, but 
Aiit;. Tr. they themselves did not. Aug. They who knew not the 
xxxiii. 1. 1^^^ believed on Him who had given the law, and they who 
taught the law condemned Hira ; thus fulfilHng our Lord's 
c. 19, 39. words, I am come, that thcy ivhich see not miyht see, and that 
ciirys, they which see might be made blind. Chrys. How then are 
Hom. ^i^gy cursed, who are convinced by the law? Rather are 
ye cursed, who have not observed the law. Theophyl. 
The Pharisees answer the officers courteously and gentlyj 
because they are afraid of their forthwith separating from 
Chrys. thcm, and joining Christ. Chrys. As they said that none 
j^."'"' of the rulers beUeved on Him, the Evangelist contradicts 

VER. 40 — 53. ST. JOHN. 279 

thera : Nicodemus saith unto them, {he that came to Jesus by 
night, being one of them.) Aug. He was not unbelieving, Aug. Tr. 
but fearful; and therefore carae by night to the light, wish- ^^^^^^- ^- 
ing to be enlightened, but afraid of being known to go. He 
replies, Doth our laiv judge any man before it hear him, and 
know what he doeth ? He thought that, if they would only 
hear Him patiently, they would be overcorae, as the oflEicers 
had been. But thcy prcferred obstinately condemning Him, 
to knowing the truth. Aug. He calls the law of God, our 
law ; because it was given to men. Chrys. Nicodcmus Chrys. 
shews that they knew the law, and did not act according to i^*","'^ 
the law. They, instead of disproving this, take to rude and 
angry contradiction : 27iey answered and said unto him, Art 
thou also of Galilee ? Aug. i. e. led away by a Galilean. Aup. Tr. 
Our Lord was called a Galilean, because His parents were '"" ' 
of the town of Nazareth; I mean by parents, Mary. Chrvs. Chrys, 
Then, by way of insult, they direct him to the Scriptures, ^^"^'i 
as if hc were ignorant of thera ; Search and look, for out of 
Galilee ariseth no prophet : as if to say, Go, learn what the 
Scriptures say. Alcuin. They knew the place where He 
had resided, but never thought of enquiriug where He was 
born ; and therefore they not only dcnicd that He was the 
Messiah, but even that He was a prophet. Aug. No pro- Auj?. Tr. 
phet indeed ariseth out of Galilee, but the Lord of prophets ^^'"- ^^ 
arose thence. 

And every man went unto his own house. Alcuin. Having 
effected nothing, devoid of faith, and therefore incapable of 
being bencfited, they returned to their home of unbclief 
and ungodliuess. 


1. Jesus went unto the mount of Olives. 

2. And early in the morning He came again into 
the temple, and all the people came unto Ilim ; and 
He sat down, and taught them. 

3. And the Scribes and Pharisees brought unto 
Him a woman taken in adultery ; and whcn they had 
set her in the midst, 

4. They say unto Him, Mastcr, this woman was 
taken in adultcry, in the very act. 

5. Now Moscs in the law commanded us, that such 
should bc stoned : but what sayest Thou ? 

6. Tliis thcy said, tempting Ilim, that they might 
have to accuse Him. But Jesus stooped down, and 
with His finger wrote on the ground, as though Ile 
heard them not. 

7. So when they continued asking Ilim, He lifted 
up Himself, and said unto them, Ile that is without 
sin among you, lct him first cast a stone at lier. 

8. And again He stooped down, and wrote on the 

9. And they which heard it, being convicted by 
their own conscience, went out one by one, beginning 
at the eldest, even unto the last : and Jesus was left 
alone, and the woman standing in the midst. 

10. When Jesus had Hfted up liimself, and saw 
none but the woman, He said unto her, Woman, 
where are those thine accusers ? hath no man con- 
demned thee ? 

11. She said, No man, Lord. And Jesus said 
unto her, Neither do I condenm thee : go, and sin 
no more. 


Alcuin. Our Lord at the time of His passion usod to 
spend the day in Jerusalem, preaching in the temple, and 
perforraing miracles, and return in the evening to Bethany, 
where He lodged with the sisters of Lazarus. Thus on 
the last day of the feast, having, according to His wont, 
preached the whole day in the temple, in the evening He 
ivent to the mount of OHves. Aug. And where ouglit Christ Anp. Tr. 
to toach, except on the mount of OUvcs ; on the rnount of ''''■'""• **• 
ointment, on the mount of chrism ? For tlie name Christ is 
from chrism, chrisra being the Greck word for unction. He 
has anointed us, for wrestling with the devil. Alcuin. The 
anointing with oil is a relief to the limbs, when wearied and 
in pain. The mount of OHves also denotes the hcight of 
our Lord's pity, olive in the Greek signifying pity. The 
qualities of oil are such as to fit in to this mystical meaning. 
For it floats above all othcr liquids : and the Psalmist says, 
Thy mercy is over all Thy works. And early in the morninrf, Ps. I4i-. 
He came again into the temple : i. e. to denote the giving and 
unfolding of His mercy, i. e. the now dawning light of the 
New Testament in the faitliful, that is, in Ilis templc. Ilis 
returning early in the morinng, signifies the new rise of 
gracc. Bede. And next it is signified, that aftcr Ile bcgan 
to dwell by grace in Ilis teraple, i. e. in tlie Church, raen 
from all nations would believe in Him : And all the people 
came to Him, and He sat doicn and taiight them. Alcuin. 
The sitting down, rcpresents the humility of Ilis incarnation. 
And the people carae to Ilim, when He sat down, i. e. after 
taking up human nature, and thereby becoraing visible, 
many began to hear and bclieve on Him, only knowing 
Hira as their friend and neighbour. But while these kind 
and simple persons are full of adrairation at our Lord's 
discourse, the Scribes and Pliarisces put questions to Hini, 
not for tlie sake of instruction, but only to cntangle tlie 
truth in their nets : And the 8cribes and Pharisees brought 
unto Him a ivoman takfii in adultery ; and ivhen thcy had set 
her in the midst, they say unto Hini, Master, ihis ivoman was 
taken in adultery, in the very act. Aug. They had reraarked Aufi. Tr. 
upon Ilira already, as being over lenient. Of Him indeed ^^^"'* 
it Iiad been prophesied, Ride on because of the word of trulh, i's- 44- 
of meekness, and of righteousness. So as a teacher He ex- 


hibited truth, as a deliverer meekness, as a judge righteous- 
ness. When He spoke, His truth was acknowledged ; when 
against His enemies He used no violence, His meekness was 
praised. So they raised the scandal on the score of justice. 
For they said among themselves, If He decide to let her go, 
He will not do justice; for the law cannot command what 
is unjust : Noio Moses in the laio commanded us, that such 
should he stoned : but to maintain His meekness, which has 
made Him already so acceptable to the people, He must 
decide to let her go. Wherefore they demand His opinion : 
And what sayest Thou? hoping to find an occasion to ac- 
cuse Him, as a transgressor of the law : And this they said 
temjUing Ilim, that they might have to accuse Him, But our 
Lord iu His answer both maintained His justice, and de- 
parted not from meckncss. Jesus stooped doivn, and with 
Aug. Ilis finger wrote on the ground. Aug. As if to signify that 
Evang.' such pcrsous wcre to be written in earth, not in heaven, 
iib. 11, where He told His disciples they should rejoice they were 
written. Or His bowing His head (to write on the ground), 
is an exprcssion of humility ; the writing on the ground 
signifying that His law was written on the earth which 
bore fruit, not on the barren stone, as before. Alcuin. The 
ground denotes the human heart, which yiekleth the fruit 
either of good or of bad actions : the finger jointed and 
flexible, discretion. He instructs us then, when we see any 
faults in our neighbours, not immediately and rashly to con- 
demn them, but after searching our own hearts to begin 
with, to exaraine them attentively with the finger of dis- 
cretion. Bede. His writing with His finger on the ground 
perhaps shevved, that it was He who had written the law on 

So when they continued asking Uim, He lifted Himself up. 
Aug. Tr. AuG. He did not say, Stone her not, lest He should seem 
to speak contrary to the law. But God forbid that He 
should say, Stone her; for He cffftie not to destroy that 
which He found, but to seek that which was lost. What 
then did He answer ? He that is without sin among you, let 
him first cast a stone at her. This is the voice of justice. 
Let the sinner be punished, but not by sinners; the law 
carried into efiFect, but not by transgressors of the law. 

xxxiii. 5. 

VER. 1 — 11. ST. JOHN. 283 

Greg. For he who judges not himself first, cannot know 
how to judge correctly in the case of another. For though 
he know what the offence is, frora being told, yet he can- 
not judge of another's deserts, who supposing himself in- 
nocent, will not apply the rule of justice to himself. Aug. Au^. Tr. 
Having with the weapon of justice smitten them, He deigned ' 
not even to look on the fallen, but avcrted Ilis eyes : And 
again He stooped down, and wrote on the ground. Alcuin. 
This is like our Lord ; while His eyes are fixcd, and He 
seems attending to somethiug else, He gives the bystanders 
an opportunity of retiring : a tacit admonition to us to con- 
sider aiways both before we condemn a brother for a sin, 
and after we have punished him, whether we are not guilty 
ourselves of the same fault, or others as bad. Aug. Thus Aug.Tr. 
sraitten then with the voice of justice, as with a weapon, g 5^ 
they examine themselves, find themselves guilty, and one 
by one retire : And they which heard it, went out one by 
one, beginning at the eldest^. Gloss. The more guilty of 
thcm, perhaps, or those wlio were more conscious of their 
faults. AuG. There were lcft however two, the pitiable ^ Aiifj. Tr. 
and the pitiful, And Jesus was left alone, and the woman 5'^ 'g. 
standing in the midst : tlie woman, you may suppose, in ' "nse"* 
great alarm, expectiug punishment from one in whom no ricordia. 
sin could be found. But He who had repelled her ad- 
versaries with the word of justice, lifted on her the eyes of 
mcrcy, and asked ; When Jesus had lifted Himself up, and 
saw none but the woman, He said unto her, Woman, where 
are these thine accusers ? hath no man condemned thee ? She 
said, No man, Lord. We heard above the voice of justice ; 
let us hear now that of mercy : Jesus said unto her, Neither 
do I condemn thee ; I, who thou fearedst would condemn 
thee, because thou foundest no fault in Me. "VVhat theu, 
Lord ? Dost Thou favour sm ? No, surely. Listen to what 
follows, Go, and sin no more. So then our Lord condemned 
sin, but not the sinner. For did He favour sin, He would 
have said, Go, and live as thou wilt : depend on My de- 
liverance : howsoever great thy sins be, it matters not : I 
will delivcr thee from hell, and its tormeutors. But He 
did not say this. Let those atteud who love the Lord's 

" Vulgate oinits xnrh t^s cvveiZi^aius iK^yx^/Jieyoi eu? rwv iaxoiToov. 


Ps. 35, 7. mercy, and fear His truth. Truly, Gracious and righteous 
is the Lord. 

12. Then spake Jesus again unto them, saying, I 
am the hght of the world : he that followeth Me shall 
not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life. 

Alcuin. Having absoh'ed the woman from her sin, lest 

some should doubt, seeing tbat lie was really man, His 

power to forgive sins, He deigns to give furtber disclosure of 

His divine nature ; Then spake Jesus again unio them, saying, 

I am the Light of the world. Bede. Wbere it is to be ob- 

served, Ile docs not say, L am tbe ligbt of Angels, or of 

heavcn, but the Light of the world, i. e. of manUind who hve 

Luke in darkncss, as wc read, To give light to them that sit in 

pj^*^ darhncss, and in the shadoiv of death. Chkys. As tbey bad 

Hoin. brougbt Galilee as an objection against Him, and doubted 

'"• ^' His being one of tbe Propbets, as if tbat was all He cL-iimed 

to be, He wisbed to sbcw tliat Hc was not one of tbc 

Propbets, but tlie Lord of tbe wbole eartb : Then spake 

Jesus again unto them, saying, L am the Light of the world : 

Aug. Tr. not of Gahlee, or of Palcstine, or of Judsea. Auo. The 

xxxiv. 2 Mfinicbffians supposc tbe sun of tbe natural world to be 

our Lord Cbrist; but tbe Catbohc Cburch reprobates such 

a notion : for our Lord Cbrist was not made tbe sun, but 

c. 1, 3. tbe sun Mas made by Him : inasmuch as al/ things were 

made by Him. And for our sake did Hc come to be under 

tbe sun, being tbe hgbt Avbicb made the sun : He bid Him- 

self under tbe cloud of the flesb, not to obscure, but to 

temper His hgbt. Speaking tben through tbe cloud of tbe 

flesb, tbe Ligbt unfaiHng, tbe Light of wisdom says to raen, 

/ am the Light of the world. Theophyl. You may bring 

tbese words against Nestorius : for our Lord does not say, 

In Me is tbe hgbt of tbe world, but, / am the Light of the 

world : He wbo appeared man, was both tbe Son of God, 

and the Ligbt of tbe world ; not, as Nestorius fondly boids, 

Aug. Tr. tbe Son of God dwelhng in a mere man. Auo. He witb- 

^^5^' draws you bowever from tbe eyes of tbe flcsb, to tbose of 

tbe heart, in tbat He adds, Lle that followeth Me shall not 

walk in darkness, but shall have the light of life. He tbinks it 

VER. 13 — 18. ST. JOHN. 285 

uot enough to say, shall have light, but adds, of life. These 
words of our Lord agree with those of the Ps:Um, In Thij Ps. 35. 
Ihjht shall rve see liyht ; for with Thee is the well of life. For 
bodily uses, light is one thing, and a well another ; and a 
wcll ministers to the mouth, light to the eyes. With God 
the light and the well are the same. He who shines upon 
tliee, that thou mayest see Him, the Same flows unto thee, 
tliat thou mayest drink Him. What He promises is put in 
the future tcnse ; what we ought to do in the present. He 
ihat followeth Afe, Ile says, shall have ,- i. e. by faith uow, in 
sight hereafter. The visible sun accompanieth thee, only if 
thou goest westward, whither it goeth also; and cven if thou 
follow it, it will forsakc thcc, at its setting. Thy God is 
every where wliolly; He will not fall from thec, if thou fall 
not from Ilim. Darkucss is to be fcarcd, not that of the 
eyes, but that of the mind ; and if of the eyes, of the inncr 
not the outcr cycs; not those by which white and black, 
but those by which just and unjust, are discerned. Ciirvs. ciirvs. 
IVulketh not in darkness, i. e. spiritually abidcth not in error. |.^".','' 
llere Ile tacitly praiscs Nicodemus and the officcrs, and cen- 
sures those who had plotted against Him ; as beiug iu dark- 
ness aud crror, aud unablc to comc to the hght. 

13. The Pharisces thcrefore said unto Him, Thou 
bearest record of Thyself; Thy record is not truc. 

14. Jcsus answercd and said unto thcm, Tliough 
I bear record of Myself, yet My rccord is truc ; for I 
know whence 1 came, and whithcr I go ; but ye can- 
not tell whcnce 1 come, and whither I go. 

15. Ye judge after the flcsh ; I judge no man. 

IG. And yet if I judge, My judgment is true: for 
I am not alone, but I and the Father that sent Me. 

17. It is also written in your law, that the testi- 
mony of two men is true. 

18. I am one that bear witness of Myself, and thc 
Father that sent Me beareth witness of Me. 

Chrys. Our Lord having said, I am the Lif/ht of the world, rbrys. 
and, he that followeth Me, walketh not in darkness, the Jews jf!"'^'- 




lii. 2. 

Aug. Tr. 
XXXV. 6. 


xxxvi. 3, 

Aug. Tr. 
xxxvi. 3. 
iu Joan. 

wish to overthrow what He has said : The Pharisees there- 
fore said unto Him, Thou bearest record of Thyself, Thy 
record is not true. Alcuin. As if our Lord Himself were 
the only (one that bore) witness to Himself ; whereas the 
truth was that He had, before His incarnation, sent maiiy 
witnesses to prophesy of His Sacraments. Chrys. Our 
Lord however overthrew their argument : Jesus answered 
and said, Though I bear record of Myself, yet My record is 
true. This is an accommodation to those who thought Hira 
no more than a mere raan. He adds the reason, For 1 
know whence I come, and whither I go ; i.e. I ara God, frora 
God, and the Son of God : though this He does not say 
expressly, frora His habit of rainghng lofty and lowly words 
togethcr. Now God is surely a competent witness to Hira- 
self. AuG. The witness of hght is true, whether the light 
shew itself, or other things. The Prophet spake the trutli, 
but whence had he it, but by drawing frora the fouut of 
truth ? Jesus then is a competent witness to Hiinself. 
For 1 know ivhence I come, and xchither I go : tliis has refe- 
rence to the Fathcr ; for the Son gave glory to the Father 
who sent Him. How greatly then should man glorify the 
Creator, who made Him. He did not separate from His 
Father, however, when He came, or desert us when He re- 
turned : unlike that sun which in going to the west, leaves 
the east. Aud as that sun throws its hght on the faces both 
of him who sees, and him who sees not ; only the one sees 
with the light, the other sees not : so the Wisdom of God, 
the Word, is everywhere present, even to the minds of un- 
believers ; but they have not the eyes of the understanding, 
wherewith to see. To distinguish then between beUevers 
and enemies among the Jews, as between light and darkness, 
He adds, But ye cannot tell whence I come, and whither I go. 
Tliese Jews saw the man, and did not beUeve in the God, 
and therefore our Lord says, Ye judge after ihe flesh, i.e. in 
sayiiig, Thou bearest record of Thyself, Thy record is not true. 
Theophyl. As if to say ; Ye judge untruly, according to the 
flesh, thinking, because I am iu the flesh, that I am flesh 
ouly, and not God. Aug. Understanding Me not as God, 
and seeing Me as man, ye thiuk Me arrogant in beariug 
witness of Myself. For any man who bears high testimony 

VER. 13 18. ST. JOHN. 287 

to himself, is thought proud and arrogant. But men are 
frail, and may either speak the truth, or lie : tlie Light can- 
not lie. CniiYs. As to live according: to the flcsh is to Hve r-i 

•^ Cnrys, 

amiss ; so to judge according to the flesh, is to judge uu- Hom. 

justly. They might say, however, If we judge wrongly, why 

dost Thou not convict us, why dost Tliou not condemn us? 

So He adds, Ijudge no man. Aug. Which may be under- ^„„ -j.^ 

stood in two ways ; Ijndfje no mayi, i.e. not now : as He says xxwi. s. 4. 

elsevvhere, God sent not Ilis Son- into the world to condemn 

the world, but that the world through Him might be saved : 

not that He abandons, but only defers, His justice. Or 

having said, Yejudge according to the flesh, He says imme- 

diately, I judge no man, to let you know that Christ does 

not judge according to the flesh, as men judged Hitn. For 

that Christ is a judgc appears from the next words, And yet 

if I judge, Mij judgment is true. Chrys. As if to say ; In (1,,.^^ 

saying, I judge no man, 1 meant that I did not anticipate Ho"'- 

judgment. If I judge justly, I should condemn you, but 

now is not the timc for judging. He alkides however to the 

future judgment, in what follows ; For I am not alone, but 

I and the FatJter that sent Jle ; which mcans that He will 

not condcmn thcm alone, but Ile and the Father together. 

This is iutended too to quiet suspicion, as men did not think 

the Son worthy to bc beUcved, unless Ile had the testimony 

of the Fatlier also. Aug. But if the Father is with Thee, Au<r. Tr. 

how did He send Thce? O Lord, Thy mission is Thy iu- xxxvi. 7. 

carnation. Christ was here according to the flcsh without 

withdrawing from the Fathcr, bccause the Father and the 

Son are cvery whcrc. Blusli, thou Sabcllian ; our Lord 

doth not say, I am the Fathcr, and I tlie self-same person 

am the Son ; but, / am not alone, because the Father is with 

Me. Make a distinction thcn of persons, and distinction of 

intelligences : acknowledge that the Father is the Father, 

the Son the Son : but beware of saying, that the Father is 

grcater, the Son lcss. Theirs is one substance, one coeter- 

nity, perfect equality. Therefore He says, My judgment is 

true, bccause I am the Son of God. But that thou mayest 

understand how that the Father is with Me, it is not for the 

Son evcr to leave the Father. I have taken up the form of 

a scrvant ; but I have not lost the form of God. IIc had 


spoken of judgment : now He speaks of witness : It is also 
written in your law, that the testimony of two mcn is true. 
AuG. Is this raade a bad use of by the Manichoeans, that our 
Lord does not say, in the law of God, but, in your law? 
Who does not recognise here a manner of speaking cus- 
tomary in Scripture ? In your law, i.e. the law given to you. 
The Apostle speaks of his Gospel in the same way, though 
he testifies to having received it not from men, but by the 
Au?. Tr. revelation of Jesus Christ. Aug. There is much difficulty, 
^^^^'' ' and a great mystery seems to be contained, in Gud's words, 
Deut. 10. In the mouth of two or three witnesses let every word he es- 
tabllshed. It is possible that two may speak false. The 
chaste Susannah was arraigned by two false witnesses : the 
whole people spake against Christ falsely. How then must 
we understand the word, By the mouth of two or three 
witnesses, shali every ivord be estahlished : except as an inti- 
mation of the mystery of the Triuity, in which is per- 
petual stability of truth ? Receive then our tcstimony, lest 
ye feel our judgment. I dclay My judgment : I delay not 
My testimony : / am one that beareth witness of Myself, 
And the Father that sent Me beareth witness of Me. Bede. 
In many places the Father bears witness of thc Son ; as, 
r'"- 2. This day have I begotten Thee ; also, This is My beloved Son. 
3 ^J7 Chrys. It is written in your law, that the testimony of two 
Chrys. meu is true. If this is to be taken literally, in what respect 
lii."™' does our Lord difFer from men ? The rule has been laid 
down for men, on the ground that one man alone is not 
to be relied on : but how can this be applicable to God ? 
These words are quoted then with another meaning. When 
two men bear witness, both to an indifferent matter, their 
witness is true : this constitutes the testimony of two raen. 
But if one of them bear witness to himself, then they are 
no longer two witnesses. Thus our Lord means to shew 
that He is consubstantial with the Father, and does not 
need another witness, i. e. besides the Father's. / and the 
Father that sent Me. Again, on human principles, when a 
man bears witness, his honesty is supposed ; he is not borne 
witness to ; and a man is admitted as a fair and competeut 
witness in au indifferent matter, but not in one relating to 
himself, uuless he is supported by other testiraony. But 

VER. 19, 20. ST. JOHN. 289 

here it is quite otherwise. Our Lord, though giviug testi- 
raony in Ilis own case, aud though saying that Ile is borne 
witness to by auother, pronounces Ilimself worthy of belief ,- 
thus shewing His all-sufficiency. He says He deserves to 
be bcHeved. Alcuin. Or it is as if He said, If your law ad- 
mits the testimony of two men who may be deceived, and 
testify to more than is true ; on what grouuds can you 
reject Mine and My Father's testimony, the highcst and 
most sure of all ? 

19. Then said they unto Him, Where is Thy 
Father? Jesus answered, Ye neither know Me, nor 
My Father : if ye had known Me, ye should have 
known My Father also. 

20. These words spake Jesus in the treasury, as 
He taught in the temple : and no man laid hands 
on Him ; for His hour was not yet come. 

AuG. Those who had heard our Lord say, Ye judge after Au?. Tr. 
the flesh, shewed that they did so ; for they understood ^^^^"" '• 
what He said of His Father in a carnal sense : Then said 
they unto Ilim, Where is Thy Father ? meaning, We have 
heard Thee say, / am not alone, but I and the Father that 
sent Me. We see Thce alone; prove to us then that Tliy 
Father is with Thee. Theopiiyl. Some remark that this is 
said in contumely and contempt; to insinuate either that 
He is borii of fornication, and knows not who His Father is; 
or as a slur on the low situation of Ilis Father, i.e. Joseph ; 
as if to say, Thy father is an obscure, ignoble person ; why 
dost Thou so often mention hira? So because they asked 
the question, to terapt Him, not to get at the truth, Jesus 
answered, Ye neither Imow Me, nor My Father. Aug. As Aug. Tr. 
if He said, Ye ask where is Thy Father? As if ye knew ''•^'^^^'- ^^ 
Me ah*cady, and I were nothing else but what ye see. But 
ye know me not, and therefore I tell you nothing of My 
Father. Ye think rae indeed a mere raan, and therefore 
araong raen look for My Father. But, forasrauch as I am 
diflferent altogcther, according to My seen and unseen na- 
tures, and speak of My Fatiier in the hidden sense accord- 

VOL. IV. u 


ing to My hidden natare ; it is plain that ye must first know 
Me, and then ye will know My Father; If ye had known 
CTirys. Me, ye woulcl liave known My Father also. Chrys. He tells 
[.^°'"' them, it is of no avail for them to say they know the Father, 
Orig* if they do not know the Son. Origen. Ye neither knoiv Me, 
tom. XIX. ^Q^ jj^ Father : this seems inconsistent with what was said 

1. in Joan. *' 

in princ. above, Ye both know Me, and knoiv whence I am. But the 
latter is spoken in reply to some from Jerusalemj who asked, 
Do the rulers know indeed that this is the very Christ ? Ye 
neither know Me, is addresscd to the Pharisees. To the 
former persons from Jerusalem however He said, He that 
sent Me is true, Whom ye know not. You will ask then, 
How is that true, If V^ knoio Me, ye ivould know My Father 
also ? wheu they of Jerusalem, to whom He said, Ye knoio 
Me, did not know the Father. To this vve raust rcply, tliat 
our Saviour sometimes speaks of Hiraself as man, and some- 
times as God. Ye both know Me, He says as man : ye 

Aug. Tr. neither know Me, as God. Aug. What does this mean : JJ 

xxxvii. 7. yf, Jcntw Me, ye would know My Father also, but, / and My 
Father are one ? It is a comraon expression, when you see 
one man very like another, If you have seen him, you have 
seen the other. You say this, because they are so like. And 
thus our Lord says, If ye had knoivn Me, ye had knoivn My 
Father also : not that the Father is the Son, but that the 
Son is hke the Father. Theopiiyl. Let the Arian bhish : for 
if, as He says, the Son be a creature, how does it follow that 
he who knows the creature knows God? For not even by 
knowing the substance of Angels, does one know the Divine 
Substance? Forasrauch therefore as he who knows the Son, 
knows the Father, it is certain that the Son is consubstantial 

Aug. Tr. with the Father. Aug. This word perhaps " is used only by 
way of rebuke, though it seems to express doubt. As used 
by men indeed it is the expression of doubt, but He who 
kuew all things could only mean by that doubt to rebuke 
unbelief. Nay, even we sometiraes say perhaps, when we 
are certain of a thing, e.g. when you are angry with your 
slave, and say, Do not you heed rae? Consider, perhaps 
I am your master. So our Lord's doubt is a reproof to the 

e forsitan in Vulgate, before ^Sejre a.u. 

XXXV 111 

s. 3. 

VER. 19, 20. ST. JOHN, 291 

unbelievers, when He says, Ye should have hiown perhapst 

My Father also. Origen. It is proper to observe, that the Ori? 

followers of other sects think this text proves clearly, that '"".'• ^'^- 

the God, whom the Jews worshipped, was not the Father of n princ. 

Christ. For if, say they, our Saviour said this to the Phari- 

sees, who worshipped God as the Governor of the world, it 

is evideut that the Father of Jesus, whora thc Pharisees 

knew not, was a different person from the Creator. But 

they do not observe that this is a usual manner of speaking 

in Scripture. Though a man may know the existcnce of 

God, and have learned from the Father that He only must 

be vvorshipped, yet if his life is not good, he is said not to 

have the knowledge of God. Thus the sons of Eli, on ac. 

count of their wickedness, are said not to have known God. 

And thus again the Pharisees did not know the Fathcr; 

because they did not live according to their Creator's com- 

mand. And there is another tliing meant too by knowing 

God, diffcrent from merely believing in Him. It is said, Be Ps. t5, lo. 

still then, and know that I am God. And this, it is certain, 

was written for a people that believed in the Creator. But 

to know by believing, and believe simply, are different 

things. To the Pharisees, to whom He says, Ye neither 

know Me, nor My Father, He could with right have said, 

Ye do not even beheve in My Father; for he who denies 

the Son, has not the Father, either by faith or knowlcdge. 

But Scripture givcs us another sense of knowing a thing, 

viz. being joined to that thing. Adam knew his wife, when 

he was joined to her. And if he who is joined to a woman 

knovvs that woman, he who is joined to the Lord is one 

spirit, and knows the Lord. And in this sense the Phari- 

sees neither knew the Father, nor the Son. But may not 

a man know God, and yet not know the Father? Yes; 

these are two different conceptions. And thercfore among 

an infinite number of prayers offered up in the Law, we do 

not find any one addressed to God the Father. They only 

pray to Him as God and Lord; in order not to anticipate 

the grace shed by Jesus over the whole world, calling all 

men to the Sonship, accordiug to the Psalm, / will declare 

Thy Name unto my brethren. 

These words spake Jcsus in the treasury, as Ile taught in 


liii. 1, 


the temple. Alcuin. Treasury (Gazophylacium) : Gaza is 

the Persian for wealth : phylattein is to keep. It was a 

Chrys. place in the temple, where the money was kept. Chrys. He 

spake in the temple magisterially, and now He was speaking 

to those who railed at and accused Him, for making Himself 

Aug. Tr. equal to the Father. Aug. Great however is His confideuce 

xxxvii. . ^ij^ fearlessness : it not being possible that He should un- 

dergo any sufFering, but that which he voluntarily under- 

took. Wherefore it follows, And no man laid hands on Him, 

for Uis hour was not yet come. SomCj when they hear this, 

think Christ to have been under the control of fate. But if 

fate comes from the verb ' fari,' to speak, as sonie derivc it, 

how can the Word of God be under the control of fate ? 

Where are the fates ? In the heavens, you say, in the 

courses and revolutions of the stars. How then can fate 

have power over Him, by Whom the heavens and stars wcre 

made; when cven thy will, if thou cxcrt it aright, transcends 

the stars ? Dost thou think that because the fiesh of Christ 

was placed beueath thc heavens, tliat tliercfore Ilis power 

was subjected to thc heavens ? Uis hour tlien had not yct 

come ; i.e. the hour, not on which Ile should be obhged to 

die, but on which He should dcign to bc put to death. 

Orig. Origen. Whenever it is added, Jesus spoke tliese words in 

tom. XIX. gygjj j^ place, you will, if you attend, discovcr a meaning in 

in Joan. V ) J > J ' o 

•ya^o(pv- the addition. The treasury was a place for keeping the 
XaKiifi money, which was given for tlie honour of God, and the 
support of the poor. The coins are the divine words, 
stamped with the likeness of the great King. In this 
sense then let every one contribute to the edification of 
the Church, carrying into that spiritual treasury all that 
he can collect, to the honour of God, and the comraon 
good. But while all were thus contributing to the treasury 
of the temple, it was especially the office of Jews to con- 
tribute His gifts, which were the words of eternal life. While 
Jesus therefore was speaking in the treasury, no one laid 
hands on Him ; His discourse being stronger than those 
■who wished to take Him ; for there is no weakness in that 
■which the Word of God utters. Bede. Or thus; Christ 
speaks in the treasury; i.e. He had spoken in parables to 
the Jews; but now that He unfolded heavenly things to 

VER. 21 — 24. ST. JOHN. 293 

His disciples, His treasury began to be openecl, which was 
the meaning of the treasury being joined to the temple; all 
that the Law and the Prophets had furetold in figure, ap- 
pertained to our Lord. 

21. Then said Jesus agnin unto thcm, I go ]\[y 
way, and ye shall seek Me, and shall die in your 
sins : whither I go, ye cannot come. 

22. Then said the Jevvs, Will He kill Himself? 
because He saith, Whither I go, ye cannot come. 

23. And Ue said unto them, Ye are from beneath ; 
I am from above : ye are of this world, I am not of 
this world. 

24. I said thercfore unto you, that ye shall die in 
your sins : for if ye beUeve not that I am Hc, ye shall 
die in your sins. 

AuG. In accordance with what was just, He said that no Anp. Tr. 
man laid hands on Him, because Ilis hour ivas not yet come ; ^■''^v*"- ^- 
He now speaks to the Jews of His passion, as a free, and not 
a compulsory sacrifice on His part : Then said Jesus again 
unto them, I go My way. Death to our Lord was a return 
to the place whence He had corae. Bede. The conncxion 
of these words is such, that they might have bccn spokcn at 
one place and one time, or at anothcr placc and another 
time: as either nothing at all, or some things, or many may 
have intcrvcned. Orige.v. But some one wili object: If orlg. 
this was spoken to men who persisted in unbelief, how is it !°"V ^"^- 

^ *■ in Joaii. 

He says, Ye shall seeh Me ? For to seek Jesus is to seelc s. 3. 
truth and wisdom. You will answer that it was said of His 
persecutors, that they sought to take Him. Tliere are dif- 
ferent ways of seeking Jesus. AU do not seek Him for their 
health and profit : and only they who seek Him aright, find 
peace. And they are said to seek Him aright, who seek 
the Word which was in the beginning with God, in order 
tliat He may lead them to the Father. Aug. Ye shall seek ^ „. jp 
Me, then, He says, not from compassionate regret, but frora x.x.wiH. 2. 
hatred : for after He had departed frora the eyes of men, 
Ile was sought for both by those who hated, and those who 


loved Him : the one wanting to persecute, tlie other to have 

His presence. And that ye may not thiuk that ye shall seek 

apapTia ^^G in a good sense, I tell you, Ye shall die in your sin. This 

pmtai -g ^Q gggi^ Christ amiss, to die in one's siu : this is to hate 

111 our _ 

Transi. Him, from Whom alone cometh salvation. He pronounces 

sentence on them prophetically, that they shall die in their 

sins. Bede. Note : sin is in the singular number, your in 

the plural ; to express one and the same wickedness in alh 

Orig. Origen. But I ask, as it is said below that many believed 

tom. XIX. Qjj Hira, whether He speaks to all present, when He savs, 

in Joan. ' '^ r ' j j 

p. 3. Ye shall die in your sins ? No : He speaks to those only 

whom He knew would not believe, and would therefore die 

in their sins, not being able to follow Him. IFhither I go, 

He says, ye cannot come ; i. e. thcre whcre truth aud wis- 

dom are, for with them Jesus dwells. They cannot, He says, 

because they will not : for had they wished, He could not 

An?. Tr. rcasonably have said, Ye shall die in your sin. Auo. This 

. y^ ^gji^ jjj^ disciplcs in another place ; without saying to 

them, however, Ye shall die in your sin, He only says, JFhi- 

ther I go, yc cannot foUow Me noiv ; not preventing, but 

Ori-T. tom. ouly deLaying their comiug. Ouigen. The Word, while still 

present, yet threatens to depart, So long as we preserve 

the seeds of truth implanted in our minds, the Word of God 

does not depart from us. But if we fall into wickedness, 

then He says to us, I go away ; and when we seek Him, we 

shall not find Him, but shall die in our sin, die caught in 

our sin. But we should not pass over without notice the ex- 

pression itself : Ye shall die in your sins. If ye shall die be 

understood in the ordinary sense, it is manifest that sinners 

die in their sins, the righteous in their righteousness. But 

if we understand it of death in the sense of sin ; then the 

meaning is, that not their bodies, but their souls were sick 

unto death. The Physician seeing them thus grievously 

sick, says, Ye shall die in your si?is. And this is evidently 

the meaning of the words, Whither I go ye cannot come. 

For when a man dies in his sin, he cannot go where Jesus 

Ps. 113. goes: no dead man can follow Jesus : The dead praise noi 

Aug. Tr. Thee, Lord. Aug. They take these words, as they gene- 

xxxviii. j,g^jjy ^Q^ -j^ ^ carnal sense, and ask, Will He kill Himself, 

because Ue saith, Whilher I go, ye cannot come? A foolish 

VER. 21 — 24. ST. JOHN. 295 

question. For why? Could they not go where He went, 
if He killed Himself? Were they never to die themselves? 
Whither I go, then, He says ; meaning not His departure 
at death, but where He went after death. Theophyl. He 
shews here that He will rise again in glory, and sit at the 
right hand of God. Origen. May they not however have Orig. 
a hifjher meaning in saving this ? For thev had opportu- !°'"" ^" ^' 
nities of knowing many things from their apocryphal books s. 4. 
or from tradition. As then there was a prophetical tra- 
dition, that Christ was to be born at Bethlehera, so there 
may have been a tradition also respecting His death, viz. 
that He would depart from this life in the way which He 
declares, No man taketh it from 3fe, but I hiy it down of My- c. lo, is. 
self So then the question, IFill He kill Himself, is not to 
be taken in its obvious sense, but as referring to some Jew- 
ish tradition about Christ. For His saying, I go 3Iy way, 
shews that He had power over His own death, and dcparture 
from the body; so that these were voluntary on His part. 
But I think that thcy bring forward this tradition whieh had 
come down to thcm, on thc dcath of Christ, contemptuously, 
and not with any view to give Him glory. Will He kilt Him- 
self? say they : whercas, thcy ouglit to have used a loftier 
way of spcaking, and have said, "Will His soul wait His plca- 
sure, to depart frora His body ? Our Lord answers, Ye are 
from beneath, i.e. ye love carth; your hearts are not raiscd 
upwards. He speaks to them as earthly men, for their 
thoughts were earthly. Chrys. As if to say, No wondcr chrys. 
that ye think as ye do, seeing ye are carnal, and understand Hp'"- 
nothing spiritually. I am from above. Aug. Frora whom Aug. Tr. 
above? From the Fathcr Himself, Who is above all. yv xxxvm. 4. 
are of this world, I am not of this world. How could He be 
of the world, by Whom the world was made. Bede. And 
Who was before the world, whcreas they were of the world, 
having been created after the world had beguu to exist. 
Chrys. Or He says, I am not of this ivorld, with reference ciirys, 
to worldlv and vain thoushts. Theophyl. I afFect nothiug ,^.?"V 
worldly, nothing earthly : I could never come to such mad- 
ness as to kill Myself. Apollinarius, however, falsely infers 
from thcse words, that our Lord's body was not of this world, 
but came down Irom heaven. Did the Apostles then, to 


c. 15, 19. whom our Lord says below, Ye are not of this world, derive 

all of them their bodies from heaven ? In saying then, / am 

not of this world, He must be understood to mean, I am not 

f^ripr. of the number of you, who mind earthly things, Origen, 

in Joaii. Beneath, and, of this world, are difFerent things. Beneath, 

^^' refers to a particular place; this material workl embraces 

different tracts^, which all are beneath, as compared with 

things immaterial and invisible, but, as compared with one 

another, sorae beneath, some above. Where the treasure of 

each is, there is his heart also. If a man then lay up trea- 

sure upon earth, he is beneath : if any man lay up treasure 

in heaven, he is above; yea, ascends above all hearers, attains 

to a rnost blissful end. And again, the love of this world 

makes a man of this world : whereas he who loveth not the 

world, neither the things that are in the world, is not of 

the world. Yet is there bcyond this world of sensc, another 

workl, in which are things invisible, tlie beauty of which 

shall the pure in heart behold, yea, the First-born of every 

creature may be callcd the workl, insomuch as He is abso- 

lute wisdom, and in wisdom all things were made. In Him 

therefore was the whole world, diflTcring frora the material 

' ratio world, in so far as the ^ scheme divested of the matter, differs 

from the subject matter itself. The soul of Christ then says, 

I am not of this world ; i.e. because it has not its conver- 

Ana:. Tr. sation in this world. Aug. Our Lord expresses His raean- 

). .^^ .^ ^j^^ words, Ye ure of this world, i.e. ye are sinners. 

All of us are born in sin ; all have added by our actions to 

the sin in which we were born. The raisery of the Jews then 

vvas, not that they had sin, but that they would die in their 

sin : / said therefore unto you, that ye shall die in your sin. 

Araongst the raultitude, however, who heard our Lord, there 

were some who were about to believe; whereas this most 

severe sentence had gone forth against all : Ye shalt die in 

your sin ; to the destruction of all hope even in those who 

should hereafter believe. So His next words recall the latter 

to hope : For if ye believe not that I am Ile, ye shall die in 

your sin : therefore if ye believe that I am He, ye shall not 

Ciirys. ^^g ^j^ your sin. Chrys. For if He came in order to take 

liii. 1. away sin, and a man cannot put that off, except by washing, 

^ e.g. eanh beneath, sky above. 

vER. 25—27. ST. JOHN. 297 

and cannot be baptized except he believe ; it follows, that he 
who believes not must pass out of this life, with the old man, 
i.e. sin, within hira : not only because he believes not, but 
because he departs hence, with his former sins upon hira. 
AuG. His saying, If ye believe not that I am, without adding Aup:. Tr. 
any thing, proves a great deal. For thus it was that God 
spoke to jNIoses, I am that I am. But how do I undcrstand, 
/ am that I am, and, If ye believe not that I am ? lu this Exod. s. 
way. All excellence, of whatever kind, if it be mutable, 
cannot be said really to be, for there is no real to be, whcre 
there is a not to be. Analyze the idea of mutabihty, and you 
will find, was and will be ; contemplate God, and you will 
find, is, without possibility of a past. In order to be, thou 
must leave him behind thee. So then, If ye believe not that 
I am, means in fact, If ye beHeve not that I ara God ; this 
bcing the condition, on which wc shall not die in our sins. 
God be thaukcd that Ile says, If ye believe not, not, If ye 
understand not ; for who could understand this ? Origen. Oripr. 
It is manifcst, that he, who dies in his sins, though he say ]„' joun." 
that he bclicves in Christ, does not really belicve. For he 
who beheves in His justicc does not do injustice ; lie who 
beheves in His wisdom, docs not act or spcak foohshly ; in 
like manner with respcct to the otlicr attributcs of Ciirist, 
you will find that he who docs not bclievc in Christ, dics in 
his sins : inasmucli as he comcs to bc the very contrary of 
what is secn in Christ. 

25. Then said tbey unto Ilim, Who art Thou ? 
And Jesus saitli unto them, Even the same that I 
said unto you from the beginning. 

26. I have many things to say and tojudge of you: 
but lie that sent Me is true ; and I speak to tiie 
vvorld those things which I have heard of Him. 

27. They understood not that He spake to them 
of the Father. 

AuG. Our Lord having said, If ye believe not that I am, A"p. Tr. 
ye shall die in your sins ; they enquire of Ilim, as if wishing s. ][. 
to know in whora they are to beheve, that they miglit uot 
dic in their siu : Then said they unto Him, Who art TJlou ? 











liii. 1. 

An». Tr. 

For when Thou saidst, If ye believe not that I am^ Thou 
didst not add, who Thou art. But our Lord knew that 
there were some who would believe, and therefore after 
being asked, Who art Thou ? that such raight know what 
they should believe Him to be, Jesus saith unto them, The 
beginning, who also speak to you ; not as if to say, / am the 
beginning, but, Beheve Me to be the beginning ; as is evi- 
dent from the Greek, where beginning is ferainine. Believe 
Me then to be the beginning, lest ye die in your sins : for 
the beginning cannot be changed ; it remains fixed in itself, 
and is the source of change to all things. But it is absxn'd 
to call the Son the beginning, and not the Father also. And 
yet there are not two beginnings, even as there are not two 
Gods. The Holy Spirit is the Spirit of the Father and the 
Son ; not being either the Father, or the Son. Yet Father, 
Son, and Holy Spirit are one God, one Light, one Begin- 
ning. He adds, JVho also speak to you, i.e. Who humbled 
Myself for your sakes, and condescended to those words. 
Therefore beheve Me to be the beginning; because that ye 
may beheve this, not only ara I the beginning, but I also 
speak with you, that ye may beheve that I ara. For if the 
Beginning had reraained with the Father in its original 
nature, and not taken upon it the forra of a servant, how 
could raen have believed in it? Would their weakly rainds 
have taken iu the spiritual Word, without the medium of 
sensible sound? Bede. In sorae copies we find, Who also 
speah to you; but it is raore consistent to read for (quia), 
not ivho (qui) : in which case the meaning is : Believe Me to 
be the beginning, for for your sakes have I condescended to 
these words. Chrys. See here the madness of the Jews; 
asking after so long time, and after all His miracles and 
teaching, Who art Thou ? What is Chrisfs answer ? From 
the beginniug I speak with you ; as if to say, Ye do not 
deserve to hear any thing frora Me, much less this thing, 
Who I am. For ye speak always, to tempt Me. But I 
could, if I would, confound and punish you : I have many 
things to say, and to judye of you. Aug. Above He said, 
I judge no man ; but, I judge not, is one thing, / have to 
judge, another. Ijudge not, He says, with reference to the 
present time. But the other, I liave many things to say, and 

VER. 28—30. ST. JOHN. 299 

to judge of you, refers to a future judgment. And I shall 
be true in My judgment, because I am truth, the Son 
of the true One. He that scnt 3Ie is true. My Father is 
true, not by partaking of, but begetting truth. Shall we 
say that truth is greater than one who is true ? If we say 
this, we shall begin to call the Son greater than the Father. 
Chrys. Ile says this, that they may not think that He allows Clirys. 
them to talk against Ilim with impunity, frora inabihty to lii^'}' 
punish them ; or that Ile is not alive to their coutemptuous 
designs. Theopuyl. Or having said, I fiave manij things to 
say, and to judge of you, thus reserving Ilis judgment for 
a future time, He adds, But He that sent Me is true : as if 
to say, Though ye are unbeKevers, My Father is true, Wlio 
hath appointed a day of retribution for you. Chrys. Or Chrys. 
thus: As My Father hath sent Me not to judge the world, but "-"'"i'. 
to save the world, and ]\Iy Fatlier is true, I accordiugly judge 
no mau now -, but speak thus for your salvation, not your 
condemnation : And I speak to the world those things that 
I have heard of Him. Alcuin. Aud to hear from the Father 
is the same as to bc from the Father; He has the heariug 
from the same sense that Ile has the being. Aug. The Aufr. Tr, 
coequal Son gives glory to the Father : as if to say, I give s'^^.''^* 
glory to Him whose Son I am : how proudly thou dctractcst 
from llim, whose scrvaut thou art. Alcuin. Thcy did not 
understand howcver what He meant by saying, He is true 
that sent Afe : they understood not that Ue spahe to them 
of the Father. For thcy had uot the eyes of thcir miud 
yet opened to understaud the equality of the Father with 
the Son. 

28. Thcn said Jcsus unto thcm, Whcn yc have 
lifted up the Son of JNIan, then shall ye know that 
I am Ile, and tliat I do nothing of Myself; but as 
My Father hath taught Me, I speak thcsc things. 

29. And He that sent Me is with Me : the Father 
hath not left Me alone ; for I do always those things 
that please Him. 

30. As He spake these words, many believ^cd on 


Aug;. Tr. AuG, When our Lord said, He is true that sent Me, the 
Jews did not understand that He spake to them of the 
Father, But He saw sorae there, who, He knew, would be- 
lieve on Him after His passion. Then said Jesus unto them, 
When ye have lifted up the Son of Man, then ye shall know 
Exod, that I am. Recollect the words, / am that I am, and ye will 
• ' know why I say, / am. I pass over your knowledg^e, in 
order that I may fulfil My passion, In your appointed 
time ye will know who I am ; when ye have lifted up the 
Son of Man. He meaus the lifting up of the cross ; for He 
was lifted up on the cross, when He hung thereon. This 
was to be accomplished by the hands of those who should 
afterwards beheve, whom He is now speaking to ; with what 
inteut, but that no one, however great his wickedness and 
consciousness of guilt, might despair, seeing even the mur- 
Chrys, dercrs of our Lord forgiven, Chrys. Or the connection is 
liii. 1*, 2. this : When His miracles and teaching had failcd to convert 
men, He spoke of the cross; When ye have lifted up the 
Son of man, then shall ye hiow that I am He : as if to say, 
Ye think that ye have killed Me ; but I say that ye shall 
then, by the evidence of miracles, of My rcsurrection, and 
your captivity, know most especially, that I am Christ the 
Son of God, and that I do not act in opposition to God; 
But that as My Father hath taught Me, I speak these things. 
Here He shews the likeness of His substance to the Father's; 
and that He says nothing beyond the Paternal intelHgence. 
If I were contrary to God, I should not have moved His 
Aug. Tr. anger so much against those who did uot hear Me. Aug 
etseq,' O^' thus : having said, Then shall ye knov) that I am, and in 
this, I am, implied the whole Trinity : lest the Sabellian error 
should creep in, He immediately adds, And I do nothing of 
Myself; as if to say, I am not of Myself ; the Sou is God 
from the Father, Let not what follows, as the Father hath 
taught Me, I speak these things, suggest a carnal thought to 
any of you. Do not place as it were two men before your 
eyes, a Father speaking to his son, as you do when you 
speak to your sons. For what words could be spoken to the 
only Word? If the Father speaks in your hearts without 
sound, how does He speak to the Son ? The Father speaks 
to the Son incorporeally, because He begat the Son iucor- 

VER. 28 — 30. ST. JOHN. 301 

poreally : nor did He teach Hira, as having begotten Him 
untaught ; rather the teaching Him, was the begetting Hira 
knowing. For if the nature of truth be simple, to be, in the 
Son, is the same as to know. As then the Father gave the 
Son existence by begetting, so He gave Him knowledge also. 
Chrys. He gives now a humbler turu to the discourse : And ciirys. 
He that sent Me. That this might not be thought however H^l^^ 
to imply inferiority, He says, Is ivith Me. The former is 
His dispensation, the latter His divinity. Aug. And though Au,r. Tr. 
both are together, yet one is sent, the other sends. For tlie '^ ' ''* 
mission is the incarnation ; and the incarnation is of the - 
Son only, not of the Father. He says then, He that sent 
Me, meaning, By whose Fatherly authority I am madc in- 
carnate. The Father however, though He sent the Son, did 
aot withdraw from Him, as He proceeds to say : 77^6 Father 
hath not left Me alone. For it could not be that where He 
sent the Son, there the Father was not ; He who says, I fill Jtr. 33, 
heaven and earth. And He adds thc reason why He did 
not leave Him ; For I do always those thinys that ^^^ease 
Uim ; always, i. e. not from any particular beginning, but 
without bcginning and without end. For the generation 
from the Father hath no beginning in time. Chrys. Or, He (Mnys. 
means it as an answer to thosc who were constantly saying 1;,""^ 
that He was not from God, and that because He did not 
keep the sabbath ; I do always, Hc says, do those things that 
please Ilim ; shewing tliat the breaking the sabbatli even 
was pleasing to Him. He takes care in every way to shew 
that He does nothing contrary to the Father. And as this 
was speaking more after a human fashion, the Evangehst 
adds, As He spake these words, many believed on Him ; as if 
to say, Do not be disturbed at hearing so humble a specch 
from Christ; for those who had hcard the grcatest doctriucs 
from Him, and were not persuaded, were persuaded by these 
words of humiHty. These then bcHeved on Him, yet not as 
they ought ; but only out of joy, and approbation of His 
humble way of speaking. And this the EvangeHst sliews 
in his subsequent narration, which relates their unjust pro- 
ceedings towards Him. 

31. Then said Jesus to those Jews which believed 


on Him, If ye continue in My word, tlien are ye My 
disciples indeed ; 

32. And ye shall know the truth, and the truth 
shall make you free. 

33. They answered Him, We be Abraham's seed, 
and were never in bondage to any man : how sayest 
Thou, Ye shall be made free ? 

34. Jesus answered them, Verily, verily, I say unto 
you, Whosoever committeth sin is the servant of sin. 

35. And the servant abidetli not in tlie house for 
ever : but the Son abideth ever. 

36. If the Son therefore shall make you free, ye 
shall be free indeed. 

A,,^. Chrys. Our Lord wished to try the faith of those who be- 

(Chrys. Heved, that it mij^ht not be only a superficial behef : Then 

Hom. said Jesus to those Jews which believed on Uim, If ye con- 

^'^' *' tinue iti My word, then are ye My disciples indeed. Ilis 

saying, if ye continue, made it manifest what was in their 

hearts. He knew that sorae beheved, and would not con- 

tinue. And He makes them a magnificent promise, viz. tliat 

they shall become Ilis disciples indeed : which words are a 

tacit rebuke to some who had beheved and afterwards with- 

Aug. de drawn. Aug. We have all one Master, and are fellow dis- 

Verb. ciples undcr Ilim. Nor because we speak with authority, 

6. xlvii. are we therefore masters; but Ile is the Master of all, Who 

dwells in the hearts of aU. It is a sraall thing for the dis- 

ciple to corae to Him in the first instance ; he raust continue 

in Hira : if we continue not in Him, we shall falL A httle 

sentence this, but a great work; if ye continue. For what is 

it to continue in God's word, but to yield to no teraptations? 

Without labour, the reward would be gratisj if with, then 

a great reward indeed. 

Aug. Tr. And ye shall know the truth. Aug. As if to say : Whereas 

xh. 1. yg j^g^yg jjq^ bchef, 5^ contiuuing, ye shall have sight. For 

xl. 9. it was not their knowledge which made them beUeve, but 

rather their behef which gave thera knowledge. Faith is 

to beheve that which you see not : truth to see that which 

you beheve. By continuing theu to beheve a thing, you 

VER. 31 — 38. ST. JOHN. 303 

come at last to see the tliing ; i. e. to the conteraplation of 
the very truth as it is ; not conveyed in words, but revealed 
by light. The truth is unchangeable ; it is the bread of 
the soul, refreshing others, without diminution to itself; 
changing him who eats into itsclf, itself not changed. This 
truth is the Word of God, which put on flesh for our sakes, 
and lay hid ; not meaning to bury itself, but only to defer 
its manifestation, till its suffering in the body, for the ran- 
soming of the body of sin, had taken place. Curys. Or, ije ciiryg. 
sJiall hiow the truthy i. e. Me: for I am the truth. Thc '^ ""• 
Jewish was a typical dispensation; the reality ye can only 
know from Me. Aug. Some one might say perhaps, And ^„„ ^e 
what does it profit me to know the truth ? So our Lord adds, ^^■'^- 
And the truth shall free you ; as if to say, If the truth doth Senn. 
not delight you, liberty will. To be freed is to be made free, ^[^"fl'^. 
as to be healed is to be made whole. This is plaincr in the p'^"^« 
Greek ; in the Latin we use the word free chiefly in the 
sense of escape of danger, rclief from care, and the like. 
Theopuyl. As IIc said to the unbelievers alone, Ye shall die 
in your sin, so now to tliem who continue in the faith Ile 
proclaims absolution. Aug. From what sliall the truth free Aut. iv. 
us, but from death, corruption, mutabiUty, itself bcing im- ^l^^/j."'"* 
raortal, uncorrupt, immutable? Absolute immutability is in 
itself eternity. Chrys. Men who really believed could have chrys, 
borne to be rebuked. But these men began immediately to ^""^ 
shew anger. Indccd if they had been disturbed at Ilis forraer 
saying, they had much more reason to be so now. For 
they might argue ; If Ile says we shall know the truth, Ile 
must mean that we do not know it now : so then the law is 
a lie, our knowledge a delusion. But their thoughts took no 
such direction : their grief is wholly worldly ; they know of 
no other servitude, but that of this world : They answered 
Him, JFe be Abraham^s seed, and were never in bondage to 
any man. How sayest Thou then, ive shall be made free? 
As if to say, They of Abraham's stock are free, and ought 
not to be called slaves: we have never been in bondajre to 
any one. Aug. Or it was not those who believed, but the Anp. Tr. 
unbelieving multitude that made this answer. But how ^'^- '^' 
coukl they say with truth, taking only secular bondage into 
account, that we have never been in bondage to any man ? 


Was not Josepli sold? were not the holy prophets carried 
into captivity ? Ungrateful people ! Why does God reinind 
you so continually of Ilis having taken you out of the house 
of bondage if you never were in bondage? Why do you 
who are now talking, pay tribute to the Romans, if you 
Chrys. never were in bondage? Chrys. Christ then, who speaks 
Honi. ^Qj, their good, not to gratify their vainglory, explains Ilis 
meaning to have been that they were the servants not of 
men, but of sin, the hardest Ivind of servitude, from which 
God only can rescue : Jesus answered thein, Verily, verily, I 
say unto you, Whosoever committeth sin is the servant q/ 
Aug. Tr. sin. AuG. This asseveration is important : it is, if one may 
^''' ^* say so, His oath. Amen means true, but is not translated. 
Neither the Greek nor the Latin Translator have dared to 
translate it. It is a Hebrew word ; and men have abstained 
from trauslating it, in ordcr to throw a revcrential veil over 
so mysterious a word : not that they wished to lock it up, 
but only to prevent it from becoming despised by being ex- 
posed. Hovv important the word is, you may see from its 
being repeated. Verily I say unto you, says Verity itsclf; 
^ which could not be, even though it said not verily. Our 
Lord however has rccourse to this mode of enforcing His 
words, in order to rouse men from their state of sleep and 
indifFerence. Whosoever, He saith, committeth sin, whether 
Jew or Greek, rich or poor, king or beggar, is the servant of 
Greg. sin. Greg. Because whoever yields to wrong desires, puts 
r 4^°*^ his hitherto free soul under the yoke of the evil one, and 
in Nov. takes him for his master. But we oppose this master, whea 
we struggle against the wickedness which has laid hold upon 
us, wheu we strongly resist habit, when we pierce sin with 
repentance, and wash away the spots of filth with tears. 
Greg, Greg. And the more freely men follow their perverse de- 
^j^J^; j sires, the more closely are they in bondage to them. Aug, 
c. 20. O miserable bondage ! The slave of a human master wheu 
l^lov. wearied with the hardness of his tasks, sometimes takes re- 
lix. 14. fuge iQ flight. But whither does the slave ofsin flee ? He 
takes it along with him, wherever he goes ; for his sin is 
within him. The pleasure passes away, but the sin does not 
pass away : its delight goes, its sting remains bchind. Ile 
alone can free from sin, who came without siu, and was 

VER. 31 36. ST. JOTIN. 305 

made a sacrifice for sin. And thus it follows : The servant 
abideth not in the house for ever. The Church is the house : 
the servant is the sinner; and many sinners enter into the 
Church. So He does not say, The servant is not in the 
house; but, The servant abideth not in the housefor ever. If 
a time then is to come, whcn there shall be no servant in the 
house^ "who will there be there ? Who will boast that he is 
pure from sin? Christ^s are fearful words. But He adds, 
The Son abideth for ever. So then Christ will live alone in 
His house. Or does not the word Son imply both the body 
and the head ? Christ purposely alarms us first, and then 
gives us hope. He alarms us, that we may not love sin ; He 
gives us hope, that we may not despair of the absolution of 
our sin. Our hope then is this, that we shall be frccd by 
Him who is free. He hath paid the price for us, not in 
money, but in His own blood : If the Son therefore shall 
make you free, ye shall be free indeed. Aug. Not frora the Aup. de 
barbarians, but from the devil ; not from the captivity of the ^^^^ 
body, but from the wickedness of the soul. Aug. The first Ser. 
stage of freedom is, the abstaining from sin. But that is '. ' 
only incipient, it is not perfect freedom : for the flesh still super 
lusteth against the spirit, so that ye do not do the things Tr. xi. 
that ye would. Full and perfect frccdom will only be, when ^^- ^* 

. *■ . seq. 

the coutest is over, and the last enemy, death, is destroyed. 
Chrys. Or thus : Having said that whosoever committeth sin, Chrj^s. 
is the servant of sin, He anticipates the answcr that their ^jy°'"' ^ 
sacrifices saved thcm, by sayiug, The servant abideth not in 
the house for ever, but the Son abideth ever. The house, He 
says, meaning thc Father's house on high ; in which, to 
draw a comparison from the world, Hc Hiraself had all the 
power, just as a man has all the powcr in his own house. 
Abideth not, means, has not the power of giving ; which the 
Sou, who is the master of the house, has. The priestS of 
the old law had not the power of remitting sins by the sa- 
craraents of the law ; for all were sinners. Even the priests, 
who, as the Apostle says, were obligcd to oflfer up sacrifices 
for themselves. But the Son has this power ; and therefore 
our Lord concludes : If the Son shall make youfree, ye shall 
be free indeed ; implying that that earthly freedora, of which 
men boasted so much, was not true frecdom. Auo. Do not Aug. Tr, 
VOL. IV. X *^''* *** 


then abuse your freedora, for the purpose of sinning freely ; 
but use it in order not to sin at all. Your will will be free, 
if it be merciful : you will be free, if you become the servant 
of righteousness. 

37. I know that ye are Abraham's seed ; but ye 
seek to kill Me, because My word hath no place in 

38. I speak that which I have seen with My Father : 
and ye do that which ye have seen with your father. 

39. They answercd and said unto Him, Abraham is 
our father. Jesus saith unto them, If ye were Abra- 
ham's children, ye would do the works of Abraliam. 

40. But now ye seek to kill Me, a man that hath 
told you the truth, which I have heard of God : this 
did not Abraham. 

41. Ye do the deeds of your father. 

Aug. Tr. AuG. The Jews had asserted they were free, because they 

^ "■ were Abraham's seed. Our Lord replics, / knoiv that ye 

are Abrahams seed; as if to saj^, I kuow that ye are the 
sons of Abraham, but according to the flesh, not spiritually 

Chrys. aud by faith. So He adds, But ye seck to kill Me. Chrys. 

liy^ 2 H^ says this, that they might not attempt to answer, that 
they had no sin. Ile reminds them of a present sin ; a sin 
which they had been meditating for some time past, and which 
was actually at this moment iu their thoughts : putting out 
of the question their general course of hfe. Ile thus removes 
them by degrees out of their relationship to Abraham, teach- 
ing them not to pride themselves so much upon it : for that, 
as bondage and freedom were the consequences of works, so 
was relationship. And that they might not say, We do so 
justly, He adds the reason why they did so ; Because My 

Aii^. Tr. word hath no place in you. Auo. That is, hath not place in 
your heart% because your heart does not take it in. The 
word of God to the beheving, is hke the hook to the fish ; 
it takes when it is taken : and that not to the injury of 
those who are caught by it. They are caught for their 

Ciiryi-. salvation, not for their destruction. Chrys. He does not 

Hom. ' 

liv. 2. * capit. Vulg. for x^^P*' «*'• Aug. goes offupon the Latin word. 

VER. 37 — 41. ST. JOHN. 307 

say, Ye do not take ia My word, but My tvord has not room 
in you; shewing the depth of His doctrines, But they 
might say; What if Thou speakest of Thyself? So He 
adds, / speak that which I have seen of My Father ; for I 
have not only the Father's substance, but His truth. Aug. Aug. Tr. 
Our Lord by His Father wishes us to understand God : as*"*^^' 
if to say, I have seen the truth, I speak the truth, because I 
ara the truth. If our Lord theu speaks the truth which He 
saw with the Father, it is Himself that He* saw, of Himself 
that He speaks ; Oe being Himself the truth of the Father. 
Origen. Tliis is proof that our Saviour was witness to what Orig. 
was done with the Father : whereas men, to whom the reve- '*"",* '^^' 
lation is made, were not witnesses. Tiieophyl. But when s. 7. 
you hear, / speak that which I have seen, do not think it 
iDeans bodily vision, but innate knowledge, sure, and ap- 
proved. For as the eyes when they see an object, see it 
wholly and corrcctly ; so I speak with certainty what I 
know from My Fathcr. 

And ye do that which ye have seen ivith your father. 
Origen. As yet He has not namcd their father ; He men- Orig, 
tioned Abraham indeed a little above, but uow He is going ^"g"" ^^' 
to mention another father, viz. the devil : whose sons they 
were, in so far as they were wicked, not as being men. Our 
Lord is reproaching them for thcir evil deeds. Curys. 
Another reading has, And^ do ye do that ivhich ye have seen > fl-oi(?Te, 
with your father ; as if to say, As I both in word and deed J^ f^' 
decLare unto you the Father, so do ye by your works shew 
forth Abraham. Origen. Also another readiug has ; A7id Orig. 
do ye do what ye have heardfrom the Father. All that was l"'"* ^^' 
written in the Law and the Prophets they had heard from 
the Father. He who takes this rcading, may use it to prove 
against them who hold otherwise, that the God who gave the 
Law and the Prophets, was none other than Christ's Father. 
^ And we use it too as an answer to those who maintain two 
original natures in men, and explain the words, Mywordc.8. 
hath no place in you, to mean that these were by nature 
incapable of receiving the word. How could those be of an 
incapable nature, who had heard from the Father ^ ? And 

' Thisis the meaning of tlieoriginal; « The reading in Origen for, have 

it is sligiitly altcrcd in the Catena. sccn with tjour Jathvr. 

V 2 


how again could they be of a blessed nature, who sought to 
kill our Saviour, and would not receive His words. They 
answered and said unto Ilim, Abraham is our father. This 
answer of the Jews is a great falHng off from our Lord's 
meaning. He had referred to God, but they take Father in 
Aug. Tr. the sense of the father of their nature, Abraham. Aug. As if 
to say, What art thou going to say against Abraham ? They 
seem to be inviting Him to say soraethiug in disparagement 
of Abraham ; and so to give them an opportunity of executing 
Orig. their purpose. Origen. Our Saviour denies that Abraham 
Q, ' is their father : Jesus saith unto them, If ije were Abraham^s 
Aug. Tr. children, ye would do the works of Ahraham, Aug. And 
^ "■ ' yet He says above, / hiow that ye are Abraham^s seed. 
So He does not dcny thcir origin, but condemns their deeds. 
Orig. Their flesh was from him ; their Hfe was not. Origen. Or 
2. et sq. we may explain the difficulty thus. Above it is in the Greek, 
/ know that ye are Abraham's seed. So let us examine 
whether there is not a diflerence bctween a bodily sccd and 
a child, It is evident that a seed contains in itsclf all the 
proportions of him whose seed it is, as yet however dormant, 
and waiting to be developcd; whcn thc sccd first has changed 
and moulded the material it meets with in the woman, de- 
rived nourishment from thence and gone througli a process 
in the womb, it becomcs a child, the likeness of its begetter. 
So then a chikl is formed from the seed : but tlie sced is not 
necessarily a child. Now with reference to those who are 
from their works judgcd to be the seed of Abraham, may we 
not conceive that they are so from certain seminal propor- 
tions implanted in their souls? All men are not the seed of 
Abraham, for all have not these proportions implanted in 
their souls. But he who is the seed of Abraham, has yet 
to becorae his child by hkencss. And it is possible for hira 
by neghgence and indolence even to cease to be the seed. 
But those to whom thesc words were addressed, were not yet 
cut 03" from hope : and therefore Jesus acknowledged that 
they were as yet the seed of Abraham, and had still the 
power of becoraing children of Abraham. So He says, Ifye 
are the children of Abraham, do the works of Abraham, If 
as the seed of Abraham, they had attained to thcir proper 
sign and growth, they would have taken in our Lord's words. 

VER. 37 41. ST. JOHN. 309 

But iiot having grown to be cliildren, tliey cared not; but 
wish to kill the Word, and as it were break it in pieces, since . 
it was too great for them to take in. If any of you then be 
the seed of Abraham, and as yet do not take in the word of . 
God, let him not seek to kill the Word ; but rather change 
hiraself into being a son of Abrahara, and then he will be 
able to take in the Son of God. Some select one of the 
works of Abraham, viz. that in Genesis, And Abraham be- Gen, 
lieved God, and it was counted to him for righteousness. ' 
But even granting to them that faith is a work, if this were 
so, why was it not, Do the work of Abraham : using the 
singular number, instead of the plural? The expression as 
it stands is, I think, equivalent to saying, Do all the works 
of Abraham : i. e. in the spiritual sense, interpreting Abra- 
ham's history allegorically. For it is not incurabent on 
one, who would be a son of Abraham, to marry his maid- 
servants, or after his wife's death, to marry another in his 
old age. 

But now ye seek to kill Me, a man that hath told you the 
truth. Chrys. This truth, that is, that He was equal to Chrys. 
the Father: for it was this that moved the Jews to kill Ilim. J'°'"' 

liv. 2. 

To shew, however, tliat this doctrine is not opposed to thc 
Father, He ^dds, Wfdch I have heard from God. Alcuin. 
Because He Himsclf, VVho is the truth, was begottcn of 
God the Father, to hear, bcing in fact the same with to bc 
frora the Father. Origen. To kill Me, He says, a man. Ori{r. 
I say nothing now of the Son of God, nothing of the Word, ^"^^-^^- 
because the Word cannot die ; I speak only of that which 
ye see. It is in your power to kill that which you see, and 
offend Hira Whom ye see not. 

This did not Abraham. Alcuin. As if to say, By this 
you prove that you are not the sons of Abraham ; that you 
do works contrary to those of Abraham. Origen. It might Orig. 
seem to some, that it were superfluous to say that Abraham j^. " 
did not this ; for it were irapossible that it should be; Christ 
was Bot born at that tirae. But we may remind thera, that 
in Abrahara's time there was a raan born who spoke the 
truth, which he heard from God, and that this man's life 
was not sought for by Abraham. Know too that the saints 
were never without the spiritual advent of Christ. I under- 


stand then from tliis passage, that every one who, after re- 

generation, and other divine graces bestowed upon him, 

commits sin, does by this return to evil incur the guilt of 

crucifying the Son of God, which Abraham did not do. 

Aug. Tr. Ye do the works of your father. Aug. He does not say 

q"' ■ as yet who is their father. Chrys. Our Lord says this with 

Hom. a view to put down their vain boasting of their descent ; and 

^' persuade them to rest their hopes of salvation no longer on 

the natural relationship, but on the adoption. For this it 

was which prevented them from coming to Christ ; viz. their 

thinking that their relationship to Abraham was sufficient for 

their salvation. 

41. Then said they to Him, We be not born of for- 
nication ; we have onc Father, even God. 

42. Jesus said unto thcm, If God were your Father, 
ye would love Me : for I proceeded forth and came 
from God ; neither came I of Myself, but He sent Me. 

43. Why do ye not understand My speech ? even 
because ye cannot hear My word. 

Aug. Tr. AuG. The Jews had bcgun to undcrstand that our Lord 
was not speaking of sonship according to the flesh, but of 
raanner of Hfe. Scripture often speaks of spiritual forni- 
cation, with many gods, and of the soul beiug prostituted, 
as it were, by paying worship to false gods. This explains 
what follows : Then said they to Hlm, We be not born of 
fornication ; we have one Father, even God. Theophyl. 
As if their motive against Him was a desire to avenge 

Oiio:. God's honour. Origen. Or their sonship to Abraham haviug 

\<^m. XX. i^ggjj disproved, they reply by bitterly insinuating, thaj; our 
Saviour was the ofl^spring of adultery. But perhaps the 
tone of the answer is disputatious, raore than anything else. 
For whereas they have said shortly before, We have Abraham 
for ourfather, and had been told in reply, Ifye are Abraham's 
children, do the works of Abraham ; they declare in return 
that they have a greater Father than Abraham, i.e. God; 
and that they were not derived from fornication. For the 

qui nihil devil, who has no power of creating any thing from himself, 

VER. 41 — 43. ST. JOHN. 311 

begets not frora a spouse, but a barlot, i.e. matter, tbose 

who give themselves up to carnal things, that is, cleave to 

matter. Chrys. But what say ye? Ilave ye God for your Chrys, 

Fatber, and do ye blame Christ for speaking thus? Yet true ^°"q' 

it was, that many of them were born of fornication, for people 

then used to form unlawful connexions. But this is not the 

thing our Lord has in view. He is bent on proving that 

tbey are not from God. Jesus said unto them, If God were 

your Father, ye ivould love Me : for I proceeded forth and 

came from God. Hilary. It was not that the Son of God Hilar. vi. 

condemned tlie assumption of so religious a name ; that is, ^,^3^ 

condemned them for professing to be the sons of God, and 

calhng God their Father ; but that Ile blamed tlie rash pre- 

sumption of the Jews in claiming God for their Father, wheu 

they did not love tbe Son. For I proceeded forth, and came 

from God. To proceed forth, is not the same with to come. 

When our Lord says that those who called God their Father, 

ought to love Him, because He came forth from God, He 

means that His being born of God was the reason why He 

should be lovcd : the proceeding forth, having reference to 

His incorporeal birth. Tiieir claim to be tbe sons of God, 

was to be madc good by tbeir loving Christ, ^Vbo was be- 

gotten from God. For a true worshipper of God the Father 

must love the Son, as being from God ^. And he only can love 

the Father, who believes that the Son is from Him. Aug. Au^. Tr. 

This then is the eternal procession, the proceeding forth of '^^"- ^* 

the Word from God : from Him It procceded as the Word 

of the Father, and came to us : The Word was made flesh. c. 1, 14. 

His advent is Ilis humanity : His staying, His divinity. Ye 

call God your Fathcr ; acknowledge Mc at least to be 

a brother. IIilary. In wbat follows, Ile teaches that Hilar. 

Ilis origin is not in Ilimself; Neither came I of Myself, f^ut ■^^■^^' 

He sent Me. Origen. This was said, I thiuk, in allusion orig. tom. 

to some who came without being sent by the Father, of ^^' ^^' 

whora it is said in Jeremiah, I have not sent these projihefs, Jer.23, 21. 

yet they ran. Somc, however, use this passage ^ to prove the M.e.ifGod 

existence of two natures K To these we may reply, Paul Father 

•" The Son isfrom Ood not by reason men were of a good nature, being the 
of His advent, but His nativity. creation of God, others evil, being 

' Alluding to the belief that sonie made by the devil. 


hated Jesus when he persecuted the Church of God, at the 

Acts9, 4. time, viz. that our Lord said, Why persecutest thou Me ? 

Now if it is true, as is here said, If God were your Father, 

ye would love Me ; the converse is true, If ye do not love Me, 

God is not your Father. And Paul for sorae time did not 

love Jesus. There was a time when God was not PauFs 

father. Paul therefore was not by nature tbe son of God, 

but afterwards was made so. And when does God becorae 

any one's father, except when he keeps Ilis comraandments? 

Chrys. Chrys. And becausc they were ever enquiring, IVhat is this 

\\y^3 which He saith, Whither I go ye cannot come ? He adds 

here, Why do ye not uyiderstand My speech : even because ye 

Aug. Tr. cannot hear Mij word. Aug. And they could not hear, 

because they would not believe, and amend their lives. 

Orig. tom. Origen. First thcn, that virtue must be sought after, 

(Nic) 'which hears the divine word ; that by degrees we raay be 

strong enough to embrace the whole teaching of Jesus. For 

so long as a man has not had his hearing restored by the 

Mark 7, Word, which says to the deaf ear, Be opened ; so long he 

caunot hear. 

44. Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts 
of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from 
the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because 
there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he 
speaketh of his own : for he is a liar, and the father 

45. And because I tell you the truth, ye believe 
Me not. 

46. Which of you convinceth Me of sin ? And if 
I say the truth, why do ye not believe Me ? 

47. He that is of God heareth God's words : ye 
therefore hear them not, because ye are not of God. 

Chrys. Chrys. Our Lord, having already cut off the Jews from 

liv. s! relationship to Abraham, overthrows now thrs far greater 

claim, to call God their Father, Ye are of your father the 

^xltio' ^^^^^- -^^^' Here we must guard agaiust the heresy of the 

VER. 44 — 47. ST. JOHN. 313 

Manichaeans, who hold a certain original nature of evil, and 
a nation of darkness "with princes at their head, whence the 
devil derives his existence. And thence they say our flesh 
is produced ; and in this way intcrpret our Lord's speech, 
Ye are of your father the devil : viz. to mean that they were 
by nature evil, drawing their origin from the opposite seed 
of darkness. Origen. And this seems to be the same mis- Orig. 
take as if one said, that an eye which saw right was different '°™* ^^* 
in kind from an eye which saw wrong. For just as in these 
there is no difference of kind, only one of them for some 
reason sees wrong; so, in the other case, whether a maa 
receives a doctrinc, or whcther he does not, he is of the sarae 
nature. Aug. The Jews then were children of the devil by Aug. Tr. 
iraitation, not by birth : And the lusts of your father ye will^^^' 
do, our Lord says. Ye are his children then, because ye 
have such lusts, not because ye are born of him : for ye seek 
to kill Me, a man that hath told you the truth : and he envied 
man, and killed him : he was a murderer from the beginning ; 
i. e. of the first man on whom a murder could be coramitted: 
man could not be shiin, before man was created. The devil 
did not go, girt with a sword, against man : he sowed an 
evil word, and slew him. Do not suppose tlierefore that you 
are not guilty of murdcr, when you suggest evil thoughts to 
your brother. The very reason why ye rage against the 
flesh, is that ye cannot assault the soul. Origen. Consider orig. tom. 
too ; it was not one man only that he killed, but the whole ^^' ^-^* 
human race, inasrauch as in Adam all die ; so that he is truly 
called a murdererfrom the beginning. Chrys. Ile does not Chrys. 
say, his works, but his lusts ye will do, meaning that both y^y^ ^] 
the dcvil and the Jews were bent on murder, to satisfy their 
envy. And stood not in tlie truth. He shews whence sprang 
their continual objection to Ilim, that Ile was not frora God. 
AuG. But it will be objected perhaps, that if frora the bc- Aug. xi. 
ginning of his existence, the devil stood not in the truth, pg^'^*j3 
he was never in a state of blessedness with the holy angels, 
refusing, as he did, to be subject to his Creator, and there- 
fore false and deceitful; unwilling at the cost of pious sub- 
jcction to hoid that which by nature he was ; and attempting 
iii his pride and loftiness to simulate that which he was not. 
This opiuioii is not the Siime with that of thc Manichjcaus, 


that the devil has his own peculiar nature, derived as it were 
from the opposite principle of evil. This foohsh sect does 
not see that our Lord says not, Was ahen from the truth, but 
Stood not in the truth, meaning, fell from the truth. And 

1 Jolin thus they interpret John, The devil sinneth from the be- 

^' ^- ginning, not seeing that if sin is natural, it is no sin. But 
what do the testimonies of the prophets reply? Isaiah, 
setting forth tlie devil under the figure of the prince of 
Babylon, says, How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, 

Ezek. 28, sou of the moming ! Ezekiel says, Thou hast been in Eden, 
the garden of God. Which passages, as they cannot be in- 
terpreted in any other way, shew that we must take the 
word, Ile stood not in the truth, to mean, that he was in 
truth, but did not remain in it ; and the other, that tlie 
devil sinneth from the beginning, to mean, that he was 
a sinner not from the beginning of his creation, but from 
the beginning of sin. For sin bcgan in him, and he was 

Orig. tom. the bcginning of sin. Origen. There is ouly one way of 
standiug in the trutli ; many and various of not standing in 
it. Some try to stand in the truth, but tlicir fect tremble 
and shake so, they cannot. Others are not come to that 

Ps. 72. pass, but are in danger of it, as we read in the Psalms, Mg 
feet ivere almost gone : othcrs fall from it. Because the truth 
is not in him, is the reason why the devil did not stand in 
the truth. Ile imagined vain things, and deceived himself ; 
wherein lie was so far worse than others, in that, while 
others are deceived by him, he was the author of his own 
deception. But farther ; does the truth is not in him, mean 
that he holds no true doctrine, and that every thing he 
thinks is false ; or that he is not a member of Christ, who 

c. it, 6. says, / am the truth ? Now it is impossible that any ra- 
tional being should think falsely on every subject and never 
be even ever so slightly right in opinion. The devil there- 
fore may hold a true doctrine, by the mere law of his 
rational nature : and therefore his nature is not contrary to 
truth, i. e. does not consist of simple error and iguorance ; 

Au<r. otherwise he could never have known the truth. Aug. Or 

c xiv. ^' ^^^"^ our Lord says, The truth is not in him, He intends it 
as an index: as if wc had asked Him, how it appeared that 
the devil stood not iu the truth; and He said, Because the 

VER. 44 — 47. ST. JOHN. 315 

truth is not in hiin. For it would be in him, if he stood 
in it. 

When he speaketh a lie, he speaJceth of his oivn : for he is 
a liar, and the father of it. Auo. Some have thought frora Aiig;. Tr. 
these words that the devil had a father, and asked who was j^ 13. 
the father of the devil. This is the error of the jSIanichaeans. 
But our Lord calls the devil the father of a lie for this 
reason : Every one who lies is not the father of his own lie ; 
for you may tell a he, which you have received from an- 
other; in which case you liave lied, but are not the father 
of the lie. But the lie wherewith, as with a serpent's bite, 
the devil slew raan, had no source but himsclf : and there- 
fore he is the father of a lie, as God is the Fatlier of the 
truth. Theophyl. For he accused God to man, saying to 
Eve, But of envy He hath forbidden you the tree : and to 
God he accused man, as in Job, Doth Job serve God for Job l, 9. 
nouyht? Ouigen. Note however; this word, liar, is applied Orip. tom. 
to man, as well as to the devil, who begat a lie, as we read ^^' ^^" 
in the Psalm, All men are liars. If a man is not a liar, he Ps. 111. 
is not an ordinary man, but one of those, to whom it is said, 
I have said, Ye are Gods. When a man speaketh a lie, hePs, 81. 
speaketh of his own ; but the Iloly Spirit spcaketh the word 
of truth and wisdom ; as he said bclow, Ile shall receive ofc. 16, 15. 
Mine, and shall sJiew it unto you. Aug. Or thus : The devil Aug. de 

. , , _ , , Quast, 

is not a singular, but a common name. In whomsoever the Nov. et 
works of the devil are found, hc is to be called the devil. It ^^V^"^' 
is tlie name of a work, not of a nature. Ilere thcn our Lord ^ 
means by the fatlier of tlie Jews, Cain : whom they wished 
to iraitate, by killing the Saviour : for hc it was who set the 
first example of murdering a brother. That he spoke a lie of 
his own, means that no one sins but by his own will. And 
inasmuch as Cain imitated the devil, and followed his works, 
tlie devilis said to be his father. Alcuin. Our Lord being 
the truth, and the Son of the true God, spoke the truth ; 
but the Jews, being the sons of the devil, were averse to the 
truth ; atid this is why our Lord says, Because I tell you the 
trutJi, ye believe not. Origen. But how is this said to the Orip. tom. 
Jews who believed on Him? Consider : a man may believe ^^' ^^^' 
in one scnse, not beheve in another; e.g. that our Lord was 
crucificd by Pontius Pilate, but uot that Ile was boru of the 


Virgin Mary. In this same way, those whom He is speak- 

ing to, believed in Him as a worker of miracles, which they 

saw Him to be ; but did not believe in His doctrines, which 

Ciirys. were too deep for them. Chrys. Ye wish to kill Me then 

liv. s.' 3. because ye are eneraies of the truth, not that ye have any 

fault to find in Me : for, which of you convinceih 3Ie of sin ? 

Theophyl. As if to say : If ye are the sons of God, ye ought 

to hold sinners in hatred. If ye hate Me, when ye cannot 

convince Me of sin, it is evident that ye hate Me because of 

Orig. the truth : i.e. because I said I was the Son of God. Origen. 

inJoan.' ^ ^"^^ speech this : which none could have had the con- 

s. 25. fidence to utter, but Ile who did no sin ; even our Lord. 

Greg. Greg. Obscrve here the condescension of God. He who ^Y virtue of His Divinity could justify sinners, deigns to 

Evang. shew from reason, that He is not a sinner. It follows : He 

that is of God heareth God's words ; ye iherefore hear them 

Ang. Tr, not, because ye are not of God. Aug. Apply this not to 

xiii. 16. tj^gjr nature, but to their faults. They both are from God, 

aud are not from God at the same time ; their nature is from 

God, their fault is not from God. This was spoken too to 

those, who were not only faulty, by reason of sin, in the way 

in which all are : but who it was foreknovvn would never 

possess such faith as would free them from the bonds of sin. 

Greg. Greg. Let him then, who would understand God^s words, 

utsup. j^g]^ himself whether he hears them with the ears of his 

heart. For there are some who do not deign to hear God's 

commands even with their bodily ears ; and there are others 

who do this, but do not embrace them with their hearfs 

desire : and there are others again who receive God's words 

readily, yea and are touched, even to tears : but who after- 

wards go back to their sins again : and therefore cannot 

be said to hear the Word of God, because they neglect to 

practise it. 

48. Then answered the Jews, and said unto Iliin, 
Say we not well that Thou art a Samaritan, and hast 
a devil ? 

49. Jesus answered, I have not a devil; but I 
honour My Father, and ye do dishonour Me. 

VER. 48—51. ST. JOHN. 317 

50. And I seek not Mine own glory ; there is One 
that seeketh and judgeth. 

51. Verily, verily, I say unto you, If a man keep 
My saying, he shall never see death. 

Chrys. "VVhenever our Lord said any thing of lofty mean- ciirys. 
ing, the Jews in their insensibility set it down raadness : ^^"'"•'^•^* 
The7i answered the Jews and said unto ITini, Say we not 
well that Thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil? Origen. Orifr. tom. 
But how, we may ask, when the Samaritans denied a future ^"^* ' 
life, and the immortality of the soul, could they dare to call 
our Saviour, Who had preached so much on the resurrection 
and the judgment, a Samaritan? Perhaps they only mean 
a gencral rebuke to Ilim for tcaching, what they did not ap- 
prove of. Alcuin. The Samaritans werc hated by the Jewsj 
they lived in the land that formerly belonged to the ten 
tribes, who liad been carried away. Origen. It is not un- Ori^. tom. 
likely too, some may have thought that Ile hcld the Sama- ^^* ^^' 
rilan opinion of thcre bcing no future state really, and only 
put forth the doctriue of a resurrection and eternal life, in 
ordcr to gain the favour of the Jcws. They said that Ile had 
a dcvil, bccause His discourscs were above human capacity, 
those, viz. in which He asserted that God was His Father, 
and that Ile had come down from hcavcn, and others of 
a like kind : or perhaps from a suspicion which raany had, 
that He cast out devils by Beelzebub, the prince of the 
devils. Theophyl. Or they called Hira a Samaritan, be- 
cause He transgresscd the Ilebrcw ordinanccs, as that of the 
Sabbath : the Samaritans not being corrcct observers of the 
law. And thcy suspected Ilim of having a devil, because 
Ile could disclosc what was in thcir thoughts. When it was 
that they called Him a Samaritan, the Evangelist no where 
says : a proof that the Evangelists left out many things. 
Greg. Sce ; when God suffers a wrong, He does not reply Ore^. 
reproachfully : Jesus ansivered, I have not a devil. An inti- ^.^'.'1."*.^^ 
mation this to us, that when rcproached by our neighbours Evang. 
falsely, we should not retort upon them by bringing forward 
their evil deeds, howevcr true such charges might bc ; Icst 
the vchicle of a just rebuke turn into a weapon of rage. 


Cbrys. Chrys. And observe, when He had to teach them, and pull 1. ^^j^jj ^yjg-j, prifie, He used roughness; but now that He has 

to suffer rebuke, He treats them with the utmost mildness : 

a lesson to us to be severe in what concerns God, but care- 

Aug. Tr. less of ourselves. Aug, And to imitate His patience first, 

^'^^" '• ^' if we would attain to His power. But though being reviled, 

He reviled not again, it was iucumbent on Him to deny the 

charge. Two charges had beeu made against Him: Thou 

art a Samaritan, and hast a devil. In reply He does not 

say, / am not a Samaritun : for Samaritan means keeper ; 

and He knew He was a keeper : He could not redeem us, 

without at the same time preserving us. Lastly, He is the 

Samaritan, who went up to the wounded, and had com- 

Orig. tom. passiou ou him. Origen. Our Lord, even more than Paul, 

XX. s. 28. wished to become all things to all men, that He might gain 

some : and therefore He did not deny being a Samaritan. 

B. 29. / have not a devil, is what Jesus alone can say ; as He alone 

c. 14, 30. can say, The prince of this world cometh, and hath nothing 

in Me. None of us are quite free from having a devil. For 

Aug. Tr. even lesser faults come from him. Aug. Then after being 

^ "'' • so reviled, all that He says to vindicate His glory, is, But 1 

honour My Father : as if to say, That you may not think 

Me arrogaut, I tell you, I have One, Whom I honour. 

Theophyl. He honoured the Father, by revenging Him, 

and not suffering murderers or hars to call tliemselves the 

Orig:. tom. true sons of God. Origen, Christ alone honoured the 

Father perfectly. No one, who honours any thing which is 

Greg. not honoured by God, honours God. Greg. As all who 

xliii.s. have zeal toward God are liable to meet with dishonour 

from wicked men, our Lord has Hiraself set us an example 

Aug. Tr. of patience under this trial ; And ye do dishonour Me. Aug. 

OH tom ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^' ■^ ^^ ™^ ^^^^ ■ y® ^^ "^^^ ^^ yours. Origen. 

XX. 29. And this was not addressed to them only, but to all who bv 
unrighteous deeds inflict injury upon Christ, who is righte- 
ousness; cr by scoffing at wisdom wrong Him who is wis- 

ut sup. dom : and the like. Greg, How we are to take injuries, He 
shews us by His own example, when He adds, / seek not 

Chrys. Mine own glory, there is one that seeketh and judneth. Chrys. 

JtlOlUa 1 V, 1 . t/ t/ 

' As if to say, 1 have told you this'' ou account of the honour 


i.e. that they had no right to call God thoir Father. 

VER. 48 — 51. ST. JOHN-. 319 

which I have for My Father ; and for this ye dishonour Me. 

But I concern not rayself for your reviling: ye are account- 

able to Him, for whose sake I undergo it. Origen. God Orig. tnm. 

seeks Christ's glory, in every one of those who receive Hini : ^^' ^' ^^' 

vvhich glory He finds in those who cultivate the seeds of 

virtue implanted in them. And those in whora He finds 

not His Son's glory, He punishes : There is one that seeketh 

and judgeth. Aug. Meaning of course the Father. But Au?. Tr. 

how is it then that He says in another place, The Father ^ '^'' ^^ 

judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the 

Son. Judgraent is sometiraes put for conderanation, whereas 

here it only stands for trial : as if to say, There is one, even 

My Fatlier, wlio distinguishes My glory frora yours; ye 

glory after this world, I not after this world. The Father 

distinguishes the glory of the Son, frora that of all men : for 

that He has been made raan, does not bring us to a com- 

parison with Him. We raen have siu : He was without sin, 

even when He was in the forra of a servant ; for, as the 

Word which was in the beginning, who can speak worthily 

of Him? Origen. Or thus; If that is true which ourO"g-<o"i- 

XX. 31 

Saviour says belovv, All men are thine, it is manifest that the (Nic.)' 
judgraent itself of the Son, is the Father's. Greg. As the '^- '^' '^- 
perversity of thc wicked increases, preaching so far from Hom. 
giving way, ought even to become more active. Thus our '^7'"' '" 
Lord, aftcr He had been accused of having a dcvil, imparts 
the treasurcs of prcaching in a still hirger degree : Verily, 
verily, I say unto you, If a man keep My saying, hc shall 
nevcr see death. Aug. See is put for experience. But since, ^ug:- Tr. 
about to die Iliraself, He spoke with those about to die, n. ' 
what means this, If a man keep My sayitig, he shall never see 
death ? What, but that Ile saw another death from which 
Ile came to free us, death eternal, the death of the daraned, 
which is shared with the devil and his angels ! That is the 
true death : the other is a passage only. Origen. We must 0"g. tom. 
understand Hira, as it were, to say, If a raan keep My light, 
he shall not see darkness for ever ; for ever being takeu as 
common to both clauses, as if the sentence were, If a man 
keep My saying for ever, he shall not see dcath for ever : 
meaning that a man does not see death*, so long as he keeps 
Chrisfs word. But whcn a man, by becoming sluggish in 


the observance ofHis words, and negligent in the keeping of 

his own heart, ceases to keep them, he then sees death ; he 

brings it upon himself. Thus taught then by our Saviour, 

Ps. 88. to the prophet who asks, What man is he that liveth, and 

shall not see death ? we are able to answer, He who keepeth 

ciirys. Christ's word. Chrys. He says, keep, i.e. not by faith, but i^y purity of life. And at the sarae time too He raeans it as 

a tacit intiraation that they can do nothing to Him. For if 

whoever keepeth His word, shall never die, much less is it 

possible that He Himself should die. 

52. Then said the Jews unto Him, Now we know 
that Thou hast a devil. Abraham is dead, and the 
prophets ; and Thou sayest, If a man keep My saying, 
he shall never taste of death. 

53. Art Thou greater than our father Abraham, 
which is dead ? and the prophets are dcad ; whom 
makest Thou Thyself ? 

54. Jesus answered, K I honour Myself, My honour 
is nothing ; it is My Father that honoureth Me ; of 
whom ye say, that He is your God : 

55. Yet ye have not known Him ; but I know 
Him : and if I should say, I know Him not, I shall 
be a liar like unto you : but I know Him, and keep 
His saying. 

bQ. Your father Abraham rejoiced to see My day : 
and he saw it, and was glad. 

ut sup. Greg. As it is necessary that the good should grow better 

by conturaely, so are the reprobate raade worse by kind- 
ness. On hearing our Lord's words, the Jews again blas- 
pherae : Then said the Jews unto Him, Now we know Thou 
Orig. toin. hast a devil. Origen. Those who beheve the Holy Scrip- 
XX. 3-, 3 . ^uj-gg^ understand that what raen do contrary to right reason, 
is not done without the operation of devils. Thus the Jevvs 
thought tliat Jesus had spoken by the influence of the devil, 
when He said, Tf a man heep My saying, he shall never see 
death. And this idea they laboured under, bccause they did 

VER. 52 — 56. ST. JOHN. 321 

not know the power of God, For liere He was speaking of 
that death of enmity to reason, by which sinners perish : ix^pov ry 
whereas they understand Him of that death which is com- ^ ^*^ 
mou to all ; and therefore blame Him for so speaking, wheu 
it was certain that Abraham and the Prophets were dead : 
AhraJiam is dead, and the Prophets ; and Thou sayest, If 
a man keep My saying, he shall never taste of death. ShaH 
never taste of death, they say, instead of, shall not see death ; 
though between tasting and seeing death there is a dif- 
ference. Like careless hearers, they mistake what our Lord 
said. For as our Lord, in that He is the true bread, is 
good to taste ; iu that He is wisdom, is beautiful to be- 
hold; in like manner His adversary death is both to be 
tasted and seen. When then a man stands by Christ's ^;, ri; 5f<. 
help in the spiritual place pointed out to him, he shall not •'"'"•V'"' 
taste of death if he preserves that state : according to Mat- T6iT(f. 
thew, There he those standing here, which shalt not taste Matt. IG, 
of death. But when a man hears Christ's words and keeps ^ * 
them, he shall not see death. Chrys. Again, they have re- Chrys. 
course to the vainglorious argument of tlieir descent : Art i^°i' 
Thou greater than our fatJier Ahraham, which is dead ? They 
might have said, Art Thou greater than God, whose words 
they are dead who heard ? But they do not say this, be- 
cause they thought Him iuferior even to Abraham. Origen. Orig. 
For they do not see that not Abraham ouly, but cvery one ^^33 
born of vvoman, is less than Hc who was born of a Virgin. 
Now werc the Jews right in saying that Abraham was dead ? 
for he heard the word of Christ, and kept it, as did also the 
Prophets, who, they say, were dead, For they kept the 
word of the Son of God, when the word of the Lord carae 
to Hosea, Isaiah, or Jercmiah ; if any one else kept the 
word, surely those Prophets did. They utter a lie then when 
they say, We know that Thou hast a devil ; and when they 
say, Abraham is dead, and the Prophets. Greg. For being ut sup. 
given over to eternal death, which death they saw not, 
aud thinking only, as they did, of the death of the body, 
thcir minds were darkencd, even while the Truth Himself 
was speaking. They add : Whom makcst Thou Thyself ? 
Theophyl. As if to say, Thou a persou of no account, 
a carpenter's son of GaUlee, to take glory to Thyself ! 



Ijede. Whom malest Thou Thyself? i. e. Of wliat merit, of 
wliat dignity wouldest Thou be accounted? Nevertheless, 
Abraham only died in the body ; his soul lived. And the 
death of the soul which is to live for ever, is greater thaa 
Origr. tom. the death of the body that must die some time. Origen. 
This was the speech of persons spiritually blind. For Jesus 
did not make Himself what Ile was, but received it from the 
Father : Jesus answered and said, If I honour Myself, My 
Chrys. honour is nothing. Chrys. This is to answer their sus- 
liv l' 2. picions ; as above, If I bear uitness of Myself, My witness is 
c- 5. not true. Bede. He shews in these words that the glory of 

Augr. Tr. this present Hfe is nothing. Aug. This is to answer those 
who said, Whom makest Thou Thyself ? He refers His glory 
to the Father, from Whom He is : It is My Father that 
honoureth Me. The Arians take occasion frora those words 
to calumniate our faith, and say, Lo, the Father is greater, 
for He glorifieth the Son. Herctics, have ye not read that 
the Son also glorifieth the Father? Alcuin. The Father 
glorified the Son, at His baptism, on the mount, at the time 
of His passion, when a voice came to Ilim, in the midst of 
the crovvd, when He raised Him up again after His passion, 
Chrys, and placed Ilim at the right hand of Ilis Majesty. Chrys. 
jy°I^' Ile adds, Of whom ye say that Ile is your God ; mcaning to 
tell them that they were not only ignorant of the Father, 
but even of God. Theophyl. For had they known the 
Father really, they would have reverenced the Son. But 
they even despise God, who in the law forbad murder, by 
their clamours against Christ. Wherefore Ile says, Ye have 
not hiown Ilim. Alcuin. As if to say, Ye call Him your 
God, after a carnal manner, serving Ilim for temporal re- 
wards. Ye have not known Him, as He should be known ; 
Aug. Tr. ye arc not able to serve Him spiritually. Aug. Some here- 
tics say that the God proclaimed in the Old Testaraent is 
not the Father of Christ, but a kind of prince of bad angels- 
These He contradicts when He calls Him Ilis Father, vvhom 
the Jews called their God, and knew not. For had they 
known Him, they would have leceived His Son. Of Him- 
self however He adds, But I know Hlm. And here too, to 
men judging after the flesh, He might appear arrogant. 
But let not arrogance be so guarded against, as that trulh 

VER. 52 — 56. ST. JOHN. 3r23 

be deserted. Therefore our Lord says, And if I sJiould say 
I know Him not, I should be a liar like unto you. Chrys. As Chrys. 
if to say, As ye, saying that ye know Him, lie ; so were I ?^"'"' 
a liar, did I say I knew Hira not. It follows, however, 
(which is the greatest proof of all that He was sent from 
God,) But I know Him. Theophyl. Having that know- 
ledge by nature ; for as I am, so is the Father also ; I know 
Myself, and therefore I know Him. And He gives the proof 
that He knows Hira: And I keep His saying, i. e. His com- 
mandments. Some understand, / keep His saying, to mean, 
I keep the nature of His substance unchanged ; for the 
substance of the Father and the Son is the sarae, as their 
nature is the same ; and therefore I know the Father. And 
here has the force of because : I know Him because / keep 
His saying. Aug. He spoke the saying of the Father too, Au£;. Tr. 
as being the Son; and He was Himself that Word of the x'"' 15. 
Father, which He spoke to men. Chrys. In answer then chrys. 
to their question, Art Thou greater than ourfather Abraham, ^"'"' 
He shews them that He is greater than Abraham ; Your 
father Abraham rejoiced to see My day : he saw it and was 
glad; he must have rejoiced, because My day would benefit 
him, which is to acknowledge Me grcater than himself. 
Theophyl. As if to say, He regarded My day as a day to 
be desired, and fuU of joy ; not as if I was an unimportant 
or common person. Aug. He did not fear, but rejoiced to Au{r. Tr, 
see : he rejoiced in hope, behering, and so by faith saw. It xlm. 16. 
admits of doubt whether Ile is speaking here of the tem- 
poral day of the Lord, that, viz. of His coming in the flesh, 
or of that day which knows neither rising or setting. I 
doubt not however that our father Abraham knew the 
whole : as he says to his servant whom he sent, Put thy Gen. 
hand under my thigh, and sivear to me by the God of heaven. 2*. 2. 
What did that oath signify, but that the God of heaveu was 
to come in the flesh, out of the stock of Abraham. Greg. creg. 
Abraham saw the day of the Lord even then, when he .^'''"- ^''- 

'' ' in hvang. 

entertained the three Angels, a figure of the Trinity. Chrys. chrys. 
They are aliens from Abraham if they grieve over what he |.^°'"' 
rejoiced in. By this day perhaps he means the day of the 
cross, which Abraham prefigured by the oflfering up of Isaac 
aud the ram : intimating hereby that He did uot come to 

Y 2 


Aug. Tr His passion imwillingly. Aug. If they rejoiced to whom the 
^ '"■ Word appeared in the flesh, what was his joy, who beheld in 

spiritual vision the light ineff*able, the abiding Word, the 
bright illumination of pious souls, the indefectible wisdoni, 
still abiding with God the Father, and sometime to come in 
the flesh, but not to leave the Father^s bosom ? 

57. Then said the Jews unto Him, Thou art not 
yet fifty years old, and hast Thou seen Abraham ? 

58. Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say 
unto you, Before Abraham was, I am. 

59. Then took they up stones to cast at Him : but 
Jesus hid Himself, and went out of the temple, going 
through the midst of them, and so passed by. 

Greg. Greg. Thc camal minds of the Jews are intent on the 

^°11'". flesh only; they think only of Ilis age in the flesh : Tlien 

Evang. said the Jews unto Him, Thou art not fifty years old, and 

hast Thou seen Abrahani ? that is to say, Many ages have 

passed since Abraham died ; and how then could he see 

Thy day? For they took His words in a carnal sense. 

Theophyl. Christ was then thirty-three years old. Why 

then do they not say, Thou art not yet forty years old, 

instead of fifty ? A needless question this : they simply 

spoke as chance led them at the time. Sorae however say 

that they mentioned the fiftieth year on account of its sacred 

character, as being the year of jubilee, in which they rc- 

deemed their captives, and gave up the possessions they 

ut sup. had bought. Greg. Our Saviour mildly draws them away 

frora their carnal view, to the contemplation of His Divinity ; 

Jesus said unto them, Verily, verily, I say unto you, Before 

Abraham was, I am. Before is a particle of past time, am, 

of present. Divinity has no past or future, but alvvays the 

present; and therefore He does not say, Before Abraham 

Exod. 3, was, I was : but, Before Abraham was, I am : as it is in 

Exodus, / am that I am. Before and after might be said of 

Abraham with reference to diff^erent periods of his hfe ; to 

be, in the present, is said of the truth only. 

Aug. Tr. AuG. Abraham being a creature, He did not say hefore 

Abraham was, but, before Abraham was made. Nor does 

xliii. 18. 

VER, 57 — 59. ST. JOHX. 325 

ITe say, I am raade : because that, iji the beginning was the 
Word. Greg. Their unbelieving minds, however, were un- ut sup. 
able to support these indications of eternity ; and not un- 
derstanding Ilim, they sought to destroy Him : Then they 
took up stones to cast at Him. Aug. Such hardness of heart, Auo;. Tr. 
whither was it to run, but to its truest likeness, even the ^ "'" ' 
stones? But now that He had done all that Ile could do 
as a teacher, and they in return wished to stone Him, since 
they could not bear corrcction, He leaves thera ; Jesus hid 
Himself, and went out of the temple. He did not hide Ilim- 
self in a corner of the temple, as if He was afraid, or take 
refuge in a house, or run behind a wall, or a pillar ; but by 
His heavenly power, making Himself invisible to His ene- 
mies, went through the midst of them : Jesus hid Himself 
and went out of the temple. Greg. Who, had Ile chosen to 
exert the power of His Divinity, could, without a word, by 
His mere nod, have seized them with the very stones iu 
their hands, and delivered them to immediate death. But 
He who came to suffcr, was slow to execute judgment. Auo. Ang. Tr. 
For His part was morc to exhibit patience than exercise ^''"- ^^* 
power. Alcuin. He fled because His hour was not yet 
come ; and because He had not chosen this kind of death. 
AuG. So then, as a man, Ile flies from thc stones ; but woe to Aug, Tr. 
thera, from whose stony hearts God flies. Bede. Mystically, '^'"'- ^^- 
a raan throws a stone at JesuSj as often as he harbours an 
evil thought; and if he follows it up, so far as lies in hira 
lie kills Jesus. Greg. What does our Lord raean by hiding ut sup. 
Himself, but that the truth is hidden to them who despise 
His words. The truth flies the company of an unhumblcd 
soul. Ilis example shews us, that we should in all humiUty 
rather retreat from the wrath of the proud, when it rises, 
than resist it, even though we might be able. 


1. And as Jesus passed by, He saw a man which 
was bhnd from his birth. 

2. And His disciples asked Him, saying, Master, 
who did sin, this man, or his parents, that he was 
born blind ? 

3. Jesus answered, Neither hath this man sinned, 
nor his parents : but that the works of God should be 
made manifest in him. 

4. I must work the works of Him that sent Me, 
vhile it is day : the night cometh, when no man can 


5. As long as I am in the world, I am the light of 
the world. 

6. When He had thus spoken, He spat on the 
ground, and made clay of the spittle, and He an- 
ointed the eyes of tlie bHnd man with the clay, 

7. And said unto him, Go, wash in the pool of 
Siloam, (which is by interpretation, Sent.) He went 
his way therefore, and washed, and came seeing. 

Ciirys, Chrys, The Jews having rejccted Chrisfs words, because 

Hoin. Qf ti^gjj. depth, He went out of the temple, and healed the 
bhnd man ; that His absence might appease their fury, and 
the miracle soften their hard hearts, and convince their un- 
behef. And as Jesus passed bt/, He saw a man which was 
blind from his birth. It is to be remarked here, that, on 
going out of the temple, He betook Himself intently to this 
manifestation of His power. He first saw the bHnd man, 
not the blind man Him : and so intently did He fix His eye 
upon him, that His disciples were struck, and asked, Rabbi, 
who did sin, this nian or his parents, t/iat he was horn blind? 
Bede. Mystically, our Lord, after being banished from the 


minds of the Jews, passed over to tlie Gentiles. The pas- non occ. 

sage or journey here is His descent from heaven to earth, 

where He saw the blind man, i. e. looked with compassion 

on the human race. Aug. For the blind man here is the Au^. Tr. 

human race. Blindness came upon the first man by reason ^ ^^* • ' 

of sin ; and from hiai we all derive it : i. e. man is blind 

frora his birth. Aug. Rabbi is Master. They call Hira Aug. Tr. 

Master, because tliey wislied to learn : they put their ques- ^ '^' ' ' 

tion to our Lord, as to a ]\Iaster. Theophyl. Tliis question 

does not seera a proper one. For the Apostles had not 

bcen taught the fond notion of the Gentiles, that the soul 

has sinned in a previous state of existence. It is difhcult 

to account for their putting it. Chhys. They were led to Chrya 

ask this question, by our Lord having said above, on healing iiy°"J* 

the man sick of the palsy, Lo, thou art made whole ; sin no c. 5. 

more. Thinking from this that the man had been struck 

with the palsy for his sins, they ask our Lord of the bliud 

man here, whether he did sin, or his parents ; neither of 

which could have been the reason of his blindness ; the 

former, because he had been bliud from his birth ; the 

latter, because the son does not sufFer for the father. 

Jesus ansivered, Neitlier hath this man siyined, nor his 

parents. Aug. Was he then born without original sin, or Aug. 

had he never added to it by actual sin ? Both this mau and xUvTs. 

his parents had sinned, but that sin was not the reason why 

he was born blind. Our Lord gives the reason ; viz. That 

the ivorks of God should be made manifest in him. Chrys. chrys. 

He is not to be understood as meaninor that others had ^°"\- „ 

. ° . Ivi. J, 2. 

become bhnd, m consequence of their parents' sins : for one 
man cannot be punishcd for the sin of another. But had 
the man therefore suffered unjustly? Rather I should say 
that that blindness was a benefit to hira : for by it he waa 
brought to see with the inward eye. At any rate He who 
brought hira into being out of nothing, had the power to 
make him in the event no loser by it. Some too say, that 
the that here, is expressive not of the cause, but of the event, 
as in the passage in Romans, The law entered that sin might Rom. 5, 
abound ; the effect in this case being, that our Lord by ^^' 
opening the closed eye, and healing other natural infirmities, 
demonstrated His own power. Greg. Oue stroke falls on 

liv. 2 


^•■pR- the sinner, for punishment only, not conversion ; another 

in PrEef. . . , „ • p i • ^ l 

Morai. lor correction : another not lor correction oi past sins, but 

^' ^' prevention of future ; another neither for correcting past, 

nor preventing future sins, but by the unexpected deliver- 
ance following the blow, to excite more ardent love of the 

Chrys. Saviour's goodness. Chrys. That the glory of God should 
be made manifest, He saith of Hiraself, not of the Fatlier ; 
the rather's glory was raanifest already. / must work the 
works of Him that sent Me ; i.e. I must manifest Myself, and 
shew that I do the same that My Father doeth. Bede. For 
when the Son declared that He worked the works of the 
Father, He provcd that His and His Father's works were 
the same : wliich are to heal the sick, to strengthen the 

Anp. Tr. wcak, aud enhghten man. Auo. By His saying, JFho sent 

''•'''• *• Me, He gives all the glory to Him from Whom He is. The 
Father hath a Son Who is frora Hira, but hath none from 

Chrys. whom Hc HimseH' is. Chrys. While it is day, He adds ; 

lyl"^' i.e. while men have the opportunity of believing in Me ; 
while this life lasts ; The night cometh when none can work. 

Matt. 22, Night here means that spoken of iu Matthew, cast him into 


outer darkness, Then will there be night, wherein none 

can work, but only receive for that which he has worked. 

While thou livest, do that which thou wilt do : for beyond 

Aiig. Tr. it is neither faith, nor labour, nor repentance. Aug. But if 

^ '^^ • we work now, now is the day tirae, now is Christ present ; as 

He says, As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the 

world. This then is the day. The natural day is completed 

by the circuit of the sun, and contains only a few hours : 

the day of Christ's presence will last to the end of the world : 

Matt. 28, for He Himself has said, Lo, I am with you alway, even unto 

the end of the world. Chrys. He then confirms His words 


iicin. by deeds : When He had thus spoken, He spat on the ground, 
^^'- '^- and made clay of the spittle, and anointed the eyes of the blind 
man with the clay. He who had brought gieater substances 
into being out of nothing, could much more have given sight 
without the use of any material : but He wished to shew 
that He was the Creator, Who iu the beginning used clay 
Hom. for the formation of man. He makes the clay with spittle, 
and not with water, to make it evident that it was not the 
pool of Siloam, whither He was about to send him, but the 

VER. 1 — 7. ST. JOHN. 329 

virtue proceeding from His mouth, which restored the maii*s 
sight, And then, that the cure might not seem to be the 
effect of the clay, He ordered the man to wash : Ajid He 
said unto him, Go, wash in the pool of Siloam. Tlie Evau- 
gelist gives the meaning of Siloam, which is by interpreta- 
tion, Sent, to intimate that it was Christ's power that cured 
him even there. As the Apostle says of the rock in the 
wilderness, that that Rock was Christ, so Siloam had a spiri- 1 Cor. 
tual character: the sudden rise of its water being a silent ^^* ^*' 
figure of Christ's unexpected manifestatiou in the flesh. 
But why did He not tell him to wash immediately, instead 
of sending him to Siloam? That the obstiuacy of the Jews 
might be overcome, when they saw him going there with the 
clay on his eyes. Besides which, it proved that He was 
not averse to tlie Law, and the Old Testaraent. And there 
was no fear of thc glory of the case being given to Siloam : 
as many had washed their eyes there, aud received no such 
benefit. And to shew the faith of the blind man, who made 
no opposition, never argued with himself, that it was the 
quality of clay rather to darken, than give light, that he 
liad often washed in Siloam, and had never been benefited; 
that if our Lord had the powcr, He might have cured him 
by His word; but simply obcycd : he went his way therefore, 
and washed, and came seeing. Thus our Lord manifested Hom. 
His glory : and no small glory it was, to be proved the '^'* ^* 
Creator of the workl, as He was proved to be by this miracle. 
For on the priuciple tiuit thc greatcr contains the less, this 
act of creatiou inchided in it every other. Man is the most 
honourable of all creatures ; the eye the most honourable 
member of man, dirccting the movcments, and giving him 
sight. The eye is to the body, what the suu is to the uni- 
verse ; and therefore it is placed aloft, as it were, upoa 
a royal eminence. Theophyl. Some thiuk that the clay 
was not laid upon the eyes, but made into eyes. Aug. Our Aug. Tr. 
Lord spat upon the ground, and made clay of the spittle, ^ "' ' 
becausc He was the word made flesh. The man did not 
see immediately as he was anointed ; i. e. was, as it were, 
only made a catechumen. But he was sent to the pool 
which is callcd Siloam, i. e. he was baptized in Christ; and 
thcn he was cnlightcued. The EvaugeUst then explaius to 


us the name of tliis pool : which is by interpretation, Sent : 

for, if He had not been sent, none of us would have been 

GrefT. viii. deliverod from our sins. Greg. Or thus : By His spittle 

c.^xx^x! understand the savour of inward contemplation. It runs 

(49-) down from the head iuto the mouth, and gives us the taste 

of revelation from the Divine splendour even in this life. 

The mixture of His spittle with clay is the mixture of 

supernatural grace, even the contemplation of Himself with 

our carnal knowledge, to the souVs enlightenment, and 

restoration of the human understanding from its original 


8. The neighbours therefore, and they which before 
had seen him that he was blind, said, Is not this he 
that sat and begged ? 

9. Some said, This is he : others said, He is like 
him : but he said, I am he. 

10. Therefore said they unto him, How were thine 
eyes opened? 

11. He answered and said, A man that is callcd 
Jesus made clay, and anointed mine eyes, and said 
unto me, Go to the pool of Siloam, and wash ; and 
I went and washed, and I received sight. 

12. Then said they unto him, Where is He ? He 
said, I know not. 

13. They brought to the Pharisees him that afore- 
time was blind. 

14. And it was the sabbath day when Jesus made 
the clay, and opened his eyes. 

15. Then again the Pharisees also asked him how 
he had received his sight. He said unto them, He 
put clay upon mine eyes, and I washed, and do see. 

16. Therefore said some of the Pharisees, This 
man is not of God, because He keepeth not the 
sabbath day. Others said, How can a man that 
is a sinner do such miracles ? And there was a divi- 
sion among them. 

VER. 8 — 17. ST. JOHN. 831 

17. They say unto the blind man again, What 
sayest thou of Him, that He hath opened thine eyes ? 
He said, He is a prophet. 

Chrys. The suddenness of the miracle made men incre- Chrys. 
dulous : The neighbours therefore, and they which had seen ^?.^' , 
hini that Jie ivas blind, said, Is not this he that sat and 
begged? Wonderful clemency and condescension of God ! 
Even the beggars Ile heals with so great considerateness : 
thus stopping the mouths of the Jews ; in that Ile made not 
the great, illustrious, and noble, but the poorcst and mean- 
est, the objects of His providence. Indeed He had come 
for the salvation of all. Some said, This is he. The bhnd 
man having been clearly recognised in the course of his long 
walk to the pool ; the more so, as people's attention was 
drawn by the strangeness of the event; men could no longer 
say, This is not he; Others said, Nay, but he is like him. 
AuG. His eyes being opcned had altcred his look. But he Au^. Tr. 
said, I am he. Ile spoke gratefuUy ; a denial would have ^^^^- ^* 
convicted him of ingratitude. Chrys. He was not ashamed chrys. 
of his former bhndness, nor afraid of the fury of the pcople, ."."."^" „ 
nor averse to shew hirasclf, and proclaim his Bcnefactor. 
Therefore said they unto him, How were thine eyes opened? 
IIow thcy were, neithcr he nor any one kuew : he only knew 
the fact ; he could not explain it. Ile answered a7id said, 
A man that is called Jesus made clay, and anointed mine eyes. 
Mark his exactness. Ile docs not say how the clay was 
made ; for he could not see that our Lord spat on the 
ground ; he does not say what he does not know ; but that 
He anointed him he coukl feeh And said unto me, Go to 
the pool of Siloam, and wash. This too he could declare from 
his own hearing ; for he had heard our Lord converse with 
His disciples, and so knew His voice. Lastly, he shews how 
strictly he had obeyed our Lord. He adds, And I went, and 
washed, and received sight. Aug. Lo, he is becorae a pro- Aufr. Tr. 
claimer of grace, an evangcHst, and testifies to the Jews. ^''^* ^- ^* 
That bhnd man testified, and the ungodly were vexed at the 
heart, because they had not in their heart what appeared upon 
his countenance. Then said they unto him, Where is Re ? 

xliv, 8. 


Ivii. 2. 


Chrys. Chrys. Tliis they said, because they were meditating His 

Ivil"^ deatb, baving already begun to conspire against Him. 
Cbrist did not appear in company witb those wbom He 
cured; having no desire for glory or display. He always 
witbdrew, after bealing any one ; in order tbat no suspicion 
migbt attacb to the miracle. His witbdrawal proved tbe 
absence of all connexion between Him and tbe healed; and 
therefore tbat tbe latter did not pubhsb a false cure out of 

Aug. Tr. favour to Him. Ile said, I knoiv not. Aug. Here he is 
bke one anointed, but unable yet to see : be preacbes, and 
knows not wbat be preaches. Bede. Tbus be represents 
tbe state of tbe catccbumen, wbo bclieves in Jesus, but does 
not, strictly speaking, know Him, not being yet wasbed. It 

ciirys. fcU to tbc Pbarisces to confirm or deny tbe rairacle. Chrys. 

Tbc Jews, wbom thcy asked, Where is Ile? were desirous 

of finding Him, in order to bring Him to tbe Pbarisees ; 

but, as tbey could not find Him, tbey bring tbe bbnd man. 

They bronght to the Fharisecs him that aforetime was hlind ; 

i. e. tbat tbcy migbt examine bim still more closely. Tbe 

Evangelist adds, And it loas the sabbath day when Jesus 

made the clay, ayid opcned his eyes ; in order to expose tbeir 

real design, wbicb was to accuse Him of a departure from 

the law, and thus detract from the miracle : as appears from 

wbat follows, Then again the Pharisees also asked him how he 

had received his sight. But mark tbe firmness of tbe bbnd 

man. To tell tbe truth to the multitude before, from whom 

he was in no dangcr, was not so great a matter : but it is 

remarkable, now tbat tbe danger is so much greater, to find 

him disavowing notbing, and not contradicting any tbing 

tbat be said before : He said unto them, He put clay upon 

mine eyes, and I washed, and do see. He is more brief this 

time, as his interrogators were already informed of the 

matter : not mentioning the name of Jesus, nor His saying, 

Go, and wash ; but simply, He put clay upon mine eyes, and 

I washed, and do see ; the very contrary answer to what 

they wanted. Tbey wanted a disavowal, and they receive 

a confirmation of tbe story. 

Aujr. Tr. Therefore said some of the Pharisees. Aug. Some, not 
xliv 9, . . 

all : for some were already anointed. But tbey, wbo neitber 

saw, nor were anointed, said, This man is not of God, because 

VER, 8 — 17. ST. JOHN. 333 

he keepeth not the sabbath day. Rather Re kept it, in that 
He was without sin ; for to observc the sabbath spiritually, 
is to have no sin. And this God admonislies us of, when 
He enjoins the sabbath, saying, In it thou shalt do no servile Exod. 20, 
work. What servile work is our Lord tells us above, Who- 
soever cojnmitteth sin, is the servant of sin. They observed c. 8, 31. 
the sabbath carnally, transgressed it spiritually. Chrys. ciirys. 
Passing over the rairacle in silence, they give all the pro- ^^^^^ 
minence they can to the supposed transgression ; not charg- 
ing Him with healing on the sabbath, but with not keeping 
the sabbath. Others said, How can a man that is a sinner 
do such miracles? They Averc inipressed by His miracles, 
but only in a weak and unsettled way. For whereas such 
might have shewn tliera, that the sabbath was not broken ; 
they had not yet any idca that He was God, and therefore 
did not know that it was the Lord of thc sabbath who had 
worked the miracle. Nor did any of them dare to say openly 
what his scntiments were, but spoke ambiguously ; one, be- 
cause he thought the fact itsclf improbable ; another, from 
his love of station. It follows, And there was a division 
among them. That is, the people were dividcd first, and then 
the rulcrs. Aug. It was Christ, who dividcd the day into Aug. 
light and darkness. Curys. Those who said, Can a man 4. 5 ' 
that is a sinncr do such miracles ? wishing to stop the ciirys. 
othcrs' mouths, niakc the objcct of our Lord's goodness lyiji j^ 
again corac forward ; but without appcaring to take part 
with Ilira themselves : They say unto the blind man again, 
What sayest thou of IJim, that He hath opened thine eyes ? 
TiiEOPHYL. Sce with what good intent thcy put the question. 
They do not say, What saycst thou of Ilim that keepcth not 
the sabbath, but mention the miracle, that Ile hath opened 
thine eyes ; meaning, it would seem, to draw out the healed 
man himself; Ile hath benefited thera, they seera to say, 
and thou oughtest to preach Ilira. Aug. Or they sought how Aug. Tr. 
they could throw reproach upon the raan, and cast hira out of 
their synagogue. Ile dcclarcs however opeuly what he thinks: 
He said, He is a Prophet, Not being anointed yet in heart, he 
could not confess the Sou of God ; nevertheless, he is not 
wrong in what he says : for our Lord Ilimself says of Him- 
self, A prophet is not without honour, save in his own country. i^uke 4, 


18. But the Jews did not believe concerning him, 
that he had been blind, and received his sight, until 
they called the parents of him that had received his 

19. And they asked them, saying, Is this your son, 
who ye say was born blind ? how then doth he now 
see ? 

20. His parents answered them and said, We know 
that this is our son, and that he was born blind : 

21. But by what means he now seeth, we know 
not ; or who hath opened his eyes, we know not : he 
is of age ; ask him : he shall speak for himself. 

22. These words spake his parents, because they 
feared the Jews : for the Jews had agreed already, 
that if any man did confess that He was Christ, he 
should be put out of the synagogue. 

23. Therefore said his parents, He is of age : ask 

Chrys. Chrys. The Pharisees being unable, by intiraidation, to 

deter the blind man from publicly proclaiming his Bene- 
factor, try to nulHfy the rairacle through the parents : But 
the Jews did not believe concerning him that he had heen 
blind, and received his sight, until they had called the parents 
Aug. Tr. of him that had received his sight. Aug. i. e. had been 
xiiv. s. 10. ijijmj ^jj(j jjQ^ gQ^^ Chrys. But it is the nature of truth, 

Chrys. . . 

Hom. to be strengthened by the very snares that are laid against 
^'"* it. A lie is its own antagonist, and by its atterapts to injure 
the truth, sets it off to greater advantage : as is the case 
now. For the arguraent which might otherwise have been 
urged, that the neighbours knew nothing for certain, but 
spoke from a mere resemblance, is cut off by introduction 
of the parents, who could of course testify to their own 
son. Having brought these before the asserably, they in- 
terrogate them with great sharpness, saying, Is this your son, 
(they say not, who was born bhnd, but) who ye say was 
born blind? Say. Why what father is there, that would 
say such things of a son, if they were not true? Why not 

Iviii. 1 

VER. 18 — 23. ST. JOHN. 335 

say at once, Whom ye made blind ? They try two ways of 
making them deny the miracle : by saying, Who ye say was 
born blind, and by adding, Hoio then doth he noiv see ? 
Theophyl. Either, say they, it is not true that he now sees, 
or it is untrue that he was blind before : but it is evident 
that he now sees ; therefore it is not true that he was born 
bHnd. Chrys. Three tliings then being asked, — if he were Chrys. 
their son, if he had been bhnd, and how he saw, — thev J^"'."- 

' Iviu. 2, 

acknowledge two of them : llis parents answered them and 
said, We know that this is our son, and that he was born 
blind. But the third they refuse to speak to : But bi/ what 
means he now seeth, we know not. The enquiry in this way 
euds in confirraing the truth of tlie miracle, by making it 
rest upon the incontrovertible cvidcnce of tlie confession of 
the healed person himself; Ile is of af/e, they say, ask him ; 
he can speak for himself. Aug. As if to say, We might Aug. Tr. 
justly be compelled to speak for an infaut, that could not ^^"'* ^^' 
speak for itself: but he, though blind from his birth, has 
been always able to speak. Chrys. What sort of gratitude chrys. 
is this in the parents ; concealing what they knew, from fear [^?.""» 
of the Jews ? as we are next told ; These words spake his 
parents, because they feared the Jeios. And then the Evan- 
gehst mentions again what the intentions and dispositions 
of the Jews were : For the Jews had ayreed already, that 
if any man did confess that Ile ivas Christ, he sJiould be 
put out of thc synagogue. Aug. It was no disadvantage to auct. Tr. 
be put out of the synagogue : whom they cast out, Christ ^^'*^- ^^* 
took in. 

Therefore said his parents, Ue is of age, ask him. Alcuin. 
The Evangelist shews that it was not from igiiorance, but 
fear, that thcy gave this answer. Theophyl. For they were 
fainthearted ; not Hke their son, that intrepid witness to 
the truth, the eyes of whose understanding had becn en- 
lightened by God. 

24. Then again called tbey the man that was blind, 
and said unto him, Give God the praise : we know 
that this man is a sinner. 

25. He answered and said, Whcther He be a sinner 


or no, I know not : one thing I know, tliat whereas I 
was bhnd, now I see. 

26. Then said they to him again, What did He to 
thee ? how opened He thine eyes ? 

27. He answered them, I have told you already, 
and ye did not hear : wherefore would ye hear it 
again ? will ye also be Ilis disciples ? 

28. Then they reviled him, and said, Thou art His 
disciple ; but we are Moses' disciples. 

29. We know that God spakc unto Moses : as for 
this fellow, we know not from whence he is. 

30. The man answered and said unto them, Why 
herein is a marvellous thing, that ye know not from 
whence He is, and yet He hath opened mine eyes. 

31. Now we know that God heareth not sinners : 
but if any nian be a worshipper of God, and doetb 
His will, him He heareth. 

32. Since the world began was it not heard that 
any man opened the eyes of one that was born bhnd. 

33. If this man were not of God, he could do 

34. They answered and said unto him, Thou wast 
altogether born in sins, and dost thou teach us ? And 
they cast him out. 

Chjyg Chrys. The parents having referred the Pharisees to the 

Hom. healed raan hiraself, they sumraon him a second time : 

Iviii. 2. ^ J 

Then again called tUey the man that was blind. They do 

not opeuly say now, Deny that Christ has healed thee, but 

conceal their object under the pretence of religion : Give 

God the praise, i.e. confess that this man has had nothing 

Aug. Tr. to do with the work. Aug. Deny that thou hast received 

^ "■ *■ ' the benefit. This is not to give God the glory, but rather to 

blaspheme Him. Alcuin. They wished Him to give glory 

to God, by calling Christ a siniier, as they did : We knoiv 

Clirys. that this man is a sinner. Chrys. Why then did ye not 

kiir^ convict Him, when He said above, Which ofyou couvincefh 

c. 8, 46. 

VER. 24 — 34. ST. JOHN. 337 

Me of sin ? Alcuin. The man, tliat he might neither ex- 
pose himself to calumny, nor at the same time conceal the 
truth, answers not that he knew Him to be righteous, but, 
Whether He be a sinner or no, I knoio not. Chrys. But chrys. 
how comes this, whether He be a sinner, I know not, from ,^.°™'„ 
one who had said, He is a Prophet ? Did the blind fear? 
far from it : he only thought that our Lord's defence lay in 
the witness of the fact, more than in another's pleading. 
And he gives weight to his reply by the mention of the 
benefit he had received : One thing I know, that, whereas 
I was blind, now I see : as if to say, I say nothing as to 
whether He is a sinner ; but only repeat what I know for 
certain. So being unable to overturn the fact itself of the 
miracle, they fall back upon former arguments, and enquire 
the manner of the cure : just as dogs in huntiug pursue 
wherever the scent takes them : Then said they to him again, 
What did He do to thee ? Hoiv opened He thine eyes ? i.e. 
was it by any charm ? For they do not say, How didst 
thou see ? but, How opened He thine eyes ? to give the man 
an opportunity of detracting from tlie operation. So long 
now as the matter wanted examining, the bliud raan answcrs 
gently and quietly ; but, the victory being gained, he grows 
bolder; He answered them, I have iold you already, and ye 
did not hear : wherefore ivould ye hear it again ? i.e. Ye do 
not attend to what is said, and therefore I will no longcr 
answer you vain questions, put for thc sake of cavil, not to 
gain knowledge : Will ye also be His disciples? Aug. Wi/l Aug. Tt. 
ye also ? i.e. I am already, do ye wish to be? I see now, ^^'^* ^" ^'* 
but do not envy. He says this in indignation at the ob- 
stinacy of the Jews ; not tolerating blinduess, now that he is video, non 
uo longer bUnd himself. Chrys. As then truth is strength, i"video. 
so falsehood is weakness : truth elevates and ennobles whom- jjq^^" 
evcr it takes up, however mean before : falsehood brings Iviii, 2. 
even the strong to weakness and contempt. 

Then they reviled him and said, Thou art His disciple. 
Aug. A malediction only in the intention of the speakers, Aug. Tr. 
not in the words themselves. May such a malediction be (^oi56- 
upon us, and upon our children ! It follows : But we are miAtiVwe' 
Moses' disciples. We know that God spake unto Moses. But runt.Vuig. 
ye should have known, that our Lord was prophcsied of by 

VOL. IV. z 


c. 5, 46. Moses, after hearing what He said, Had ye believed Moses, 

ye would have helieved Me, for he wrote of Me. Do ye follow 

then a servant, and turn your back on the Lord? Even 

so, for it follows : As for this felloiv, we loiow not whence He 

Clirys. is. Chrys. Yc thiuk sight less evidence tlian hearing ; for 

jy-°|"g 3 what ye say, ye know, is what ye have heard from your 

fathers. But is uot He more worthy of beUef, who has 

certified that He comes from God, by miracles, which ye 

have uot heard only, but seen ? So argues the bliud man : 

The man answered and said, Why herein is a niarvellous 

thing, that ye know not whence He is, and yet Ile huth 

opened mine eyes. He brings in the miracle every where, 

as evidence which they could not invalidate: and, iuasmuch 

as they had said that a man that was a sinner could not do 

such miracles, he turns their own words against them ; Now 

we know that God heareth not siniiers ; as if to say, I quite 

Aug. Tr. agree with you in this opinion. Auo. As yet however He 

; ' ,' '■ ■ speaks as one but iust auointed', for God hcars sinners too. 

iiiunctus Else in vain vvould the pubUcan cry, God be nierciful to me 

oi|ui ur. ^ sinner. By that confession he obtained^ justification, as 

18, 13. the bUnd man had his sight. Theophyl. Or, that God 

ineruit }ieai'eth not sinners, means, that God does not enable sinners 

to work miracles. When sinuers however implure pardou 

for their offences, they are translated from the rauk of siuuers 

Chrys. to that of peuiteuts. Chrys. Observe then, vvhen he said 

Iviii. 3. above, Whether He be a sinner, I hiow not, it was not that 

he spoke in doubt ; for here he not ouly acquits Him of aU 

sin, but holds him up as one well pleasiug to God : But if 

any man be a norshijjper of God, and doeth His will, him 

IJe heareth. It is not enough to know God, we must do 

His wiU. Then He extols His deed ; Since the world be- 

gan, was it not heard that any man opened the eyes of one 

that was born hlind : as if to say, If ye confess that God 

heareth not sinners; and this Man has worked a miracle, 

such an one, as no other man has : it is manifest that the 

Tirtue whereby He has wrought it, is more than human : 

Am,^ Tr. 7/ this man were not of God, He could do nothing. Aug. 

Freely, stedfastly, truly. For how could what our Lord 

did, be done by any otiier thau God, or by disciples eveu, 

iioin. except when tlieir Lord dwelt in them ? Chrys. So theii 

viii. 3. 

xliv. 13 

VER. 35 — 41. ST. JOHN. 339 

because speaking the truth he was in nothing confounded, 
when they should most have admired, they condemned him : 
Thou wast altogether horn in sins, and dost thou teach us? 
AuG. What meaueth altogether ? That he was quite blind. Aug. Tr. 
Yet He who opened his eyes, also saves him altogether. ^' ' 
Chrys. Or, altogether, that is to say, from thy birth thou art Chrys. 
in sins. They reproach his blindness, and pronounce his ^^yu. 3. 
sins to be the cause of it; most unreasonably. So long as 
they expected him to dei)y the miracle, they were willing to 
believe him, but now they cast him out. Aug. It was they Aug. Tr. 
themselves who had made hira teacher; themselves, who ^ '^' ' 
had asked him so many questions; and now they ungrate- 
fully cast him out for teaching. Bede. It is commonly the 
way with great persons to disdain learning any thing from 
their inferiors. 

35. Jesus heard that they had cast him out ; and 
when He had found him, He said unto him, Dost thou 
believe on the Son of God ? 

36. He answered and said, Who is He, Lord, that 
I might believe on Him ? 

37. And Jesus said unto him, Thou hast both seen 
Him, and it is He that talketh with thee. 

38. And he said, Lord, I believe. And he wor- 
shippcd Him. 

39. And Jesus said, For judgment I am come into 
this world, that they which see not might see ; and 
that they which see might be made blind. 

40. And some of the Pharisees which were with 
Uim heard these words, and said unto Ilim, Are we 
blind also ? 

41. Jesus said unto them, If ye were blind, ye 
should have no sin : but now ye say, We see : there- 
fore your sin remaineth. 

Chrys. Those who suffer for the truth's sake, and con- Chrys. 
fession of Christ, come to greatest honour; as we see in the y^^"\\ 
instance of the bUnd man. For the Jews cast him out of 


de Triii 
circa fin. 


the temple, and the Lord of the temple found hira ; aiid re- 
ceived him as the judge doth the wrestler after his labours, 
and crowned hira : Jesus heard that they had cast him out; 
and when He had found him, He saith unto him, Dost thou he- 
lieve on the Son of God ? The Evangelist makes it plain that 
Jesus carae in order to say this to hira. He asks him, how- 
ever, not in ignorance, but wishing to reveal Himself to him, 
and to shew that He appreciated his faithj as if He said, 
The people have cast reproaches on Me, but I care not for 
thera ; one thing only I care for, that thou mayest bcHeve. 
Better is he that doeth the will of God, than ten thousand 
Hilar. vi. of thc wickcd. HiLARY. If any mcre confcssion whatsocver 
of Clirist were the perfection of faith, it would have been 
said, Dost thou believe in Christ ? But inasrauch as all here- 
tics would have had this narae in their mouths, confessing 
Christ, and yet denying the Son, that wliich is true of Christ 
alone, is required of our faith, viz. that we should believe in 
the Son of God. But what availeth it to believe on the Son 
of God as being a creature, when we are required to have 
faith in Christ, not as a creature of God, but as the Son of 
Chrys. God. Chrys. But the blind raan did not yet know Christ, 
nx."i'. for before he went to Christ he was blind, and after his cure, 
he was taken hold of by the Jews : He ansivered and said, 
Who is He, Lord, that I might helieve on Him ? The speech 
this of a longing and enquiring mind. He knows not who 
He is for whom he had contended so much ; a proof to thee 
of his love of truth. The Lord however says not to him, I 
am He who healed thee ; but uses a middle way of speaking, 
Thou hast hoth seen Him. Theophyl. This He says to re- 
mind him of his cure, which had given him the power to see. 
And observe, He that speaks is born of Mary, and the Son 
is the Son of God, not two different Persons, according to 
the error of Nestorius : And it is He that talketh with thee. 
Aufr Tr AuG. First, He washes tlie face of his heart. Then, his 
xliv. 15. ]^gj^^,^'g face being washed, and his conscience cleansed, he 
acknowledges Him as not only the Son of raan, which he 
believed before, but as the Son of God, Who had taken flesh 
upon Hira : And he said, Lord, I helieve. L helieve, is a small 
thing. Wouldest thou see what he beheves of Him? And 
Vulgate. falling down, he ivorshipped Hini. Bede. An example to u^, 

VER. 35 41. ST. JOIIN. 341 

not to pray to God with uplifted nect, but prostrate upoii 
earth, suppliantly to implore His mercy. Chrys. He adds Chrys. 
the deed to the word, as a clear ackuowledgraent of His y^^™{ 
divine power. The Lord replies iu a way to confirm His 
faith, and at the same time stirs up the minds of His fol- 
lowers : And Jesus said, For judgment have I come into tJiis 
world. AuG. The day then was divided between light and Aug. Tr. 
darkness. So it is rightly added, that they which see not, ' ' ' 
may see ; for He relievcd men from darkness. But what is 
that which follows : And that they which see might be made 
blind. Hear what comes next. Some of the Pharisees were 
moved by these words : And some of the Pliarisees which 
were with Him heard these words, and said unto Him, Are 
ive blind also ? What had moved them were the words, And 
that they which see mifjht be made blind. It follows; Jesus 
saith unto them, If ye were blind, ye should have no sin ; i.e. 
If ye called yourselves bhnd, aud ran to the physician. Bui 
now ye say, JFe see ; therefore your sin remaineth : for in that 
saying, JFe see, ye seek uot a pliysician, ye shall reniain iii 
your blindness. This then which He has just before said, / 
came, that they that see not migJit see ; i.e. they who confess 
tliey cannot see, and scek a physician, in order that they 
raay see : and that they which see not may be made bHud ; 
i.e. they which think they can see, aud seek not a physician, 
may remain in their bhuduess. This act of division Ile calls 
judgment, saying, For judgment have I come into tJiis world : 
not that judgment by which IIc will judge quick and dead 
at the eud of the world, Ciirys. Ov, for judgment, Ile saith ; Chrys. 
i. e. for greatcr punisliment, shewing that they who con- j ""• 
demned Him, were the very ones who were condemned. 
Respecting what He says, tJiat thcy wJiicJi see not migJit see, 
and tJiat they wJiicJi see migJtt be made blind; it is the same 
wiiich St. Paul says, The Gentiles wJiicJi follotced not after Rom. 9, 
riuhteousness, Jiave attained to righteousness, even tJie rigJite- ' 

ousness wJiicJi is of faitJi. But Israel, ichicJi foUowed after 
the law of righteousness, JiatJi not attained to tJie law ofrightC' 
ousness. Tiieophyl. As if to say, Lo, he that saw not from 
his birth, now sees both in body and soul; whereas thcy 
who seem to see, have had their understanding darkened. 
Chrys. For there is a twofold vision, and a twofold blind- jj',^,^^" 

lis. I. 


ness ; viz. tliat of sense, and that of the understanding. But 
they were intent only on sensible things, and were asharaed 
only of sensible blindness ; wherefore He shews them that 
it would be better for them to be blind, than seeing so : IJ 
ye were blind, ye should have no sin; your punishment woukl 
be easier; But now ye say, We see. Theophyl. Overlook- 
ing the miracle wrought on the blind man, ye deserve no 
pardon ; since even visible miracles make no impression on 
Chrys. you. Chrys. What theu they thought their great praise, 
Yix^l, 2. -^0 shews would turn to their punishment ; and at the same 
time consoles him who had been afflicted with bodily blind- 
ness from his birth. For it is not without reason that the 
Evangelist says, And some of the Pharisees which were with 
him heard these words ; but that he may remind us that 
those were the very persons who had first withstood Christ, 
and then wished to stone Hira. For therc were some who 
only followed in appearance, and were easily changed to the 
contrary side. Theophyl. Or, if ye were bhnd, i.e. igno- 
rant of the Scriptures, your offence would be by no raeans 
so heavy a one, as erring out of ignorancc : but now, seeing 
ye call yourselves wise and understauding in the law, your 
own selves condemn you. 


1. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that entercth 
not by the door into the sheepfold, but cHmbeth up 
some other way, the same is a thief and a robber. 

2. But He that entereth in by the door is the 
shepherd of the sheep. 

3. To Oim the porter openeth ; and the sheep hear 
His voice : and He calleth His own sheep by name, 
and lcadcth them out. 

4. And when He putteth forth His own sheep, He 
goeth before them, and the sheep follow Him : for 
they know His voice. 

5. And a strangcr will they not follow, but will fiee 
from him : for they know not the voice of strangers. 

CiiiiYS. Our Lord having rcproached the Jews with blind- Chrys, 
ness, they might have said, We are not bhnd, but we avoid , ""i 
Thee as a deceiver. Our Lord therefore gives the marks 
which distinguish a robbcr and deceiver from a true sliep- 
berd. First conie those of tiie dcceiver and robber : Verily, 
verily, I say unto you, He that entereth not by the door into 
the sheepfold, but climbeth up some other way, the same is 
a thief and a robber. Thcre is an allusion hcre to Antichrist, 
and to certain faise Ciirists, who had been, and were to be. 
The Scriptures He calls the door. They adrait us to the 
knowlcdge of God, they protect the sheep, they shut out 
the wolves, they bar the entrance to heretics. He that 
useth not the Scriptures, but climbcth up some other way, 
i.e. some sclf-cliosen ', some unlawful way, is a thief. Climbctli i ^Tfpay 
up, Ile says, not enters, as if it were a thief getting over a *°"'^'if 
wall, and runniug all risks. Soine other way, may refer too 


to the commandments and traditious of men which the 
Scribes taught, to the neglect of the Law. When our 
Lord further on calls Himself the Door, we need not be 
surprised. According to the office wliich Ile bears, He is 
in one place the Shepherd, in anothcr the Sheep. In that 
He introduces us to the Father, Ile is the Door ; in that 
Aug. Tr. He takes care of us, He is the Shepherd. Aug. Or thus : 
e/seq*. Many go under the name of good men according to the 
standard of the world, and observe in some sort the cora- 
raandments of the Law, who yet are not Christians. And 
these generally boast of themselves, as the Pharisees did ; 
Are we hlind also ? But inasmuch as all that they do thcy 
do foolishly, without knowing to what end it tends, our 
Lord saith of them, Verily, verily, I say unto you^ Ile tfiat 
entereth not by the door into the sheepfold, but cUmbeth up 
some other way, the same is a thicf and a robber. Let the 
Pagans then, the Jews, the Heretics, say, " We lead a good 
life ;" if they enter not by the door, what availeth it ? A good 
life only profiteth, as leading to life eternal. Indeed those 
cannot be said to lead a good life, who are either blindly 
ignorant of, or wilfully despise, the end of good living. No 
one can hope for eternal life, who knows not Christ, who is 
the life, and by that door entcrs into the fold. Whoso 
wisheth to enter into the sheepfold, let hira enter by the 
door; let him preach Christ; let him seek Christ's glory, 
not his own. Christ is a lowly door, and he who enters by 
this door must be lowly, if he would enter with his head 
whole. He that doth not humble, but exalt himself, who 
wishes to cHmb up over the wall, is exalted that he may falh 
Such men generally try to persuade others that they may live 
well, and not be Christians. Thus they chmb up by some 
other way, that they may rob and kill. They are thieves, 
because they call that their own, which is not ; robbers, be- 
f''"")"'. cause that which they have stolen, they kill. Chrys. You 
lix. 2*. have seen His description of a robber, now see that of the 
Shepherd : But Ile that entereth in by the door is the shep- 
Aup, herd of the sheep. Aug. He enters by the door, who enters 
Dom. by Christ, who imitates the suffering of Christ, who is ac- 
^jY'"* quainted with the humility of Christ, so as to feel and know, 
that if God became man for us, man should not thiuk him- 

VER. 1 5. ST. JOHN. 345 

self God, but man. He who being man wishes to appear 
God, does not iraitate Him, who being God, became man. 
Thou art bid to think less of thyself than thou art, but to 
know what thou art. 

To Ilim the porter openetJi. Chrys. The porter perhaps Cbrys, 
is Moses: for to him the oracles of God were coraraitted. ,°"'„ 

' xhx. 2. 

Theophyl. Or, the Holy Spirit is the porter, by whom the 
Scriptures are unlocked, and reveal tlie truth to us. Aug. Aupr. Tr. 
Or, the porter is our Lord Himself; for there is much less ^ ^' ' 
difference between a door and a porter, than between a door 
and a shepherd. And He has called Himself both the door 
and the shepherd. Why then not the door and the porter ? 
He opens Himself, i.e. reveals^ Himself. If thou seek an- i cxponit 
other person for portcr, take the Holy Spirit, of whom our 
Lord below saith, He will guide you into all truth. The c. 16, 13. 
door is Christ, tlieTruth; who openeth the door, but He 
that will yuide you into all Truth ? AVhomsoever thou 
understand here, beware that thou esteera not tlie porter 
greater than the door ; for in our houses the porter ranks 
above the door, not the door above the porter. Chrys. As Chrys. 
they had called Him a dcceiver, and appealcd to their own jj^""^ 
unbelief as thc proof of it; [JJliich of the rulers believeth c.Jt^iS. 
on Him ?) He shews here that it was because they refused 
to hear llim, that they were put out of His flock. The 
sheep hear Ilis voice. The Shcphcrd cnters by the lawful 
door; and they who follow Him are His sheep ; they who 
do not, vohmtarily put themselves out of His flock. 

And Ile calleth Ilis oivn shecp by name. Aug. He knew Aug. Tr. 
the uatiies of the predestinated; as llc saith to His disciplcs, "'^* ^"^- 
Rejoice that your names are written in heaven. Luke 

And leadeth them out. Chrys. Ile led out the shecp, ' ' 

' Lhrys. 

•when Ile scnt them not out of the reach of, but into the Hom. 
midst of, the wolves. Therc seems to be a secret allusion to '^* * 
the blind man. He called him out of the midst of the Jews ; 
and hc hcard His voicc. Aug. And who is He who leads Ang. Tr. 
them out, but the Same who looscns the chain of their sins, ^ ^' ' 
that they may follow Him with free unfettered step? Gloss. 
And ivhen Ile putteth forth His oivn sheep, Ile goeth before 
them, He leudeth them out frora the darkucss of igiio- 
rauce iuto light, while Ile goeth before in the pillar of cloud, 


Chrys. and fire. Chrys. Shepherds always go behind their sheep ; 
lix '•) ^^^ ^^> ^^ ^^^ contrary, goes before, to shew that He would 
Auj;. Tr. lead all to the truth. Aug. And who is this that goeth 
xiv. c. 14. |3gfQj.g ^^Q sheep, but He who being raised from the dead^ 
iiifra ' dieth no more ; and who said, Father, I will also that they, 
^^' ^*" whom Thou hast given Me, be with Me where I am ? 

And the shecp follow Him, for they knoio His voice. And 

a stranger will they not follow, but will flee from him ; for 

Chrys. thcy know not the voice of strangers. Chrys. The strangers 

^Hx'3 ^^^ Tlieudas, and Judas, and the false apostles, who carae 

after Christ. That He might not appear one of this nuraber, 

He gives raany raarks of difference between Hira and them. 

First, Christ brought raen to Hira by teaching thera out 

of the Scriptures ; they drew raen from the Scriptures. 

Secondly, the obedience of the sheep ; for men believed 

on Him, not only during His life, but after death : their 

followers ceased, as soon as they were gone. Theophyl. 

He alludes to Antichrist, who shall deceive for a time, but 

Aiig. Tr. lose all his followers when he dies. Aug. But here is a dif- 

xiv. jo, ficulty. Sometiracs thcy who are not sheep hear Christ'8 

ei seq. j j 1 

voice; for Judas heard, who was a wolf. And soraetimes 

the sheep hear llira not ; for they who crucified Christ 

heard not ; yet sorae of thera wcre His sheep. You will 

say, While they did not hear, they were not sheep; tlie 

voice, when they heard it, changed thera frora wolves to 

sheep, Still I ara disturbed by the Lord's rebuke to the 

Eztk. shepherds in Ezekiel, Neither have ye brought again that 

^'' '^- which strayed. He calls it a stray sheep, but yet a sheep 

all the while ; though, if it strayed, it could not have heard 

the voice of the Shepherd, but the voice of a stranger. 

2 Tim. What I say then is this ; The Lord knoweth them that are 

2 19. . 

His. He knoweth the foreknown, He knoweth the pre- 
destinated. They are the sheep : for a tirae they know not 
themselves, but the Shepherd knows them ; for many sheep 
are without the fold, many wolves within. He speaks then 
of the predestiuated. And now the difficulty is solved. Tlie 
sheep do hear the Shepherd's voice, and they only. When 
Matt. 10, is that? It is when that voice saith, He that endureth to the 
end shall be saved. This speech His owu hear, the alieu 
hear not. 

VER. 6 10. ST. JOHN. 347 

6. This parable spake Jesus unto them : but they 
understood not what things they were which He spake 
unto them. 

AuG. Our Lord feedeth by plain words, exerciseth by ob- ut sup. 
scure. For when two persons, one godly, the other ungodly, 
hear the words of the Gospel, and they happen to be such 
that neither can understand them ; one says, What He saith 
is true and good, but we do not understand it : the other 
says, It is not worth attending to. The forraer, in faith, 
knocks, yea, and, if he continue to knock, it shall be opened 
unto him. The latter shall hear the words in Isaiah, If ye 
will not believe, surely ye shall not be established '. Isa. 7. f). 

^ non in- 

7. Then said Jesus unto them again, Verily, verily, ^11^^"^ 
I say unto you, I am the door of the sheep. u°an?buis 

8. AU that ever came before Me are thieves and Vuig. 
robbers : but the sheep did not hear them. 

9. I am the door : by Me if any man enter in, he 
shall be saved, and shall go in and out, and find 

10. The thief comcth not, but for to steal, and to 
kill, and to destroy : I am come that they might have 
life, and that they might have it more abundantly. 

Chrys. Our Lord, to waken the attention of the Jews, Chrys, 
unfolds the meaning of what Ile has said; Then said Jesus y^^^ g' 
unto them again, Verily, verily, I say unto you, I am the door 
of the sheep. Aug. Lo, the very door which He had shut Aug. Tr. 
up, He openeth ; He is the Door : let us enter, and let us ^ ^" ' 
euter with joy. 

All that ever came before Me are thieves and robbers. 
CnRYS. He saith not this of the Prophets, as the heretics ciirys. 
think, but of Theudas, and Judas, and other agitators. So ,^"'"' 

' _ _ ' ' ° lix. 3. 

He adds in praise of the sheep, The sheep heard them not ; 
but Ile no where praises those who disobeyed the prophets, 
but condemns them severely. Aug. Uuderstand, All that Aupr. Tr. 
ever at variance with Me. The Prophets were not at "^ "' ^* 
variance^ with Him. They came w^ith Ilim, who came with -praeter 


the Word of God, vvho spake the truth. He, the Word, the 
Truth, sent heralds before Him, but the hearts of those 
whom He sent were His own. They came with Hira, inas- 
much as He is always, though He assuraed the flesh in time : 
In the beginning tcas the Word, His humble advent in the 
flesh was preceded by just men, who believed on Him as 
about to come, as we believe ou Him corae. The times are 
different, the faith is the same. Our faith knitteth together 
both those who beKeved that He was about to come, and 
those who beheve that He has come. AU that ever came 
at variance with Him were thieves and robbers ; i. e. they 
came to steal and to kill ; but the sheep did not hear them. 
They had not Christ's voice; but vvere wanderers, dreamers, 
deceivers. "Why He is the Door, He next explains, / am the 
Door ; by Me if any man enter in he shail be saved. Al- 
cuiN. As if to say, The sheep hear not them, but Me they 
hear; for I am the Door, and whoever cnteretli by Me not 
falsely but in siucerity, shall by perseverance be saved. 
Theopiiyl, The door admits the shecp into the pasture; 
And shall go in and out, and Jind pasture. What is this 
pasture, but the happiness to come, the rest to which our 

Anp:. Tr. Lord brings us? Aug. What is this, shall go i7i and out ? 

■ To enter into the Church by Christ the Door, is a very good 

thing, but to go out of the Church is not. Going in must 

refer to inward cogitation ; going out to outward action ; as 

rs.103,24. in the Psalm, Man goeth forth to his work. Theophyl. Or, 

Colos. 3. to go in is to watch over the inner man ; to go out, to mor- 
tify the outward man, i.e. our members which are upon the 
earth. He that doth this shall find pasture in the life to 

ciirys. come. Chuys. Or, He refers to the Apostles who went in 

?ix "3 ^'^^ ^^*" ^^°^^b' i ^OJ^ they became the raasters of the world, 
none could turn them out of their kingdom, and they found 

Aug. Tr. pasture. Aug. Dut He Himself exphuus it more satisfac- 

xiv. \o. torily to me in what follows : The thief cometh not, but for to 
steal, and for to Jdll : I am come that they might have life, 
and that they might have it more abundantly. By going in 
they have life ; i. e. by faith, which worketh by love ; by 

'vivit which faith they go into the fold. The just liveth^ by faith. 

Heb^ 10 "^^^ ^^ going out they will have it nwre abundantly : i. e. 

38. when true believers die, they have life more abundantly, 

VER. 11 13. ST. JOHN. 349 

even a life which never ends. Though in this fold there is 
not wanting pasture, then they will find pasture, such as 
will satisfy them. To-day shalt thou be tvith Me in paradise. Lake 23, 
Greg. Shall go in, i. e. to faith : shall go out, i.e. to siglit : ^-^' 
and find pasture, i.e. in eternal fulness. Alcuin. The ^//«V/super 
cometh not hut for to steal, and to kill. As if He said, And Hom! xiii. 
well may the sheep not hcar the voice of the thief ; for he 
cometh not but for to steal : he usurpeth another's ofiice, 
forming his followers not on Christ's preccpts, but on his 
own. And therefore it follows, and to kill, i.e. by drawing 
them from the faith; and to destroy, i.e. by their eternal 
damnation. CaRYS. The thief cometh not hut for to steal, Chrys. 
and to kill, and io destroy ; this was literally fulfiiled in the ,j^"J' 
case of those movers of scdition % whose followers were ncarly 
all destroyed ; deprived by the thief even of this present lifc. 
But came, Ile saitli, for the salvation of the sheep; That 
they might have li/e, and that they might have it more 
ahundantiy, in thc kingdom of heaven. Tliis is thc tliird 
mark of difl^erencc bctwecn Ilimself, and the false prophcts. 
Theophyl. Mystically, tlic thief is the devil, stcals by wicked 
thoughts, kills by the asscut of the niind to tliem, aud de- 
stroys by acts. 

1 1 . I am the good sbepherd : thc good shephcrd 
giveth his life for the shecp. 

12. But he that is an hireHng, and not thc shep- 
hcrd, whose own the sheep are not, seeth the wolf 
coming, and leaveth the shecp, and ficcth : and the 
vvolf eatcheth them, and scaltcrcth tlic shcep. 

13. The hireling flecth, beeause he is an hireUng, 
and careth not for the sheep. 

AuG. Our Lord has acquainted us with two things which Aug. Tr. 
were obscure before ; first, tliat Ile is the Door ; and now 
again, that Hc is the Shcphcrd : / am the good Shepherd. 
Above Ile said that the shepherd entered by the door. If c. xlvii, 1. 
Ile is the Door, how doth Ile enter by Ilimself ? Just as 
Ile knows the Fatbcr by Ilimself, and we by Ilim ; so Ile 
entcrs into the fold by Ilimsclf, and we by Ilim. We enter 

" Tlieudcis, Judas, ineiitioncd above. 


by the door, because we preacli Christ ; Christ preaches 
Himself. A light shews both other things, aad itself too. 

Tr. xliv. 5. There is but one Shepherd. For though the rulers of the 
Church, those who are her sons, and not hirelings, are shep- 

Tr.xlvii.3. hcrds, thcy are all members of that one Shepherd. His office 
of Shepherd He had permitted His members to bear. Peter 
is a shepherd, and all the other Apostles : all good Bishops 
are shepherds. But none of us calleth himself the door. 
He could not have added good, if there were not bad shep- 
herds as well. Tliey are thieves and robbers ; or at least 

forma mercenaries. Greg. And He adds what that goodness is, 

Gtcs. '^ ^^^ ^^^" iniitation : The good Shepherd giveth His life for 

Hom. xiv. the sheep. He did what He bade, He set the example of 
what He comraanded : He laid down His life for the sheep, 
that He raight convert His body and blood in our Sacra- 
ment, and feed with His flesh the sheep He had redeeraed. 
A path is shewn us wherein to walk, dcspisiug death ; a starap 
is applied to us, and we raust submit to the impression. 
Our first duty is to spend our outward possessions upon the 
sheep ; our hist, if it be necessary, is to sacrifice our life for 
the sarae sheep. Whoso dotli not give his substance to the 

Aii^. Tr. sheep, how can he lay dovvn his life for thera ? Aug. Christ 
was not the only one who did this. And yet if they who 
did it are raembers of Him, one aud the same Christ did it 
always. He was able to do it without thera ; they were not 

Au?. without Him. Aug. All these however were good sheu- 

de Verb. . 

Dom. * herds, not because they shed their blood, but because they 

Serm. 1. ^[^ [^ foj. ^j^g shecp. For they shed it not in pride, but in 
love. Should any among the heretics sufi^er trouble in con- 
sequence of their errors and iniquities, they forthwith boast 
of their martyrdom ; that they may be the better able to steal 
under so fair a cloak : for they are in reality wolves. But not 
all who give their bodies to be burned, are to be thought to 
shed their blood for the sheep ; rather against the sheep ; for 

lCor.13,3. the Apostle saith, Though I give my body to be burned, and 
have not charity, it profiteth me nothing. Aud how hath he 

convictus even the smallest charity, who does not love connexion with 
Christians? to coramand which, our Lord did not raention 

Chrys. mauy shepherds, but one, / flA/i /Ae oooof /S/jewAer^. Chrys. 

Ix. 5. Our Lord shews here that He did not undergo His passiou 

VER. 11 — 13. ST. JOHN, 351 

uuwillingly ; but for the salvatioa of the world. Ile then 
gives the difFerence between the shepherd and the hireling : 
But he that is an Idreling, and not the shepherd, whose own 
the sheep are not, seeth the wolf coming, and leaveth the 
sheej), and fleeth. Greg. Some there are who love earthly Gre». 
possessions more thau the sheep, and do not deserve the j,]"™' '" 
name of a shepherd. Ile who feeds the Lord's flock for the xiv. 
sake of temporal hire, and not for h)ve, is an hirchng, not 
a shepherd. An hirehug is he who holds the place of shep- 
herd, but seeketh not the gaiu of souls, who panteth afler 
the good things of earth, and rejoiccs iu the pride of station. , 

AuG. He seeketh therefore in the Church, not God, but Ausr. 
something else. If he sought God he would be chaste; for j)^,„„_ 
the soul hath but one lawful husband, God. Whoever seek- Senn.xlix 
eth from God any thing beside God, seeketh unchastely. 
GiiEG. But whcther a mau be a shcphcrd or au hirehng, Greg;. 
cannot be told for certain, e.xcept in a time of triah lu pvang. 
tranquil times, the hirehng generally staiids watch like the ^'v- 
shepherd. But when the wolf comes, then every one shews 
with what spirit he stood watch over the flock. Aug. The Aug. 
wolf is the devil, and they that follow him ; accordiug to ^^^^^ 
Matthew, Which conie to you in sheep^s clothing, but inwardly Si nn.xiix, 
they are ravening wolves. Aug. Lo, the wolf hath seized ^ '* ' ^" 
a sheep by the throat, the devil hath enticed a man into xivT 8. 
adultery. Tlie sinner must be excoramunicated. But if he 
is excommunicatcd, he will be an enemy, lie will plot, he 
will do as much harm as he can. Wherefore thou art silent, 
thou dost uot censure, thou hast seen the wolf coming, and 
flcd. Thy body has stood, thy miud has fled. For as juy 
is relaxation, sorrow coutraction, desire a reaching forward 
of the mind ; so fear is the flight of the mind. Greg. Tiie Greg. 
wolf too comcth upon the shcep, whenever any spoiler aud j^y"),' '" 
unjust persou oppresses the hurable belicvers. And he who xiv. 
seems to be shepherd, but leaves the sheep and flees, is he 
who darcs not to resist liis violence, from fear of dauger to 
himself. Ile flees not by changing place, but by withhold- 
ing consolatiou frora his flock. The hireling is inflanied 
with no zcal against this injustice. He only looks to out- 
ward comforts, and overlouks the internal suffcring of his 
flock. Thc hireliiig Jlccth, becaasc he is an hircling, and 


careth notfor the sheep. The only reason that the hireling 

fleeth, is because he is an hireling ; as if to say, He cannot 

stand at the approach of danger, who doth not love the 

sheep that he is set over, but seeketh earthly gain. Such 

an one dares not face danger, for fear he should lose what 

Auf;. Tr. hc so uiuch loves. AuG. But if the Apostles were shep- 

^ ^'" ' herds, not hirelings, why did they flee in persecution ? And 

Matt. 10, why did our Lord say, fVheti they persecute you in this city, 

flee ye into another ? Let us knock, then will come one, 

Aug. ad who will explain. Aug. A servant of Christ, and minister 

Ep"clxxx. ^^ ^^^ Word and Sacraments, may flee from city to city, 

when he is specially aimed at by the persecutors, apart from 

his brethren; so that his flight does not leave the Ciiurch 

destitute. But when all, i. e. Bishops, Clerics, and Laics, 

are in danger in common, let uot those who need assistance 

be deserted by those who should give it. Let all flee toge- 

ther if they can, to some place of security ; but, if any are 

obliged to stay, let them not be forsaken by those who are 

bound to minister to their spiritual wants. Then, under 

pressiug persecution, may Christ's rainisters flee frora the 

place where tliey are, when none of Christ's people remain 

to be ministered to, or when that ministry may be fulfilled 

by others who have not the same cause for flight. But wheu 

the people stay, and the ministers flee, and the miuistry 

ceases, what is this but a damnable flight of hirelings, who 

Au^.Tr. care not for the sheep? Aug. Ou the good side are the 

door, the porter, the shepherd, and the sheep ; on the bad, 

Aug. the thieves, the robbers, the hirelings, the wolf. Aug. We 

de Verb. ° 

Dom. raust love the shepherd, beware of the wolf, tolerate the 

s. xhx. hirehng. For the hireling is useful so long as he sees not 

the wolf, the thief, and the robber. When he sees them, he 

Aug, Tr. flees. AuG. Indeed he would not be an hireling, did he not 

^^ g' * receive wages from the hirer. Sons wait patiently for the 

eternal inheritance of their father ; the hirelir.g looks eagerly 

for the temporal wages from his hirer ; and yet the tongues 

of both speak abroad the glory of Christ. The hireling 

hurteth, in that he doeth wrong, not in that he speaketh 

rigiit: the grape bunch hangeth amid thorns; pluck tlie 

grape, avoid tlie thorn. Many that seek temporal advantages 

in the Church, preach Christ, and through them Christ's 

VER. 14 — 21, ST. JonN, 353 

voice is heard ; and the sheep follow not the hireling, but 
the voice of the Shepherd heai i through the hireling. 

14. I am the good shepherd, and know My sheep, 
and am knovvn of Mine. 

15. As the Father knoweth Me, even so know I the 
Father : and I lay down My life for the sheep. 

16. And other sheep I have, which are not of this 
fold : them also I must bring, and they shall hear 
My voice ; and there shall be one fold, and one 

1 7. Therefore doth My Father love Me, because 
I lay down My life, that I might take it again. 

18. No man taketh it from Me, but I lay it down 
of Myself. I liave power to lay it down, and I have 
power to take it again. This commandiiient have 
I received of My Father. 

19. There was a division therefore again among the 
Jews for these sayings. 

20. And many of them said, He hath a devil, and 
is mad ; why hear ye Him ? 

21. Others said, These are not the words of him 
that hath a dcviL Can a dcvil o])en the eyes of the 
blind ? 

CiiRYs, Two evil persons have been mentioned, one that ciirys. 

Ix. 1. 

kills, and robs the sheep, another that doth not hinder : the '"' 

one standing for those movers of seditions ; the other for the 
rulers of the Jevvs, vvho did not take care of the shecp com- 
mitted to them. Christ distinguishes Himself from both ; 
from the one who came to do hurt bj saving, / am come that 
they might have Ufe ; from those who overlook the rapine of 
the wolves, by saying that He giveth His hfe for the sheep. 
Wherefore He saith again, as He said before, I am the good 
Shepherd. And as He had said above that the sheep heard 
the voice of the Shepherd and followed Him, that no one 
might have occasion to ask, What sayest Thou then of those 
that believe not ? He adds, And I knoiv My sheep, and am 

VOL. IV. A a 


Rom. known of Mine, As Paul too saitli, God hath not cast away 

11, 12. His people, whom He forekneiv. Gkeg. As if He saiJ, I love 

Hom' in ^^J slieep, and they love and follow Me. For he who loves 

Evang. jjq{; ^ijg truth, is as vet very far from knowinoj it. Theo- 

PHYL. Ilence the difFerence of the hireling and the Shepherd. 

The hireling does not know his sheep, because he sees thera 

so little. The Shepherd knows Ilis sheep, because He is so 

Chrys. attractive to them. Chrys. Then that thou mayest not 

lx°T attribute to the Shepherd and the sheep the sarae measure 

of knowledge, Ile adds, As the Father knowcth Me, even so 

know I the Father : i. e. I know Him as certainly as He 

knoweth Me. This then is a case of like knowledge, the 

Luke 10, other is not; as He saith, No man knoiveth wlio the Son is, 

2^* but the Father. Greg. And I lay down My life for My 

Hom. in sheep. As if to saj', This is why I know My Father, and ara 

Evang. known by the Fatlier, because I hiy dowa My life for My 

shecp ; i. e. by My love for My sheep, I shew how much 

Chrys. I lovc My Fathcr. Chkys. He gives it too as a proof of 

Hom. jjjg authority. In the same way the Apostle maintains his 

own commission in opposition to the false Apostles, by enu- 

merating his dangers and sufferings. Theophyl. For the 

deceivers did not expose their livcs for the sheep, but, like 

infr. 18, 8. hirelings, descrtcd their followers. Our Lord, on the other 

Greg. hand, protected His disciples : Let these go their way. Greg. 

j^jy'"' But as He came to redeera not only the Jews, but the Gen- 

tiles, Ile adds, And other sheep I have, which are not of this 

Aug. fold. AuG. The sheep hitherto spoken of are those of the 

Dom^si stock of Israel according to the flesh. But there were others 

of the stock of Israel, according to faith, Gentiles, who were 

as yet out of the fold ; predestinated, but not yet gathered 

together. They are not of this fold, because they are not of 

the race of Israel, but they will be of this fold : Them also 

Chrys. / niust hrhig. Chkys. What wonder that these should hear 

J^"'"" My voice, and foUow Me, when others are waiting to do the 

sarae. Both these flocks are dispersed, and without shep- 

herds ; for it follows, And they shall hear My voice. And 

then He foretells their future union : And there shall be one 

Greg. fold and one Shepherd. Greg. Of two flocks He maketh 

Evlno'. ^^^ ^°^^' uiiiting the Jews and Gentiles in His faith. 

xiv. Theophyl. For there is one sign of baptism for all, and one 

VER, 14 — 21. ST. JOIIN. 355 

Shepherd, even the "Word of God. Let the Manichean 
niark : there is but one fold aud one Shepherd set forth 
both in the Old and New Testaments. Aug. What does Aupr. Tr. 
He mean then when He savs, / ani not sent but unto the lost "^/"' " 

• Mat. 15, 

sheep of the house of Israel ? Only, that whereas He mani- 24. 
festcd Ilimself personally to the Jews, Ile did not go Him- 
self to the Gentilcs, but sent others. Chrys. The word must Chrys. 
here {I must bring) does not signify necessity, but only that j^"'"' 
the thing woukl take place. Therefore doth ATi/ Father love 
Me, because I lay down My life, that I might take it again. 
They had called Ilim an alien from His Father. Aug. i. e. Au?. Tr. 
Eecause I die, to rise again. Tliere is great force in, / lay ^ ^"' 
down. Let not the Jews, Ile says, boast ; rage they may, but 
if I should not choose to lay down My life, what will they do 
by raging? Theophyl. Tlie Father does not bestow Ilis 
love on the Son as a reward for the death He suifered in 
our behalf ; but He loves Him, as beholding in the Begotten 
Ilis own essence, whence proceeded such love for mankind. 
Chrys. Or Ile says, in condcscension to our weakness, Clirys. 
Though there were nothing else which made Me love you, j^^"^ 
this would, that ye are so loved by My Father, that, by 
dying for you, I shall win Ilis love. Not that Ile was not 
loved by the Fathcr before, or that we are the cause of such 
love. For the same purpose He shews that He does not 
come to Ilis Passion unwilHngly : No man taketh it from 
Me, but Ilay it down of Mysclf Aug. "Wlierein Ile shewed Aug. 
that His natural death was not the consequence of sin in Trjn^c. 
Him, but of Ilis own simple will, which was the why, the xxxviii. 
when, and the how : / Jtave power to lay it cloion. Chrys. chrys. 
As they had often plotted to kill Hira, He tells them their j'^"'^* 
efforts will be useless, unlcss Ile is willing. I have such 
power over My own Ufe, that no one can take it from Me, 
against My will. This is not true of men. We have not the 
power of laying down our own Hves, except wc put ourselves 
to death. Our Lord alone has this power. Aud this being 
true, it is true also that He can take it again when He 
pleases : And I have power to take it again : which words 
declare beyond a doubt a resurrection. That they might not 
think His death a sign that God had forsaken Him Ile 
adds, This commandment have I received from My Father ; 

A a 2 


i. e. to lay down My life, and take it again. By which we 
must not understand that He first waited to hear this com- 
mandment, and had to learn His work ; He only shews that 
that work which He voluntarily undertook, was not against 
the Father's wiU. Theophyl. He only means His perfect 
as:reetnent with His Father. Alcuin. For the Word doth 
not receive a command by word, but containeth in Himself 
all the Father's commandments. When the Son is said to 
receive what He possesseth of Himself His power is not 
lessened, but only His generation declared. The Father 
gave the Son every thing in begetting Him. He begat Him 
perfect. Theophyl. After declaring Himself the Master of 
His own Hfe and death, which was a lofty assumption, He 
makes a more humble confession ; thus wonderfully uniting 
both characters ; shewing that He was neither inferior to or 
a slave of the Father on the one hand, nor an antagonist on 
Ausr. Tr. the other; but of the same power and wilh Aug. How doth 
our Lord lay down His own life ? Christ is the Word, and 
maUj i. e. in soul and body. Doth the Word lay down His 
life, and take it again ? or doth the human soul, or doth 
the flesh ? If it was the Word of God that laid down His 
^vxii, soul ^ and took it again, that soul was at one time separated 
from the Word. But, though death separated the soul and 
body, death could not separate the word and the soul. It is 
still more absurd to say that the soul laid down itself; if it 
could not be separated from the Word, how could it be from 
itself ? The flesh therefore layeth down its life and taketh it 
again, not by its own power, but by the power of the Word 
which dwelleth in it. This refutes the Apolhnarians, who 
say that Christ had not a human, rational soul. Alcuin. 
But the light shined in darkness, and the darkness compre- 
hended it not. There was a division among ihe Jews for 
these sayings. And many of them said, He hath a devil, and 
Chrys. is mad. Chkys. Because He spoke as one greater than man, 
Ix. 3. they said He had a devil. But that He had not a devil, 
others proved from His works : Others said, These are not 
the vjords of him that hath a devil. Can a devil open the eyes 
of the blind ? As if to say, Not even the words themselves 
are those of one that hath a devil ; but if the M'ords do not 
convince you, be persuaded by the works. Our Lord having 


VER. 22 — 30. ST. JOHN. 357 

already given proof who He was by His works, was silent. 
They were unworthy of an answer. Indeed, as they dis- 
agreed araongst theraselves, an answer was unnecessary. 
Their opposition only brought out, for our iraitation, our 
Lord's geutleness, and long suffering. Alcuin. We have 
heard of the patience of God, and of salvation preached 
araid revilings. They obstiuately preferred tempting Him 
to obeying Him. 

22. And it was at Jerusalem the feast of the dedi- 
cation, and it was winter. 

23. And Jesus walked in the temple in Solomon's 

24. Then came the Jews round about Him, and said 
unto Him, How long dost Thou make us to doubt ? 
If Thou be the Christ, tell us plainly. 

25. Jesus answered them, I told you, and ye be- 
lieved not : the w^orks that I do in j\Iy Father's name, 
they bear witness of Me. 

26. But ye believe not, because ye are not of j\Iy 
sheep, as I said unto you. 

27. My sheep hear My voice, and I know them, 
and they follow IVIe. 

28. And 1 give unto them eternal life ; and they 
shall never perish, neither shall any man pluck them 
out of My hand. 

29. My Father, which gave them ]\Ie, is greater 
than all ; and no man is able to pluck them out of 
My Father's hand. 

30. I and My Father are one. 

AuG. And it was at Jerusalem the feast of the dedication. Ausr. Tr. 
Encsenia is the feast of the dedication of the temple; from ^^^'"' -^- 
the Greek word Kaivov, signifying new. The dedication of 
anything new was called encsenia. Chrys. It was the feast Chrys. 
of the dedication of the temple, after the return from the j |"'j' 
Babylonish captivity. Alcuin. Or, it was in memory of 
the dedication uuder Judas Maccabeus. The first dcdi- 




i. Mor. 
c. 11. 

Ixi. 1. 


Tri rrKfnrj 

Ancr. Tr. 
xlviii. 3. 

Iloin. Ixi. 

* irap^ricria 
'before all 
5 V. toUis 

cation was that of Solomon in the autumn ; the second that 
of Zorobabel, aud the priest Jesus in the spring. This was 
in winter time. Bede. Judas Maccabeus instituted an an- 
nual comraemoration of this dedication. Theophyl. The 
Evangelist mentions the time of winter, to shew that it «vas 
near His passion. He suffered in the following spring ; for 
which reason He took up His abode at Jerusalem. Greg. 
Or because the season of cold was in keeping with the cold 
malicious hearts of the Jews. Chrys. Christ was present 
with rauch zeal at this feast, and thenceforth stayed ' in 
Judsea ; His passion being now at hand. And Jesus walked 
in the temple in Solomon's porch. Alcuin. It is called Solo- 
raon's porch, bccause Soloraon went to pray there. The 
porches of a temple are usually named after the teraple. If 
the Son of God walked in a teraple where the flesh of brute 
aniraals was offered up, how much raore will He dehght to 
visit our house of prayer, in whicli Ilis own flesh and blood 
are consecrated ? Theophyl. Be thou also careful, in the 
winter time, i.e. while yet in this stormy wicked world, to 
celcbrate the dedication of thy spiritual temple, by ever 
renewing thyself, cver rising upward in heart. Then will 
Jesus be present with thee in Soloraon's porch, and give 
thee safety uuder His coveriug. But in another life no raan 
will be able to dedicate Himself. Aug. The Jews cold iu 
love, buruing in their malevolence, approached Him not to 
honour, but persecute. Then came the Jeivs round about 
Him, and said unto Him, How long dost Thou make us to 
doubt ? Jf Thou be the Christ, tell us pJainly. They did not 
want to know the truth, but only to find ground of accusa- 
tion. Chrys. Being able to fiud no fault with His works, 
they try to catch Him iu His words. And mark their per- 
versity. When Hc instructs by His discourse, they say, 
What sign shewest Thou ? When He deraonstrates by His 
works, they say, If Thou be the Christ, tell us plainly. Either 
way they are deterrained to oppose Him. There is great 
raahce in that speech, Tell us plainly. He had sj^joken 
plainly ', when up at the feasts, and had hid nothing. They 
preface however with flattery : How long dost Thou make 
us^ to doubt ? as if they were anxious to know the truth, 
but really only meaniug to provoke Hira to say somethiug 


VER. 22—30 ST. JOHN. 359 

that they might lay hold of. Alcuin. They accuse Ilim of 
keeping their minds in suspense and uucertainty, who had 
come to save their souls ^. Aug. They wanted our Lord to Au^. Tr. 
say, I am the Christ. Perliaps, as they had human notions ^ ^"'' 
of the Messiah, having failed to discern His diviuity iu the 
Prophets, they wanted Christ to confess Ilimself the ^Mcs- 
siah, of the seed of David ; that they might accuse Hira of 
aspiring to the regal power. Alcutx. Aud thus they ia- 
tended to give Him into the hands of the Proconsul for 
punishment, as an usurper against the eraperor. Our Lord 
so managed His rcply as to stop the mouths of Ilis calum- 
niators, open those of the bchevers ; and to those wlio en- 
quired of Him as a man, reveal the mysteries of His divinity: 
Jesus ansivered them, I told you, and ye belicved not : the 
works tliat I do in My Father's name, they bear witness of 
Me. Chhys. He reproves their raalice, for pretending that Chrys. 
a single word would convince them, whom so many words ]j^'j* 2*. 
had not. If you do not believe ^ly works, He says, how 
will you belicve My words? And Ile adds why they do not 
believe : But ye believe not, because ye are not of j\[y sJieep. 
AuG. He saw that they wcre persons prcdestinated to eterual Ansr. Tr. 
dcath, and not those for whom He had bought eternal life, ^'^'"•^•' 
at the pricc of Ilis blood, The sheep believe, and follow the 
Sliephcrd. TuEOPvnL. After Ile had said, Ye are not of 
My shecj), Ile exhorts them to bccome such : My shecp hear 
My voice. Alcuin. i.e. Obey My precepts from the heart. 
Jnd I know them, and thcy foUow Me, here by walking iu 
gentleness and iunoccnce, hcrcafter by enteriug the joys of 
eternal life : And I give unto thcm eternal life. Aug. This Aug. Tr. 
is the pasture of which Ile spoke before : Jnd shall find ^ ^^^^' '^' 
pasturc. Eternal life is callcd a goodly pasture : the grass 
thereof withereth not, all is spread with verdure. But these 
cavillers thought ouly of this present life. And they shall oh ^i,) 
not perish etcrnally ; as if to say, Ye shall pcrish eterually, '^xwTa.i. 
bccause ye are not of My sheep. Tiieopuyl. But how tiieu «'/ ^^" 
did Judas perish ? Because he did not continue to tlie eud. 
Cluist speaks of tliem who persevere. If any sheep is scpa- 

^ Alc. literallj', Clirist did not come temptin.G; Cljrist, not believing Ie 
to make tliem doubt, but to give thein Him. 
life : they made lliemselves to doubt, 



rated from the flock, and wanders from the Shepherd, it 
Aug. Tr. incurs danger immediately. Aug. And He adds why they 

do not perish : Neither shall any man pluck them out of My 
2 Tim. hand. Of those sheep of which it is said, The Lord knoweth 

2 19 

' ■ them that are Ilis, the wolf robbeth uone, the thief taketh 

none, the robber killeth none. Christ is confident of their 

Hilar. safcty ; and He knows what He gave up for them. Hilary. 

de Trin. ... i <> • -it- i i 

vii. c. 22. This is the speech oi conscious power. let to shew, that 
though of the Divine nature He hath His nativity from God, 
He adds, My Father ivhich gave Me them, is greater than 
all. He does not conceal His birth from the Father, but 
proclaims it. For that which He received from the Father, 
He received in that He was born from Him. He received 
it in the birth itself, not aftcr it ; though He was born 

Au^. Tr. when He received it. Aug. The Son, born from everlasting 

^ ^^ ^' of the Father, God from God, has not equality with the 
Father by growth, but by birth. This is that greater than 
all which the Father gave Him*'; viz. to be His Word, to 
be His Ouly-Begotten Son, to be the brightness of His 
light. Wherefoi'e no man taketh His shcep out of His 
hand, any more than from His Father's hand : And no man 
is able to pluck them out of My Father's hand. If by hand 
we understand power, the power of the Father and the Son 
is one, even as Their divinity is one. If we understand the 
Sou, the Son is the hand of the Father, not in a bodily 
seuse, as if God the Father had limbs, but as being He by 
Whom all things were made. Men often call other men 
hands, when they make use of them for any purpose. And 
sQmetimes a man's work is itself called his hand, because 
made by his haud ; as when a man is said to know his own 
hand, when he recognises his own handwriting. In this 
place, however, hand signifies power. If we take it for Son, 
we shall be in danger of imagining that if the Father has 
a haud, and that hand is His Son, the Son must have a Son 

Hilar. vii. too. HiLARY. Tlie haiid of thc Son is spoken of as the 

de Trin 

c^ 22. hand of the Father, to let thee see, by a bodily repr^stn- 

tation, that both have the same nature, that the nature and 

Chrys. virtue of the Father is in the Son also. Ciirys. Then that 

Honi. Ixi. 

' Pater meus quod dedit mihi majus omiiibus est. V. 


VER. 31 — 38. ST. JOHN. 361 

thou mayest not suppose that the Father's power protects 
the sheep, while He is Himself too weak to do so, He adds, 
/ and My Father are one. Aug. Mark both those words, Aug. Tr. 
one and are, and thou wilt be delivered frora Scylla and ^"''■'^^'- 
Charybdis. la that He says one, the Arian, in ive are the non occ. 
Sabellian, is answered. There are both Father and Son. 
And if one, then there is no difference of persons between 
them. AuG. We are one. What He is, that am I, in Aug. 
respect of essence, not of relation. Hilary. The heretics, j^^^'® 
since they cannot gainsay these words, endeavour by an c. 2. 
impious lie to explaiu them away. They raaintain that this ^'.'.''''^ 
uiiity is unanimity only ; a unity of will, not of nature ; Trin. 
i.e. that the two are one, not in that they are the same, '^' ' 
but in that they will the same. But they are one, not by 
any economy merely but by the nativity of the Son's nature, 
since there is no falling off of the Father^s divinity in be- 
getting Him. They are one whilst the sheep that are not 
plucked out of the Son's hand, are not plucked out of the 
Father's hand : whilst in Him working, the Father worketh ; 
whilst He is in the Father, and the Father in Hira. This 
unity, not creation but nativity, not will but power, uot 
unanimity but nature accompiisheth. But we deny not 
therefore the unanimity of the Father and Son ; for the 
heretics, bccause we refuse to admit concord in the place of 
unity, accuse us of making a disagrcement between the 
Father and Son. We deny not unaniraity, but wc pLice it 
on the ground of unity. The Father and Sou are one in 
respect of nature, honour, and virtue : and tiie sanie nature 
cannot will different things. 

31. Theii the Jews took up stoiies again to stone 

32. Jesus answered them, Many good works have 
I shewed you from My Father; for which of those 
works do ye stone ]\Ie ? 

33. The Jews answered Him, saying, For a good 
work we stone Thee not ; but for blasphemy ; and 
because that Thou, being a man, makest Thyself 


34. Jesus answered them, Is it not written in your 
law, I said, Ye are gods ? 

35. If he called them gods, unto whom the w^ord 
of God eame, and the scripture cannot be broken ; 

36. Say ye of Him, Whom the Father hath sancti- 
fied, and sent into the world, Thou biasphemest ; be- 
cause I said, I am the Son of God ? 

37. If I do not the works of My Fatlier, beUeve 
Me not. 

38. But if I do, though ye believe not Me, beheve 
the works : that ye may know, and believe, that the 
Father is in Me, and I in Ilim. 

Aug.Tr. AuG. At this speech, I and My Father are one, the Jews 

could not restrain their rage, but ran to take up stones, after 

their hardheartcd way : Then the Jews took up stones again 

Hilar. to stone Him. IIilaiiy. The heretics now, as unbcheving 

.pj.j„ and rebeUious against our Lord in heaven, shew their im- 

c. 23. pious hatred by the stones, i.e. the words they cast at Him; 

as if they would drag Ilim down again from Ilis throne to 

the cross, Theophyl. Our Lord remonstrates with them ; 

Many good worhs have I sheived you from My Father, 

shewing that they had no just reason for their anger, 

Alcuin. Ileahug of the sick, teachiug, miracles. He 

shewed them of the Father, because lle sought His Father^s 

glory in all of them. For which of these loorks do ye stone 

Me? They confess, though reluctantly, the benefit they 

have received from Him, but charge Him at the same time 

with blasphemy, for assertiug His equahty with the Father ; 

For a good work we stone Thee not, but for blasphemy ; and 

Aug, Tr. because that Thou, being a man, makest Thyself God. Aug. 

This is their auswer to the speech, I and My Father are one. 

Lo, the Jews uuderstood what the Arians understand not. 

For they are angry for this very reason, that they could not 

conccive but that by saying, I and My Father are one, He 

Hiiar. meaut the equahty of the Father and the Son. Hilary, 

Tiin, 1'^^^ "Isw saith, Thou being a man, the Arian, Thou being a 

c- '^3. creature : but both say, Thou makest Thyself God. The 

VER. 31—38. ST. JOHN. 363 

Arian supposes a God of a new and different substance, a 

God of another kiud, or not a God at all. He saitb, Thou 

art not Son by birth, Thou art not God of truth; Thou art 

a superior creature. Chhys. Our Lord did not correct the Chrj-s. 

Jews, as if they misuuderstood His speech, but confinned j^!"^' 

aud defended it, in the very sense in which they had taken 

it. Jesus answered them, Is it not ivritten in your law, Aug. Au^. Tr. 

i.e. the Law given to you, / have said, Ye are Gods ? God '"^ ^"'' 

saith this by the Prophet in the Psalm. Our Lord calls all Ps. 82, 6. 

those Scriptures the Law generally, though elsewhere He 

spiritually distinguishes the Law from the Prophets. On Matt 

these two commandments hang all the Law and the Prophets. » *^* 

In another place He makes a threefokl division of the Scrip- 

tures ; All things must be fuJfiUed which were written in the Luke 

Law of Moses, and in the Prophets, and in the Psalms con- ' 

ceryiing Me. Now He calls the Psalms the Law, and thus 

argues from thcm; If he called them gods unto whom the 

word of God came, and the scripture cannot be broken, say 

ye of Him ivhom the Father hath sanctified, and sent into 

the world, Thou blasphemest, because I said, I am the Son 

of God? HiLARY. Before proving that He and His Father iiilar. 

are one, He answers the absurd aud foolish charge brouirht l?: ® 

against Him, that He being raan made Hiniself God. When c. 24. 

the Law applied this title to holy raen, and the indclible 

word of God sanctioned this use of the incommunicable 

narae, it could not be a crimc in Ilira, even though He wcre 

man, to raake Hiraself God. The Law called those who 

were mere men, gods ; and if any man could bear the name 

religiously, aud without arrogance, surely that man could, 

who was sanctified by the Father, in a sense in which none 

else is sanctified to the Sonship ; as the blcssed Paul saith, 

Declared^ to be the Son of God loith power, according to the V^e- 

Spirit of holiness. For all this reply refers to Himself as ^^g y. ' 

raan ; the Son of God beinor also the Son of man. Aug. Or l^o'"* 
, . . . . . . 1, 4. 

sanctified, i.e. in begetting, gave Hira holiness, begat Him ^ujj ti, 

holy. If men to whora the word of God came were called ^'^''^- 

gods, much raore the Word of God Himself is God. If men 

by partaking of the Word of God were made gods, rauch 

more is the Word of which they partake, God. Theophyl. 

Or, sanctified, i.e. sct apart to be sacrificed for the workl ; a 


proof that He was God in a higher sense than the rest. To 

save the world is a divine work, not that of a man made 

Chrys. divine by grace. Chrys. Or, we must consider this a speech 

^?'"' of humility, made to couciliate men. After it He leads them 

to higher things ; If I do not the works of My Father, believe 

Me not ; which is as much as to say, that He is not inferior 

to the Father. As they could not see His substance, He 

directs them to His works, as being hke and equal to the 

rather's. For the equahty of their works, proved the c quality 

Hilar. of their power. Hilary. AYhat place hath adoption, or the 

)S". * ^o,- mere conception of a narae then, that we should uot beUeve 

j.riii. 2b. ^ ' 

Hira to be the Son of God by nature, when He tells us to 
bcHeve Him to be the Son of God, bccause the Father's 
nature shewed itself in Him by His works? A creature is 
not equal and like to God : no other nature has power com- 
paral)le to the divine. He declares that He is carrying on 
iiot His own work, but the Fathcr's, lest in the greatness of 
the works, the uativity of His nature be forgotten. And as 
»sacra- uuder the sacrament^ of the assumption of a human body in 
corporis ^he womb of JNIary, the Son of God was not discerned, this 
must be gathered from His work ; But if I do, though ye 
belicve not Me, believe the ivorks. Why doth the sacraraent 
of a huraan birtli hinder the understanding of the divine, 
when the divine birth accompHshes all its work by aid of 
the human ? Then He tells them what thcy shoukl gather 
from His works; That ye may know and believe, that the 
Father is iti Me and 1 in Him. The same declaration again, 
Au^.Tr. I am the Son of God : I and the Father are one. Aug. The 
10. * Soa doth not say, The Father is in Me, aiid I in Ilim, in the 
sense in which meu who think and act aright may say the 
Hke ; raeaning that they partake of God's grace, and are en- 
Hghtened by His Spirit. The Only-begotten Son of God is in 
the Father, and the Father in Him, as au equal in an equah 

39. Therefore they sought again to take Him ; but 
He eseaped out of their hand. 

40. And went a\vay again beyond Jordan into thc 
place where John at first baptized ; and there He 

VER. 39 — 43. ST. joii:^. 3G5 

41. And many resorted unto Him, and said, Jobn 
did no miracle : but all things tbat Jobn spake of tbis 
Man were true. 

42. And many believed on Him there. 

Bede. The Jews still persist in their madness ; Therefore 
they sought ayain to take Him. Aug. To lay hold of Him, Au» Tr. 
not by faith and the understanding, but with bloodthirsty ^'^"'' ^^' 
violeucc. Do thou so lay hold of Ilim, that thou mayest 
have sure hold; they would fain have hiid hold on Him, 
but they could not : for it follows, But Ile escaped out of 
their hand. They did not lay hold of Hira with the hand of 
faith. It was no great matter for the Word to rescue His 
flesh from the hands of flesh. Chrys. Clirist, after dis- Chrys. 
coursing on some high truth, commonly retires immediately, ixi*.™. 
to give time to the fury of people to abate, during His 
absence. Thus IIc did now : Ile icent away again beyond 
Jordan, into the place where John at first baptized. He 
went there that Ile might recall to people's minds, what 
had gone on there ; John's preacliing and testimony to 
Himself. Bede. He was followed tliere by mauy : Aiid T^onocc, 
niany resorted unto Him, and said, John did no miracle. 
AuG. Did not cast out devils, did not give siglit to the Aug. Tr. 
bhnd, did not raise the dcad. Chrys. INIark their reason- ^ /j^. 
ing, John did no miracle, but this Man did ; wherefore Ile Ciirys. 
is the superior. But lest the absence of miracles should i^i. 3'. 
lessen the weij,dit of John's testimony, they add, But all 
things that John spake of this Man ivere true. Though 
he did no miracle, yet evcry thing he said of Christ was 
true, wheiice they conclude, if John was to be bebeved, 
much more this Man, who has the evidence of miracles. 
Thus it follows, And many believed on Ilim. Aug. These Aug. Tr. 
laid hold of Ilini while abiding, not, bke the Jews, when ^ ^j'.^' 
departing. Let us approach by the candle to the day. John 
is the candle, and gave testimony to the day. Theophyl. 
We may observe that our Lord often brings out the people 
into soHtary places, thus ridding them of the society of 
the unbeUeving, for their furtherance in the faith : just as 


He led the people into the wilderness, when He gave them 
the old Law. Mystically, Christ departs from Jerusalem, 
i.e. from the Jewish people ; aud goes to a place where 
are springs of water, i.e. to the Gentile Church, that hath 
the waters of baptism. And many resort unto Him, passing 
over the Jordan, i.e. through baptism. 


1. Now a certain man was sick, named Lazarus, of 
Bethany, the town of Mary and hcr sister Martha. 

2. (It was that Mary which anointed the Lord with 
ointment, and wiped His feet with her hair, whose 
brother Lazarus was sick.) 

3. Therefore his sisters sent unto Him, saying, 
Lord, behold, he ^vhom Thou lovest is sick. 

4. When Jesus heard that, He said, This sickness 
is not unto death, but for the glory of God, that the 
Son of God might be glorified thereby. 

5. Now Jcsus loved Martha, and her sister, and 

Bede. Aftcr our Lord had departed to the other side of non occ. 
Jordan, it happened that Lazarus fell sick : A certain man 
was sick, named Lazarus, of Bethany. Iii sorae copics the ^v u ns, 
copulative conjunction precedes, to mark the connection ""."' '^ ^^^' 
with the words preceding. Lazarus signifies helped. Of 
all the dead which our Lord raised, he was most helped, 
for he had lain dead four days, when our Lord raised him 
to Hfe. AuG. The resurrection of Lazarus is more spoken Aug. Tr. 
of than any of our Lord's miracles. But if we bear in mind ^ ^^' ' 
who He was who wrought this miracle, we shall feel not so 
much of wonder, as of deliglit. Ile who made the man, 
raised the man ; and it is a greater thing to create a man, 
than to revive him. Lazarus was sick at Bethany, the toivn 
of Mary and her sister Martha. The place was near Jeru- 
salem. Alcuin. And as there were many women of this 
}iame, He distinguishes her by her well-known act : // was 
ihat Mary ivhich anointed the Lord loith ointment, and 
iviped Ilis feet with her hair, ichose brother Lazarus was 


Greg. sick. Chrys. First we are to observe tliat this was not the 

^°™; harlot mentioned in Luke, but an honest woman, who 

Aug. de treated our Lord with raarked reverence. Aug. John here 

Con. Ev. confirms the passaare in Luke, where this is said to have 

II. Ixxix. . 

Luke taken place in the house of one Simon a Pharisee : ]\Iary 

' had done this act therefore on a former occasion. That 

she did it again at Bethany is not mentioned in the nar- 

Auff. rative of Luke, but is in the other three Gospels. Aug. 

Dom" ^ cruel sickness had seized Lazarus ; a wasting fever was 

s. lii. eating away the body of the wretched man day by day : 

his two sisters sat sorrowful at his bedside, grieving for 

the sick youth continually. They sent to Jesus : Therefore 

his sisters sent unto Uim, saying, Lord, beJiold he whom 

Aug. Tr. Thou lovest is sick. Aug. They did not say, Come aud 

xhx. 5. YiQal ; they dared not say, Speak the word there, and it 

shall be donc here; but only, Behold, he whom Thou lovest 

is sick. As if to say, It is enough that Thou know it, Thou 

art not one to love, and then to desert whom Thou lovest. 

Chrys Chrys. Thcy hope to excite Chrisfs pity by these words, 

lxii"i Whom as yet they thought to be a mau only. Like the 

centurion and nobleman, they sent, not wcnt, to Christ ; 

partly from thcir great faith in llim, for they knew Him 

intimately, partly because their sorrow kept them at home. 

Theophyl. And because tliey were women, and it did not 

become them to leave their home if they could help it. 

Great devotion and faith is expressed in these words, Be- 

hold, hc whom Thou lovest is sick. Such was their idea of 

our Lord's power, that they were surprised that one whom 

Aug. Tr. He loved could be seized with sickness. Aug. When Jesus 

*""^' ' heard that, He said, This sickness is not unto death. For this 

death itself was not unto death, but to give occasion for 

a miracle; whereby men might be brought to believe in 

Christ, and so escape real death. It was for the glory of 

God, wherein observe that our Lord calls Himself God by 

implication, thus confounding those heretics who say that 

the Son of God is not God. For the glory of what God? 

Hear what foUows, That the Son of God might he glorified 

Chrys. thereby, i.e. by that sickness. Chrys. That here signifies 

lxii'"i. "^^ *''® cause, but the event. The sickness sprang from 

natural causes, but He turned it to the glory of God. 

VER. 6 — 10. ST. JOHN. 3G9 

Noiv Jesus loved Martha, and her sister, and Lazarus. 
AuG. He is sick, they sorrowful, all beloved. Wlierefore they Aua:. Tr. 
had hope, for tliey were beloved by Him Who is the Com- '"^- ' • 
forter of the sorrowful, aud the healer of the sick, Chrys. Chns. 
Wherciu the Evangclist instructs us not to be sad if sickness Ixh'"* 
ever falls upon good raen, and friends of God. "on occ. 

V. Ixii. 3. 

6. When He had heard therefore that he was 
sick, He abode two days still in the same place 
where He was. 

7. Then after that saith He to His disciples, Let us 
go into Judeea again. 

8. His disciples say unto Him, Master, the Jews 
of late sought to stone Tiiee ; and goest Thou thitlier 
again ? 

9. Jcsus answered, Are there not twclve hours in 
the day ? If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth 
not, because he seeth the light of this world. 

10. But if a man walk in the niglit, he stumbleth, 
because there is no liglit in him. 

Alcuin. Our Lord heard of the sickness of Lazarus, but 
suffered four days to pass before Ile cured it ; that tlie re- 
covery might be a more wonderful one. When He had 
heard therefore that he was sick, Ile abode two days still in 
the place where Ile ivas. Chrvs. To give tinie for his death cbrys. 
and burial, that they might say, lie stinketh, and none doubt ..''.'": 
tliat it was dcath, and not a trance, from which he vvas 

Then after that saith He to Ilis disciples, Let us go into 
Jud<ea again. Aug. Where lle had just escaped being k\\<y. Tr. 
stoned ; for this was the cause of His leaving. He left ^ '^' 
indeed as man : He left in weakness, but He returns in 
power. CuRYs. He had not as yet told His disciples where Clirys. 
He was going ; but now He tells them in order to prepare \^^^f\ 
them beforeliand, for they are in great alarm, when they hear 
of it : Ilis discipJes say unto Ilim, Master, the Jeivs souglit to 
stone Thee, and goest Thou thither again? Thcy feared both 

VOL. i\, B b 


for Him, and for themselves; for they were not yet con- 
Aug. Tr. firmed in faith. Aug. When raen presumed to give advice 
^^^' ' to God, disciples to their Master, our Lord rebuked them : 
Jesus answered, Are there not tivelve Jiours in the day ? He 
shewed Himself to be the day, by appointing twelve disciples : 
i.e. reckoning Matthias iu the place of Judas, and passing 
over the latter altogether. The hours are lightened by the 
day; that by the preaching of the hours, the world raay be- 
lieve on the day. Follow Me then, saith our Lord, if ye wish 
not to stumble : If any man walk in the day, he stumbleth 
not, because he seeth the light of this loorld. But if a man 
walk in the night he stumbleth, because there is no light in 
CTirys. /lim. Chrys. As if to say, The upright need fear no evil : 
ixii. 1. the wicked only have cause to fear. We have done notliing 
worthy of death, and tlierefore are in no danger. Or, If auy 
one sceth this world's hght, he is safe; much more he who is 
with Me. Theophyl. Some understand the day to be the 
time prcceding the Passion, the niglit to be the Passion. In 
this sense, while it is day, would mcan, before My Passion ; 
Ye will not stumble before My Passion, because the Jews 
will not persecute you; but when thc night, i.e. My Passion, 
cometh, then shall ye be beset with darkness and difficulties. 

IL These things said He : and after that He saith 
unto them, Our friend Lazarus sleepeth ; but I go 
that I may awake him out of sleep. 

12. Then said His disciples, Lord, if he sleep, he 
shall do welL 

13. Howbeit Jesus spake of his death : but they 
thought that he had spoken of taking of rest in sleep. 

14. Tiien said Jesus unto them plainly, Lazarus is 

1 5. And I am glad for your sakes I was not there, 
to the intent ye may believe ; nevertheless let us go 
unto him. 

1 6. Then said Thomas, which is called Didymus, 
unto his fellow-disciples, Let us also go, that we may 
die with him. 

VER. 11— IG. ST. JOHN. 371 

Chrys. After He has comforted Ilis disciples in otie way, ciirys. 

Ixii. 1. 

He comforts them in anotlier, by telling thera that they were ^'""'- 

not going to Jerusalem, but to Bethany : These things saith 
JEe : and after that He saith unto them, Our friend Lazarus 
sleepeth; but I go that I may aivake him out of sleep : as if 
to say, I am not going to dispnte again with the Jews, but 
to awaken our fricnd. Our friend, He says, to shew how 
strongly they were bound to go. Aug. It was really true Ang. Tr. 
that he was sleeping. To our Lord he was sleeping ; to men ^ '^*''* 
who could not raise him again, he was dcad. Our Lord 
awoke him with as much ease from liis grave, as thou awakest 
a sleeper frora his bed. He calls him then asleep, with 
reference to II is own power, as the Apostle saith, But / 1 Thess. 
would not have you to be ignorant, concerning them which 
are asleep. Asleep, He says, because He is speaking of 
their resurrection which was to be. But as it mattcrs to 
those who sleep and wake again daily, what they see in 
their sleep, some having pleasant dreams, others painful 
ones, so it is in death ; every one sleeps and rises again 
with his own account". 

Chrys. The disciples however wished to prevent Him Chrys. 
going to Judaea : Then said Ilis disciples, Lord, if he sleep, j^.".'"j 
he shall do well. Sleep is a good sign in sickness. And 
therefore if he sleep, say they, what need to go and awake 
him ? AuG. The disciples replied, as they understood llim : .\ii.£r. Tr. 
Hoiobeit Jesus spake of his death ; but they thought that 
He had spoken of taking rest in sleep. Chrys. But if any Chrys. 
one say, that the disciples could not but have known that jj^jj["jj_ 
our Lord meaut Lazarus's death, when He saiJ, that I may 
awake him ; because it would have been absurd to have gone 
such a distance merely to awake Lazarus out of sleep ; we 
answer, that our Lord's words were a kind of enigma to the 
disciples, here as elsewhere often. Aug. He then declares Au<t. Tr. 
His meaning openly : Then said Jesus unto them plainly, ^ '^' ' 
Luzarus is dead. Chrys. But He does not add here, I go Chrys. 
that I may aicake him. He did not wish to anticipate the i^i"\ 
miracle by talking of it ; a hint to us to shun vain glory, and 
abstain from empty promises. 

AuG. He had been sent for to restore Lazarus frora sick- Aug. Tr. 

xli.\. 11 
' cum cau&a ma dormit, cum causa sua surgit. 

15 b 2 


ness, not from death. But how could the death be hid frora 
Him, into whose hands the soul of the dead had flown? 

And I am gladfor your sakes that I was not there, that ye 
might believe ; i.e. seeing My marvellous power of knowing 
a thing I have never seen nor heard. Tlie disciples ah-eady 
believed in Him, in consequence of His miracles; so that 
their faith had not now to begin, but only to increase. That 
ye might believe, means, believe more deeply, more firmly. 
Theophyl. Some have understood this place thus. I re- 
joice, He says, for your sakes; for if I had been there, I 
should have only cured a sick man ; which is bnt an inferior 
sign of power. But since in My absence he has died, ye 
will now see that I can raise even the dead putrefying body ; 
ciirys. {^n(j your faith will be strengthened. Chrys. Tlie disciples 
Ixii. 2. all drcaded tlie Jews; and especially Thoraas; Then said 
Thomas, ivhich is called Didymus, unto his felloiv-disciples, 
Let us aJso go, that ive may die with him. But lie wlio was 
now the most weak and unbelieving of all the disciples, 
afterwards became stronger than any. And he who dared 
not go to Bethany, afterwards weiit over the whole carth, in 
the midst of those who wished his death, with a spirit 
indomitable. Bede. The disciples, checked by our Lord's 
answer to them, dared no longer oppose ; and Thomas, more 
forward than the rest, says, Let us also go, that we may die 
ivith him. What an appearance of firmness ! He spcaks as 
if he could really do what he said ; unmiudful, like Peter, of 
his frailty. 

17. Then when Jesus came, He found that he had 
lain in the grave four days already. 

18. Now Bethany was nigh unto Jerusalem, about 
fifteen furlongs ofF: 

19. And many of the Jews came to Martha and 
Mary, to comfort them concerning their brother. 

20. Then Martha, as soon as she heard that Jesus 
was coming, went and met Him : but Mary sat still 
in the house. 

21. Then said Martha unto Jesus, Lord, if Thou 
hadst been here, my brother had not died. 


VER. 17 27. ST. JOHN. 373 

22. But I know, that even now, whatsoever Thou 
wilt ask of God, God will give it Thee. 

23. Jesus saith unto her, Thy brother shall rise 

24. Martha said unto Him, I know that he shall 
rise again in the resurrcction at the last day. 

25. Jesus said unto her, I am the resurrection, and 
the life : he that bcHcveth in Me, though he were 
dead, yet shall he live : 

26. And whosocver liveth and believeth in INIe, 
shall never die. Believcst thou this ? 

27. She saith unto Him, Yea, Lord : I bclieve that 
Thou art the Christ, the Son of God, which should 
come into the world. 

Alcuin. Our Lord delayed His coraing for four days, that 
tlie resurrection of Lazarus raight be the more glorious : Then 
ivhen Jesus came, Jle found that he had lain in the grave 
jrtur days already. Chiiys. Our Lord had stayed two days, Chrys. 
and the messenger had conie tlic day before ; the very day ix-j'"^ 
on which Lazarus died. This brings us to the fourth day. 
AuG. Of the four days raauj^ tliiugs may be said. Tliey Aug. 
refcr to one thiug, but one thing viewed in diflFerent ways. xi^x^i^ 
There is one day of death which the law of our birth brings 
upon us. Meu transgrcss the natural hiw, and this is an- 
other day of death. The writteu law is given to nien by the 
hands of Moses, and that is despised — a third day of death. 
The Gospel comes, and raen transgress it — a fourth day of 
dcath. J3ut Christ doth not disdaiu to awaken even these. 
Alcuin. The first sin was elation of heart, the second asscnt, 
the third act, the fourth habit. 

Noiv Bethany ivas niyh unto Jerusalem, about ffteen fur- 

longs off. Chrys. Two u;iles. This is mentioned to ac- Chrys. 

count for so manv comino; from Jerusalem : And many of^^^' 

° '' -' 1x11. 2. 

the Jews came to Martha and Mary, to comfort them con- 
cerning their brother. But how could the Jews be consohng 
the beloved of Christ, whon they had resolved that who- 
evcr confcssed Christ sliould bc put out of thc synagoguc? 


Perhaps the extreme affliction of the sisters excited their 
sympathy ; or they wished to shew respect for their rank. 
Or perhaps they who came were of the better sort ; as we 
find many of them believed. Their presence is mentioned 
to do away with all doubt of the real death of Lazarus. 
Bede. Our Lord had not yet entered the town, when Martha 
met Him : Then Martha, as soon as she heard that Jesus was 
coming, went and met Ilim : but Mary sat still in the house. 
Chrys. Chrys. Martha does not take her sister with her, because 
xii. 2. s^^ wants to speak with Christ alone, and tell Him what has 
happened. When her hopes had been raised by Him, then 
she went her ivay, and called Mary. Theophyl. At first 
she does not tell her sister, for fear, if she came, the Jews 
present might accompany her. And she did not wish thcm 
to know of our Lord's coming. 

Then saith Martha unto Jesus, Lord, if Thou hadst been 

ciirys. here, my brother had not died. Chrys. She believed in 

ixiTs Christ, but she beheved not as she ought. She did not 

speak as if He were God : If Thou hadst been here, my 

brother had not died. Theophyl. She did not know that fle 

could have restored her brother as well absent as present. 

Chrys. Chrys. Nor did she know that He wrought His miracles 

Hoin. ]^^, jj-g Q^j^ independent power: But Iknow, that even now, 

ivhatsoever Thou ivilt ask of God, God ivill give it Thee. 

Ancr. Tr. Shc only thiuks Him sorae very gifted man. Auo. She 

does not say to Him, Bring my brother to life agaiu ; for 

how could she know that it wouhl be good for him to come 

to life again ; she says, I know that Thou canst do so, if 

Thou wilt ; but what Thou wilt do^ is for Thy judgment, 

Chrys. not for my presumption to determine. Chrys. But our 

ixii"'^ Lord taught her the truths w liich she did not know : Jesus 

saith unto her, Thy brother shall rise ayain. Observe, He 

does not say, I will ask God, that he may rise again, nor on 

the otlier hand does He say, I want no help, I do all things 

ofMyself; a declaration which would have been too much 

for the woman; but somethiiig between the two, He shall 

Auo:. Tr. yigQ again. Auo. 8hall rise again, is ambiguous : for He 

(loes not say, now. And therefore it follows : Martha saith 

unto Him, 1 hnoiv that he shall rise again in the resurrection 

ut the last day : ot that resurrection I am certain ; of tliis 

VER. 28 — 32. ST. joHN. 375 

I am doubtful. Chrys. Slie had often heard Christ speak chrys. 
of the resurrection. Jesus now declares His power more ,^""^' 


plainly : Jesus said unto Jier, I am the resitrrection and the life. 
He needed therefore uone to hclp Him ; for if He did, how 
could He be the resurrection. And if He is the life, He is 
not confined by place, but is every where, and can heal every 
where. Alcuin. I am the resurrection, because I am the 
life ; as through Me lie will rise at the general resurrection, 
through Me he may rise now. Chrys. To Martha's Wliatso- Chrys. 
ever Tltou shalt ask, He repHes, Ile tJiut believetJi in Me, tJtough ixii." 
Jie were dead, ijet sJiall Jie live : shewing her that He is the 
Giver of all good, and that we must ask of Him. Thus He 
leads her to the knowledge of high truths; and whereas she 
had been enquiring only about the resurrection of Lazarus,tells 
her of a resurrcction in whicli both she and all present would 
share. Aug. He tJiat believeth in 3Ie, tJiougJi he loere dead: An^. Tr. 
i.e. though his flesh die, his soul shall live till the flesh rise ^* "^' 
again, never to die more. For faith is the life of the soul. 

And zcJiosoever livctJi, in the flesh, and believetJt in Me, 
though he die for a time in the flcsh, sJiall not die eternaUg. 
Alcuin. Bccause He hath attained to the life of the Spirit, 
and to an immortal resurrection. Our Lord, from Whom 
notliing was hid, knew that she believed, but sought from 
her a confession unto salvatiou : Believest tJiou tJiis ■ SJie 
saith unto Him, Yea, Lord, I believe tJiat TJtou art tJte CJtrist 
tlte Son of God, u-JticJt sJtouId corne into tJte wurld. Chrys. Siie Ciirys. 
sccms not to have understood His words ; i.e. she saw that jj^||'"3 
He meant soniething great, but did not see what that was. 
She is asked one thing, and answers another. Aug. When Au?. Tr. 
1 believcd that Thou Mcrt tlie Sou of God, I believed that ^ ''""■ 
Thou wert the lesurrection, that Thou wert hfe''; aud that 
he that believeth in Tliee, though he were dcad, shall live. 

28. And when she had so said, she wcnt hcr way, 
and callcd Mary her sister secretly, saying, The Master 
is come, and callcth for thee. 

29. And as soon as she heard that, she arose 
quickly, and came unto Him. 

•• Tlnis tliis is an answpr to Clirisfs question, JSt'//efe*< thoti this? i.e. tliat 
I ain tlie rcsurrectioi) aiid tlie lile. 


30. Now Jesus was not yet eome into the tovvn, 
but was in that place where Martha met Ilim. 

31. The Jews then which were with her in the 
house, and comforted her, when they saw Mary, that 
she rose up hastily and went out, foUowed her, saying, 
She goeth unto the grave to weep there. 

32. Then when Mary was come where Jesus was, 
and saw Him, she fell down at His feet, saying unto 
Ilim, Lord, if Thou hadst been here, my brother had 
not died. 

Chrys. Chrys. Christ's words had the effcct of stopping Martha's 

Ixii. 3. grief. In licr devotion to her INIaster she had no time to 

think of her afllictions : And whcn sfie hud so said, she ivent 

Aug. Tr. her ivay, and ca/led Mary lier sister secreily. Aug. Silently ^, 

i' Aciepo ^' ^- speaking in a low voice. For she did speak, sayiny, 

siientio V. Thc Muster is come, and calleth for thee. Chrys. She calls 

Hom^^ixii. ^^^" sistcF secrctly, in order iiot to let the Jews know that 

noii occ. Christ was coraing. For had they known, they would have 

Aug. Tr. gone, and not been witnesses of the miracle. Aug. We may 

observe that the EvangeHst has not said, where, or when, or 

how, the Lord called Mary, but for brevity's sake has left it 

to be gathered from Martha's words. Theophyl. Perhaps 

she thought the presence of Christ in itself a call, as if it 

were inexcusable, when Clirist came, that she should not go 

Chrys. out to mcct Him. Chrys. "VVhile the rest sat around her in 

ixiii. L ^'6'' sorrow, she did not wait for the Master to come to lier, 

l)ut, not lettiug her grief detain her, rose immediately to meet 

Him ; As soon as she heard that, she arose guickly, and canie 

Aug. Tr. unto Him. Aug. So we see, if she had known of His arrival 

11011 occ. before, she would not have let Martha go without her. 

Noiv Jesus ivas not yet come into the town, but was in that 
Chrys. place wherc Martha rnet Him. Chrys. He went slowlv, 

Hom. I TT • 1 1 • p 1 • * 

Jxi i. 1. that He might not seem to catch at an occasion of workmg 
a miracle, but to have it forced upon Him by others asking. 
Mary, it is said, arose quickly, and thus anticipated His 
coming. The Jew^s accompanied her : Tlie Jews then which 
ivere ivith her in the house, and comforted her, ivhen they 
saw Mary that sJie arose up hastily and went out, foHowed 

VER. 33 — 41. ST. JOHN. 377 

her, sayinfj, She goeth unto the grave to iveep there. Aug. Aug. Tr. 
The Evaugelist meutions this to shew how it was that so ^^^^' ^'^' 
many were preseut at Lazarus' resurrectioUj and witness of 
that great miracle. 

Then ivhen Mary ivas come where Jesus was, and saiv 
Him, shefell down at His feet. Chrys. She is more fervent chrys, 
than her sister. Forgetful of the crowd around her, and of /'^!"'', 
the Jcws, some of whora were eneraies to Christ, she threw 
herself at her ]\Iaster's feet. In His presence all earthly 
things were uought to her; she thought of nothing but 
giving Him honour. Theophyl. But her faith seems as yet 
imperfect : Lord, if Thou hadst been here, mij brother had not 
died. Alcuin. As if to say, Lord, wliile Thou wert with us, 
no disease, no sickncss dared to shew itself, amongst those 
with wliom tlic Life deigncd to take up His abode. Aug. Au» de 
O faithless assembly? Whilst Tliou art vet in the world, X^'^^- 
Lazarus Thy friend dieth ! If the fricnd dics, what will the s. lii. 
enemy suppose? Is it a small thing that they will not serve 
Thee upon earth? lo, hell hath taken Thy beloved. Bede. 
Mary did not say so much as ]\Iartha, she could not bring 
out what she wanted for wecping, as is usual with persons 
overvvhelmcd with sorrow. 

33. When Jesus thcrefore saw bcr wecping, and 
tlie Jews also weeping which came with hcr, lle 
groaned in the spirit, and was troubled, 

34. And said, Where have ye hiid him ? They 
said unto Hhxi, Lord, come and see. 

35. Jesus wept. 

36. Then said the Jews, Behold how He loved him ! 

37. And some of them said, Could not this Man, 
which opened the eyes of the bhnd, have caused that 
even this man should not have died ? 

38. Jesus therefore again groaning in Himself 
comcth to the grave. It was a cave, and a stone lay 
upon it, 

39. Jesus said, Take ye away the stone. Martha, 
thc sistcr of him that was dead, saith unto Him, Lord, 


by this time he stinketh : for he hath been dead 
four days. 

40. Jesus saith unto her, Said I not unto thee, 
that, if thou wouldest believe, thou shouldest see the 
glory of God ? 

41. Then they took away the stone from the place 
where the dead was laid. 

Chrys. Chrys. Clirist did not answer Mary, as Ile had her 

Ixiii" 1 sister, on acconnt of tlie people present. In condescension 

to thcra He liumbled Iliraself, and let Ilis huraan nature 

be seen, in order to gain them as witnesses to the miracle : 

When Jesus therefore saw her iveeping, ancl the Jews also 

weeping which came with her, Ile groaned in Ilis spirit, and 

Aug. Tr. was troubled. Aug. For who but Hiraself coukl trouble 

Ilim? Christ was troubled, bccause it pleased Ilira to be 

troubled ; lle huugered, because it pleased Him to hunger. 

It was in His own power to be aflected in this or that way, 

or not. The Word took up soul and flesh, and whole man, 

and fitted it to Himself in unity of person. And thus ac- 

cording to the nod and will of that liighcr nature in Him, 

iu which the sovereign power resides, Ile becomes weak 

and troublcd. Theophyl. To prove Ilis hunian nature Ile 

sometimes gives it free vent, while at other tiraes Ile cora- 

mands, and restrains it by the power of the Holy Ghost. 

Our Lord alloMS His nature to be affected in these ways, 

both to prove tliat Ile is very Man, not Man in appearance 

only; and also to teach us by His own exaraple the due 

raeasures of joy and grief. For the absence altogether of 

sjrapathy aud sorrow is brutal, the excess of thera is 


^u^ AuG. And said, Where have ye laid him ? Ile knew where, 

de Ver. but He askcd to trv the faith of the people. Chrys. Ile 

s. lii. did not VA ish to thrust the miracle upon tbem, but to make 

^'"■ys- thera ask for it, and thus do away with all suspicions. Aug. 

ixiii. L The question has an allusion too to our hidden calling. 

Aug^ That predestination bv which we are called, is hidden: and 

lib. 83. f- ... 

Quaest. the sign of its being so is our Lord asking the question : 
qu. XV. y\q being as it were ia ignorauce, so loug as we are ignorant 

VER, 33 — 41. ST. JOHN. 379 

ourselves. Or because our Lord elsewhere shews that Ile 
knows not sinners, saying, I hnow you not, because iu keep- ^Nfatt. 7, 
ing His commandmeuts there is uo sin. ^"^* 

Thei/ said nnto Him, Lord, come a?id see. Ciirys. He had Chrys. 
not yet raised any one frora the dead ; and seemed as if Ile ,^°'."', 

•^ "^ ' Ixiu. 1. 

came to weep, not to raise to life. Wherefore they say to 
Him, Come and see. AuG. Tlie Lord sees when Ile pities, Aug. Tr. 
as we read, Look iipon mij adversiti/ and misery, and forgive ^ '^' ^ 
me all my sin. 

Jesns wept. Alcuin. Because He was the fountain of 
pity. He wept in His human nature for him whora Ile was 
able to raise again by His divine. Aug. Wherefore did Aug. Tr. 
Christ weep, but to teach men to weep? Bede. It is cus- ■'^'"'' 

* ' ' non occ. 

tomary to mourn over the deatli of fricnds; aud thus the 
Jews explaiued our Lord's weeping : Thcn said the Jeics, 
BeJtold hoiv He loved him. Aug. Loved him. Our LordAiig. Tr. 
came not to call the rirjhteous hut sinners to repentance. And^^^' 
some of them said, Coidd not this Jlan ichich opened ihe eyes 
of the blind, have caused that even this man should not liave 
died ? He was about to do raore than this, to raise him 
from death. Curys. It was Ilis enemies who said this. ciirys. 
The very works, which should have evidenced His power, |'.".'"' 
tliey turu against Him, as if He had not really done them. 
This is the way that they speak of tlie miracle of opening 
the eyes of the man that was boru blind. They even pre- 
judge Christ, before He has come to the grave, aud have 
not the paticnce to wait for tlie issuc of the mattcr. Jcsus 
therefore again groaning in Himsclf, cometli to the gravc. Tiiat 
He wept, aud He groaned, are mentioued to shcw us the 
reality of His human nature. John who euters into higher 
stateraents as to Ilis uature than any of the other Evan- 
gelists, also desceuds lower thau any in describing His 
bodily affectious. Aug. And do thou too groan in thyself, Aii<r. Tr, 
if thou wouldest rise to new life. To every man is this said, ^''^- 
who is weighed dowu by any vicious habit. It ivas a cave, 
and a stone lay upon it. The dead uuder the stoue, is tlie 
guiltj'^ under tlie Law. For the Law, which was giveu to the 
Jews, was graven on stone. And all the guilty are under the 
Law, for the Law was uot made for a righteous raau. Bede. 


A cave is a hollow in a rock. It is called a monument, 

because it reminds us of the dead. 

Chrys. Jesus said, Take ye away the stone. Chrys. But why 

Ixiii. 2. f^id He not raise him without taking away the stone ? Coukl 

not He who moved a dead body by His voice, much more 

have moved a stone ? He purposely did not do so, iu order 

tliat the miracle might take place in the sight of all; to 

jiive no room for saying, as they had said in the case of the 

bhnd man, This is not He. Now they might go into the 

Aug. Tr. grave, and feel aud see that thisVas the man. Aug. Take 

" ye away the stone ; mystically, Take away the burden of the 

Aug. lib. law, proclaim grace. Auc. Perhaps those are siguified who 

(lu. 61. wished to impose the rigiit of circumcision on the Gentile 

converts ; or men in the Church of corrupt life, who offend 

Aug. de behevers. Auo. Mary and Martha, the sisters of Lazarus, 

]jj ■ though they had often sceu Christ raise the dead, did not 


fully believe that He could raise their brother; Martha, the 

sister of him that was dead, saith unto Him, Lord, by this 

time he stinketh, for he hath heen dead four days. The- 

OPHYL. JMartha said this from weakness of faith, thinking 

it impossible that Christ could raise her brother, so long 

Bede. aftcr death. Bede. Ov, tliese are uot words of despair, but 

(Nic^r ^^^ wonder. Chrys. Thus every thing tends to stop the 

Clirys. mouths of thc unbelieving. Tlieir hands take away the 

IxHi" 2 stone, their ears hear Christ's voice, their eyes see Lazarus 

come forth, they perceive the smell of the dead body. The- 

ophyl. Christ reminds INIartha of what He had told her be- 

fore, which she had forgotten : Jesus saith unto her, Suid I 

not unto thee, that, if thou wouldest believe, thou shouldest 

Chrys, sce the glory of God? Chrys. She did not remember, what 

lj."j'"* He said above, He that believeth in Me, though he were 

dead, yet shall he live. To the disciples He had said, 

That the Son of God might be glorified tkereby ,• here it is 

the glory of the Father He speaks of. The difference is 

made to suit the different hearers. Our Lord could not 

rebuke her before such a nuniber, but only says, Thou shalt 

Aug. Tr. see the glory of God. Aug. Hereiu is the glory of God, 

^^^" that He that stiuketh and hath beeu dead four days, is 

brought to life agaiu. 

VKR. 41 -1j. ST, JOTIN. 381 

Then they took away the stone. Origen. The delay m Ori^. tom. 
takiiior awav the stone was caused bv the sister of the dead, *" ".^''^' 
who said, By this time he stinketh, for he hath been deadfour 
daijs. If she had not said this, it would not be said, Jesus 
said, Take away the stone. Some delay had ariseu ; it is 
best to let iiothing come between the commands of Jesus 
and doiug them. 

41. And Jesus lifted up His eyes, and said, Father, 
I thank Thee that Thou hast heard Me. 

42. And I knew that Thou hearest Me always : 
but because of the people which stand by I said it, 
that they may believe that Thou hast sent Me. 

43. And when He thus had spoken, He cried with 
a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth. 

44. And he that was dead came forth, bound hand 
and foot with jrraveclotlies : and his face was bound 


about with a napkin. Jesus saith unto them, Loose 
him, and let him go. 

45. Then many of the Jews which came to Mary, 
atid had secn the things which Jcsus did, beheved 
on Him. 

46. But some of them went their ways to the Pha- 
risees, and told them what things Jesus had done. 

Alcuin. Christ, as man, bcing infcrior to the Father, prays 
to Him for Lazarus^s resurrection ; and declares that He is 
heard : And Jesus lijted up His eyes, and said, Fatlier, I 
i.hank Thee that Thou hast heard Me. Origen. He lifted 0ri<T. tom. 
iip His eyes ; mystically, He hfted up the human mind by ^■'^^'"* 
prayer to the Father above. We shoukl pray after Chrisfs 
pattern, Lift up the eyes of our heart, aud raise thera above 
present things in memory, in thought, in intention. If 
to them who pray worthily after this fashion is given the 
promise in Isaiah, Thou shalt cry, and He shall say, Here isa. 5S, 9. 
I am ; what answer, think we, our Lord and Saviour would 
rcceive ? He was about to pray for the resurrection of 
Lazarus. He was heard by the Father before He prayed; 


His request was granted before made. And therefore He 

begins with giving thanks ; / thank Thee, Father, that Thou 

Chrys. jidgi Jieard Me. Chrys. i.e. There is no diflFerence of will 

Ixiv. 2. between Me and Thee. Thou hast heard Me, does not shew 

any lack of power in Hiuij or that He is inferior to the 

Father. It is a phrase that is used between friends and 

equals. That the prayer is not really necessary for Him, 

appears from the words that follow, And I knew that Thou 

heardest Me always : as if He said, I need not prayer to 

persuade Thee ; for Ours is one will. He hides Plis meaning 

on account of the weak faith of His hearers. For God re- 

gards not so much His own dignity, as our salvation ; and 

therefore seldom speaks loftily of Himself, and, eveu whcn 

He does, speaks in an obscure way ; whereas humble expres- 

Hilar. sions abouud in His discourses. Hilary. He did not there- 

lib X. ^Qj.g need to pray : He prayed for our sakes, that we rnight 

know Him to be the Son : But because of the people which 

stand by I said it, that tJiey may believe that Thou hast 

sent Me. His prayer did not benefit Himself, but benefited 

our faith. He did not want help, but we want instruction. 

Chrys. Chrys. Hc did uot say, That they may believe that I am in- 

ixiv?2. ferior to Thee, in that 1 cannot do this without prayer, but, 

that Thou hast sent Me. He saith not, hast sent Me weak, 

acknowledging subjection, doing nothing of Myself, but 

hast sent Me in such sense, as that man may see that I am 

from God, not contrary to God ; and that I do this miracle in 

Aup:. de accordance with His will. Aug. Christ went to the grave 

j)"^^' in which Lazarus slept, as if He were not dead, but alive and 

Serm. lii. ablc to hcar, for He forthwith called him out of his grave : 

And when He had thus spoken, He cried with a loud voice, 

Lazarus, come forth. He calls him by name, that He may 

Chrys. not bring out all the dead. Chrys. He does not say, Arise, 

I ?'"■ but, Come forth, speaking to the dead as if he were alive. 

For which reason also He does not say, Come forth in My 

Father^s name, or, Father, raise him, but throwing ofF the 

whole appearance of one praying, proceeds to shew His 

power by acts. This is His general way. His words shew 

humiUty, His acts power. Theophyl. The voice which 

roused Lazarus, is the symbol of that trumpet which will 

sound at the general resurrection. (He spoke loud, to 

VER. 41— IG. ST. JOHN. 383 

contradict the Gentile fable, that the soul remained in the 
tomb. The soul of Lazarus is called to as if it were absent, 
and a loud voice were necessary to summon it.) And as thc 
general resurrection is to take place in the twinkling of an 
eye, so did tliis single one : And he that was dead came 
forth, bound hand and foot with grave clothes, and his face 
was bound about ivith a napkin. Now is accomplislied what 
was said above, The hour is coming, ivhen the dead shall v. 25. 
hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that hear shall 
live. Origen. His cry and loud voice it Mas which awoke Orig. tom. 
him, as Christ had said, / go to aivake him. The resurrec- ^^^"'- 
tion of Lazarus is the work of the Father also, in that Ile 
heard the prayer of the Son. It is the joint work of Father 
and Son, one praying, the other hearing ; for as the Father v. 21. 
raiseth up the dead and quickeneth them, even so the Son 
quickeneth whom He will. Chrys. He came forth bound, Chrys. 
that none raight suspect that he was a mere pliantom. Be- ixhr" 
sides, that this vcry fact, viz. of coming forth bound, was 
itself a miracle, as great as the resurrection. Jesus saith unto 
them, Loose him, that by going near and touching him they 
might be certain he was the very person. And let him go. 
Ilis humility is shewn here : Ile does not take Lazarus about 
with Him for the sake of display. Origen. Our Lord had Origr. tom. 
said above, Because of the people that stand bij I said it, that 
they may believe that Thou hast sent Jle. It would have been 
ignorance of the future, if Ile had said this, and none be- 
lieved, after alh Therefore it foUows : Then many of the 
Jews which came to Mary, and had seen ihe things which 
Jesus did, believed on Him. Dut some of them went their 
ivay to the Pharisees, and told them what things Jesus had 
done. It is doubtful from these words, whether tliose who 
went to the Pharisees, were of those many who believed, and 
meant to conciliate the opponents of Christ ; or whether they 
were of the unbelieving party, and wished to inflame the euvy 
of the Pharisees against Him. The latter seems to me the 
true supposition ; especially as the Evangelist describes those 
who beheved as the larger party. Many believed ; whereas it 
is only a few who go to the Pharisees : Some of them went 
to the Pharisees, and told them what things Jesus had done. Aus;. lib. 
AvG. Although according to the Gospel history, we hold that q|^!bsu 

q. 05. 

c. xxix 


Lazarus was really raised to life, yet I doubt not that his 

resurrection is an allegory as well. We do not, because we 

Aug. Tr. allegorize facts, lose ourbelief in thera as facts. Aug. Every 

t"'^*^'^ one that sinneth, dies: but God, of His great mercv, raises 

xlix. 3. the soul to life agaiu, and does not suffer it to die eternally. 

The three miraculous resurrections iu the Gospels, I uuder- 

Greg. iv. stand to tcstify the resurrection of the soul. Greg. The 

maiden is restored to life in the house, the young man out- 

side the gate, Lazarus in his grave. She tliat lies dead in 

the house, is the sinner lying in sin : he that is carried out 

Aii<r. Tr. by the gate is the openly aud notoriously wicked. Aug. Or, 

xlix. 3. -^ ^g death within ; when the evil thought has not come out 

into action. But if thou actually do the evil thing, thou hast 

Grpg. V. as it were carried the dead outside tlie gate. Greg. And 

"'^ ■ one there is who lies dead in his grave, with a load of earth 

upon hira ; i.e. wlio is weighed down by habits of sin. But 

the Divine grace has regard even unto such, and enliglitens 

Aue;. lib. thcra. Au&. Or we may take Lazarus in the grave as the 

n^^^^t soul laden with earthly sins. Aug. And yet our Lord loved 

wuaest. . «^ 

q. ixv. Lazarus. For had Ile not loved sinners, He would never 
T "*^' ^J liave corae down frora hcavcn to save thera. Well is it said 

Joai). ir. 

xlix, of one of sinful habits, that Ile. stinkcth. He hath a bad re- 

1 pessi- port ^ already, as it were the foulest odour. Aug. Well may 
"^'*"^ she sav, He hath been dead four davs. For the earth is the 

laniam " . . " . 

Auo. lib, l^st of the elemcnts. It signifies the pit of earthly sins, i.e. 
ixxxiii. carnal lusts. Aug. The Lord groaned, wept, cried with a 

Ciuffist. ' 1 ' 

q. 05. loud voice. It is hard for Ilim to arise, who is bowed down 

Aug. with the weight of evil habits. Christ troubleth Iliraself, to 

in Joan. siguify to thce that thou shouldest be troubled, when thou 

xhx. 19. f^i-t pressed and weighed down with such a raass of sin. Faith 

groaneth, he that is displeased Avith himself groaneth, and ac- 

cuseth his own evil deeds ; that so the habit of sin may yield 

to the violence of repentance. When thou sayest, I have 

done such a thing, and God has spared me; I have heard 

the Gospel, and dcspised it; what shall I do? then Christ 

groaneth, because faith groaneth ; and in the voice of thy 

Greg. groaning appeareth the hope of thy rising again. Greg. 

Jloral. Lazarus is bid to come forth, i.e. to come forth and condemn 

himself with his own mouth, without excuse or reservation : 

that so he that lies buried in a guilty conscience, may corae 

VER. 47 — 53. ST. JOHN. 385 

forth out of himself by confession. AuG. That Lazarus came Au^. ]\h. 
forth from the grave, signifies the souFs deUverance froin q,^^"[' 
carnal sins. That he came bound up in grave clothes means, q- 65. 
that even we who are dehvered from carnal things, and serve 
with the mind the law of God, yet cannot, so long as we are 
in the body, be free from the besetments of the flesh, That 
his face was bound about with a napkin means, that we do 
not attain to fuU knowledge in this life. Aud when our 
Lord says, Loose him, and let him go, we learn that in 
another world all veils will be removed, and that we shall 
see face to face. Aug. Or thus : Wlien thou despisest, thou Au^. Tr. 
liest dead; when thou confessest, thou comest forth.. For ^^'^' 
what is to come forth, but to go out, as it were, of thy hiding 
pla.ce, and shew thyself ? But thou canst not make this con- 
fession, exccpt God move thee to it, by crying with a loud 
voice, i.e. calhng thee with great grace. But even after thc 
dead man has come forth, he remains bound for some time, 
i.e. is as yet only a peuitent. Then our Lord says to His 
ministers, Loose him, and let him yo, i. e. rcmit his sins : 
Whatsoever ye shall bind on earlh shall be bound in heaven, Matt. is, 
and whatsoever ye shall loose on earlh shall be loosed in heaven. ^^" 
Alcuin. Christ awakes, because His power it is which quick- 
ens us inwardly : the disciples loose, because by tlie ministry 
of the priesthood, they who are quickened are absolved. 
Bede. By those who went and told the Pharisees, are mcaut 
those who seeing the good works of God's servants, hate 
them on that very account, pcrsecute, and calumniate them. 

47. Then gathercd the chief priests and the Phari- 
sees a council, and said, What do we ? for this Man 
doeth many miracles. 

48. If we let Hini thus alone, all men will beheve 
on nim : and the Romans shall come and take away 
both our place and nation. 

49. And one of thera, named Caiaphas, being the 
high priest that same year, said unto them, Ye knovv 
nothing at all, 

50. Nor consider that it is expedient for us, that 

VUL. IV. (^ c, 


one man should die for the people, and that the whole 
nation perish not. 

51. And this spake he not of himself : but being 
high priest that year, he prophesied that Jesus should 
die for that nation ; 

52. And not for that nation only, but that also He 
should gather together in onc the children of God that 
were scattercd abroad. 

53. Then from that day forth thcy took counsel 
together for to put Him to death. 

TiiEOPnYL. Such a miracle as this should have drawn 

forth wonder and praise. But they make it a reason of 

plotting against His hfe : Then gathered the chief pi^iests 

Aug, Tr. and Pharisees a council, and said, What do we ? Aug. But 

xhx. C.26. ^i^gy j^j^^ jjQ thought of beheving. The miserable men only 

consulted how they might hurt and kill nira, not how them- 

selves raight be saved from death. What do we ? for this 

CTirys. Man doeth mamj miracJes. Ciirys. Ilim of whose divinity 

ixiv!^c. 3. ^^^^y ^'^^ received such certain proofs, they call only a man. 

Orig. Origen. This speech is an evidence of their audacity and 

t. xxvni. ijijn^ngss : of their audacity, because they testified that II e 

had done many miracles, and yet thought that they could 

contend successfuUy against Him, and that He would have 

no power of withstanding their plots ; of their blindness, be- 

cause they did not reflect that He who had wrought such 

miracles could easily escape out of their hands; unless in- 

deed they denied that these miracles were done by Divine 

power. They resolved then not to let Hira go ; thinking 

that they should thus pkce an impediment in the way of 

those who wished to believe in Him, and also prevent the 

E-omans from taking away their place and nation. If we let 

Eim thus alone, all men ivill believe on Ilim, and the Romans 

Chrys. shall come and take away both our place and nation. Chrys. 

Ixiv. 3, They say this to alarm the people; as if they were incurring 

the suspicion of setting up an usurper. If, say they, the 

Romans in crowds follow Him, they will suspect us of set- 

ting up a tyranny, and will destroy our state. But this was 

wholly a fiction of their own. For what was the fact ? Did 


VER. 47—53. ST. JOHN. 387 

He take armed men about with Ilim, did Ile go with horse- 

men in Ilis train ? Did Ile not rather choose desert places 

to go to ? However, that they might not be suspected of 

consulting only their own interestSj they declare the whole 

state is in danger. Aug. Or, they were afraid that, if all Aug. Tr. 

believed in Christ, none would remain to defend the city of ^''■''" '^^' 

God and the temple against the Romans : since they thought 

that Christ's teaching was directed against the temple, and 

their laws. They were afraid of losing temporal things, and 

thought not of eternal life ; and thus they lost both, For 

tlie Romans, after our Lord had suffered and was glorified, 

did come and take away their place and nation, reducing the 

one by siege, and dispersing the other. Origen. Mystically : Origr. tom. 

It was fit that the Gentiles should occupy the place of them ^^^'"'- 

of the circumcision ; because by their fall salvation came to non occ. 

the Gentiles. The Romans represent the Gentiles, being 

tiie rulers of the Gentile world. Their nation again was 

taken away, because they who had been the people of God, 

were made not a people. Chrys. When they hesitated, and Cbrys. 

asked, What do we ? one of them gave most cruel and shame- jxiv. 

less advice, viz. Caiaphas, who ivas ^ ITujh Priest that same \ being 

year. Aug. How is it that he is called the Iligh Priest of Aug. Tr. 

that year, when God appointed one hereditary High Priest ? 

This was owing to the ambition and contention of parties 

amongst the Jews themselvcs, which had ended in the ap- 

pointment of several High Priests, who took the ofhce in 

turn, year by year. And sometimes even there seems to have 

been more than one in office. Alcuin. Of this Caiaphas 

Josephus relates, that he bought the priesthood for a year, 

for a certain sum. Origen. ^ The character of Caiaphas is Orio:. tom, 

shewn by his being called the High Priest of that same year ; ^^^-^ 

the year, viz. in which our Saviour suffered. Being the High 

Priest that same year, he said unto them, Ye know nothing 

at all, nor consider that it is expedient for us that one man 

should diefor the people, and that the whole nation perish not. 

i.e. Ye sit still, and give no attention. Attend to me. So non occ. 

insignificant a thing as the life of one man may surely be 

made a sacrifice for the safety of the state. Theopiiyl. He 

» Orip;en's words are, All tbe Evan- pbas, who was High Priest of the year 
gelists describe the wickedness of Caia- in which our Saviour suftered. 

c c2 




said this with a bad intention, yet the Holy Spirit used his 

mouth as the vehicle of a prophecy : And this spake he not 

of himself: but being high priest that year, he prophesied that 

Orig. Jesus should die for that nation. Origen. Not every one 

that prophesieth is a prophet ; as not every one that does a 

12. just action is just, he, for exaraple, that does one for vain- 

glory. Caiaphas prophesied without being a prophet, as did 

Balaam. Perhaps some will deny that Caiaphas prophesied 

by the Holy Spirit, on the ground that evil spirits may bear 

Luke 4, witness to Christ, as the one in Luke, who says, / knnw Thee 

^*' who Thou art, the IloJy One of God ; the intention of Caia- 

phas too being not to induce his hearers to believe on Him, 

c. 14. but to excite them to kill Him. It is expedient for us. Is 

this part of his prophecy true or false? If it is true, then 

those who contended against Jesus in the council, since 

Jesus died for the people, and they participate in the ad- 

vautage of His death, are saved. This you say is absurd ; 

and theuce argue that the prophecy is false, and, if false, not 

dictated by thc Holy Spirit, siucc the Iloly Spirit does not 

lie. On the other side it is argued, for the truth of the pro- 

Heb. 2, 9. phecy, that these words only meant that Ile by the grace of 

1 Tim. God should taste deathfor all men ; that Ile is the Saviour of 

*' '*'• ull men, specially of them that believe. And in the same way 

the former part of the speech, Ye know nothing at all, is 

made out to be an assertion of the truth. They knew no- 

thing of Jesus/ who did uot know that He was truth, 

wisdom, justice, and peace. And again, Tliat one man 

should die for the people. It was as nian that He died for 

the people : in so far as He is the image of the invisible God, 

He was incapable of death. And He died /or tJie people, in 

that He took upon Hiraself, made away with, blotted out the 

c. 15. sius of the whole world. And this spake he not of himself. 

Hence we see, what men say sometimes proceeds from them- 

selves, soraetimes from the influence of some povver upon 

them. In the latter case though they may not be taken 

quite out of themselves, and in a certain sense go along with 

their ovvn words, yet they do not go along with the meaning 

of them. Thus Caiaphas says nothing of himself; and there- 

fore does not interpret his own prophecy, because he does 

iTim. 1,7. uot understand it. Thus Paul too ipeaks of some teach- 

VEU. 54—57. ST. joHN 389 

ers of the law, who understand neither what they say, nor 
whereof they affirm. Aug. We learn hence that eveu bad Aug. Tr. 
men may foretell things to come by the spirit of prophecy, ^^'^' ^*"- 
which power the Evangelist ascribes to a divine sacrament, 
he being Pontifex, i. e. Iligh Priest. Chrys. See the great Chrys. 
virtue of the Holy Spirit, in drawing forth a prophecy froni ,^J^'"| 
a wicked man. And see too the virtue of the pontifical 
office, which made him, though an unworthy Iligh Priest, 
unconsciously prophesy. Divine grace only used his mouth ; 
it touched not his corrupt heart. Aug. Caiaphas propliesied Au». Tr, 
of the Jewish nation aloue ; in which natiou were the sheep, ^ "^" 
of which our Lord says, / am not sent but unto the lost sheep Jfatt. 
qf the house of Israel. But the Evangelist knew that there ^' 
were other sheep, not of this fold, which were to be brought 
in, and therefore adds, And not for that nation onhj, but 
also that Ile should gather together in one the children of 
God that ivere scattered abroad ; i. e, those who were pre- 
destined to be so : for as yet there were neither sheep, nor 
childreu of God. Greg. His persecutors accomplished this Greg. vi. 
wicked purpose, and put liim to death, thinking to ex- "''' ' 
tinguish the devotion of His followers ; but faith grew from 
the very tliing which these cruel and unbelieviug men 
thought would destroy it. That which huraan cruelty had 
exccuted against Him, Ile turncd to tlie purposes of His 
mercy. Origen, Inflamcd by the speech of Caiaphas, they Orig. 
determined on killiug our Lord : Then froni that dxiy furth^^^^l\-^^ 
they luok counsel together to pnt Ilini to death. Was tliis c. 17, 
then thc work of the lloly Spirit, as well as the former, or 
was it auother spirit which did both first speak by the mouth 
of a wicked man, aud then excite others like hiui to kill 
Christ? Auswer : It is not necessary that both should be 
the work of the same spirit. As some turn the Scriptures 
themselves, which were given for our good, to the support of 
bad doctrines ; so this true prophecy respecting our Saviour 
was understood in a wrong sense, as if it were a call to put 
Him to death. Chrys. They sought before to kill llim ; Chrys. 
now their resolution was confirmed. Hom 

Ixv. 1. 

54. Jesus therefore walked no more openly among 
the Jews ; but went thence unto a country near to the 


wilderness, into a city called Ephraim, and there con- 
tinued vvith His disciples. 

55. And the Jews' passover vvas nigh at hand : and 
many went out of the country up to Jerusalem before 
the passover, to purify themselves. 

56. Then sought they for Jesus, and spake among 
themselves, as they stood in the temple, What think 
ye, that He will not come to the feast ? 

57. Now both the chief priests and the Pharisees 
had given a commandment, that, if any man knew 
wherc He were, he should shew it, that thcy might 
take Him. 

Ori^. tom. Origen. After this resolution of the Chief Priests and 

xxvm. . pjjj^yjgggs^ Jesus was more cautious in shewing Himself 

among tbe Jews, and retired to remote parts, and avoided 

populous places -. Jesus therefore walked no more openly 

among the Jews ; but went thence into a countnj near to 

Auo;. Tr. the ivilderness, into a city called Ephraim. Aug. Not that 

xhx. 28. jj-g pQ^ygj. i^j^(j failed Him; for, had He pleased, He might 

still liave walked openly amoug the Jews, and they done 

nothing to Him. But He wished to shew the disciplcs, 

by His own example, that behevers did not sin by retiring 

out of the sight of their persecutors, and hiding themselves 

from the fury of the wicked, rather than inflame that fury by 

Oripr. tom. thcir prcsence. Origen. It is praiseworthy, when struggles 

are at hand, not to avoid confession, or refuse to suffer 

death for the truth's sake. And it is no less praiseworthy 

now to avoid giving occasion for such trial. Which we should 

take care to do, not only on account of the uncertainty of 

the event of a trial in our own case, but also not to be the 

occasion of increasing the impiety and guilt of others. For 

he who is the cause of sin in another, shall be punished. If 

we do not avoid our persecutor, when we have the oppor- 

tunity, we make ourselves responsible for his offence. But 

our Lord not only retired Himself, but to remove all occa- 

sion of offence from His persecutors, took His disciples with 

Chrys. Him : And there stayed with His disciples. Chrys. How 

ixv. 2. must it have troubled the disciples to see Him save Himself 

VER. 54 57. ST. JOHN. 391 

by merely humaa meaus ? "While all were rejoicing and 
keeping the feast, they remaiued hid, aiid in dauger. Yet 
they coutinued with Ilim ; as we read in Luke, Ye are they Luke 22, 
which have continued with Me in My temptations. Origen. ^^- 
Mystically, Jesus tvalked openly among the Jews, wheu the xx'v?ii.*°'"' 
Word of God used to come to them by the Prophets. But ^- ^^- 
this Word ceased, i.e. Jesus loent thence. And He went to 
that town near the wilderness, whereof Isaiah says, More are isa. 54, 1. 
the children of the desolate, than the children of the married 
wife. Ephraira signifies fertility. Ephraira was the younger 
brother of Manasses : Manasses stands for the elder people 
forgotten; the word Manasses meaning forgotten. When the 
elder people were forgotten and passed over, there came 
an abundant harvest from the Gentiles. Our Lord left the 
Jews, and went forth into a country — the whole world — 
near the wilderness, the deserted Church ^, to Ephraim, the 1 4^y{,^ 
fruitful city; and there continues with Ilis disciples up to V'^ 'P''^"'" 

4.1 • 1 'a TT 1 /• 1 (KK\T}aias. 

ttiis day. AuG. lle who came frora heaveu to sutier, wished ^^,, r^^ 
to draw near the place of Ilis Passion, His hour being now l- 2. 
at hand : And the Jeivs' passover ivas nigh at hand. That 
passover they had resolvcd to celebrate by shedding our 
Lord^s blood ; the blood which consecrated the Passover, the 
blood of the Lamb. The Law oblijied every one to go up to 
the feast : And many xvent out of ihe country up to Jerusatcm 
before the passover to purify them. But ours is the true 
Passover; the Jewish one was a shadow. The Jews held 
their passover in the dark, we in the light : their posts were 
staiued with the blood of a slaiu animal, our foreheads are 
signed with the blood of Christ. Tueophyl. They went up 
before the passover, to be purificd. For whocvcr had sinned 
williugly or uuwilliugly could not kecp the passover, unless 
they were first purified by washings, fastings, and shaving of 
the head, and also offering ccrtain stated oljlations. While 
engaged in thcse purificatious, they were plottiiig our Lord's 
death : Then souyht they for Jesus, and spake among them- 
selves, as they stood in the temple, What think ye, thut lle 
will not come to the feast? Chrys. They lay iu wait for ciirys. 
Him at the passover, and made the feast time the time of ^°'"- ^■''^- 
His death. Origen. Wherefore the Evangelist does not oHg. tom. 
call it thc Lord's passover, but the Jews^ passover. For then xxviii. 


it was that they plotted our Lord's death. Alcuin. They 
sought Jesus with bad intent. We seek Hira, standing in 
God's temple, rautually encouraging one another, and pray- 
ing Hira to come to our feast, and sanctify us by His pre- 
sence. Theophyl. If the common people only had done 
these things, the Passion would have seemed owing to raen's 
ignorance ; but the Pharisees it is, who order Hira to be 
taken : Now both the chief priests and the Pharisees hacl 
given a commandment, that, if auy man knew vjhere He were, 

Orig. tom. ke should shew it, that they might take Him. Origen. Ob- 
serve, they did not know where He was ; they knew that 
He had gone away. Mystically, they did not know where 
He was, because, in the place of the divine commandments, 

Aug. they taught the doctrines and comraandments of raen. Aug. 
^' ' ' Let us at least shew the Jews where He is; O that they 
would hear, that they would come to the Church, aud take 
hold of Him for themselves I 



1. Then Jesus six days before the passover carue 
to Bethany, where Lazarus was which liad been dead, 
whom He raised from the dead. 

2. There they made Him a supper : and Martha 
served : but Lazarus was one of them that sat at the 
table with Him. 

3. Then took Mary a pound of ointment of spike- 
nard, very costly, and anointed the feet of Jesus, and 
wiped His feet with her hair : and the house was filled 
with the odour of the ointment. 

4. Then saith one of His disciples, Judas Iscariot, 
Simon's son, which should betray Him, 

5. Why was not this ointment sold for three hun- 
dred pence, and given to the poor ? 

6. This he said, not that he cared for the poor ; 
but because he was a thief, and had the bag, and bare 
what was put therein. 

7. Then said Jesus, Let her alone : against the day 
of My burying hath she kept this. 

8. For the poor always ye have with you : but Me 
ye have not always. 

9. Much people of the Jews therefore knew that 
He was there : and they came not for Jesus' sake 
only, but that they might see Lazarus also, \vhom He 
had raised from the dead. 

10. But the chief priests consulted that they might 
put Lazarus also to death : 

n. Because that by reason of him many of the 
Jews went away, and believed on Jesus. 


Alcuin. As the time approached in which our Lord 

had resolved to suffer, He approached the place which He 

had chosen for the scene of His suffering : Then Jesus six 

days before the passover came to Bethany. First, He went 

to Bethany, then to Jerusalem ; to Jerusalem to suffer, to 

Bethany to keep alive the recollection of the recent resurrec- 

tion of Lazarus ; Wliere Lazarus was, which had been dead, 

whom He raised from the dead. Theophyl. Ou the tenth 

day of the month they took the larab which was to be 

sacrificed on the passover, and from that time began the 

preparation for the feast. Or rather the ninth day of the 

month, i. e. six days before the passover, was the coramence- 

ment of the feast. They feasted abundantly on that day. 

Thus we find Jesus partook of a banquet at Betliany : There 

they made Him a supper, and Martha served. That Martha 

served, shews that the entertainment was in her house. See 

the fidelity of the woman : she does not leave the task of 

serviug to the domestics, but takcs it upou herself. Ti>e 

Evangclist adds, in order, it would seem, to settlc Lazarus' 

resurrection beyond dispute, But Lazarus was one of them 

Aug. Tr, that sat at the table with Ilim. Aug. He lived, talked, 

feasted; the truth was established, the unbelief of the Jcws 

Chrys. confoundcd. Chrys. Mary did not take part in serving tiie 

Ixv. guests generally, but gave all her attention to our Lord, 

treating Hira not as raere raan, but as God : Then took Mary 

a pound of spikenard, very costly, and anointed the feet of 

Aug. Tr. Jesus, and wiped His feet witJi her hair. Aug. The word 

pistici seeras to be the name of some place, from wliicli this 

precious ointment carae. Alcuin. Or pistici raeans genuine, 

non-adulterated. She is the woman that was a sinner, who 

came to our Lord in Simon's house with the box of ointment. 

A"s- AuG. That she did this on auother occasion in Bethany is 

EvHiif^. not mentioned in Luke^s Gospel, but is in the other three. 

ji. Ixxix. Matthew and Mark say that the ointraent was poured on the 

head, John says, on the feet. Why not suppose that it was 

c. ixxviii. poured both on tlie head, and on the feet ? Matthew and 

,,^ , ' ■ Mark introduce the supper and the ointraeut out of place in 

Mark 14, . ^^ ... 

3. the order of tirae. When they are some way farther on in their 

narration % they go back to the sixth day before the passover. 

* within two days of the crucifixion. 

VER. 1 — 11. ST. JOHN. 395 

And the house ivas filled uith the odour of the ointment. 
AuG. Remember the Apostle's words : To the one we are the An<T. 
savour of death unto death ; and to the other the savour of .^^^^'^ 
life unto life. Aug. Then saith one of His disciples, Judas u.\6. 
Jscariot, Simon's son, which sJiould betray Him, Why was '^"g' 
not this ointment sold for three hundred pence, and given to Evanpj. 
tJie poor ? In the other Gospels it is the disciples who m^^^)'^' 
murmured at the waste of the ointment. I thiuk myself 
that Judas is put for the whole body of disciples ; the 
singular for the plural. But at any rate we may supply for 
ourselves, that the other disciples said it, or thought it, or 
were persuaded by this very speech of Judas. The only 
difference is, that Matthew and Mark expressly mention the 
concurrence of the others, whereas John only mentions Ju- 
das, whose habit of thieving he takes occasiou to notice : This 
he said, not that he cared for the poor, but because he was a 
thief, and had the bacj, and bare what ivas put therein. Al- 
cuiN. Ile carried it as a servant, he took it out as a thief. 

AuG. Judas dld not perish at the time whcn he received Aus:. Tr. 
money from the Jews to betray our Lord. He was already ■ 
a thief, already lost, and followed our Lord in body, uot in 
heart ; wherein we are taught the duty of tolerating wicked 
men, lcst we divide the body of Christ. He who robs the 
Church of any thing may be coraparcd to the lost Judas. 
Tolerate the wicked, thou that art good, that thou mayest 
receive the reward of the good, and not fall into the punish- 
ment of the wicked. Follow the example of our Lord's con- 
versation upon earth. "Wherefore had He bags, to "NYhom 
the Angels ministered, except because His Church should 
afterwards have bags? Why did He admit thieves, but to 
shew that Ilis Church should tolerate thieves, while it 
sufFered from them. It is not surprising that Judas, who 
was accustomed to steal money frora the bags, should betray 
our Lord for money. Chrys. But why was a thicf entrusted Chrys. 
with the bags of the poor ? Perhaps it was to give him no jxv. 2. 
excuse of wanting money, for of this he had enough in Ihe 
bag for all his dcsires. Theophyl. Some suppose that 
Judas had the keeping of the money, as being the lowest 
kind of service. For that the ministry of money matters 
ranks below the ministry of doctrine, we know from what 


Acts 6, 2, tlie Apostle says in the Acts, It is not reason that we should 

Ci.rys. lcave the word of God, and serve tables. Chrys. Christ, with 

ixv"^ great forbearance, does not rebuke Judas for his thieving, 

in order to deprive him of all excuse for betrayiug Him. 

Alcuin. Then said Jesus, Let her alone : against the day qf 

My burying hath she kept this : meaning that He was about 

to die, and that this ointment was suitable for His burial. 

So to Mary who was not able to be present, though much 

wishing, at the anointing of the dead body, was it given to 

do Him tliis office in His lifetime, 

Chrys. Chrys. Agaiu, as if to remind His betrayer, He alludes to 

ixv. 2. ^-^'^ burial ; For the j)oor ye have always with yoii, but Me ye 

have not always : as if He said, I am a burden, a trouble 

Aug. Tr. to thee; but wait a little, and I shall be gone. Aug. He 

was speaking of His bodily presence; for in rcspect of His 

majesty, providence, incffable and invisible grace, those 

Matt. 28, M ords are fulfilled, Lo, I ani with you alway, even unto the 

^ ,2 end of the world. Or thus : In the person of Judas are 

represented the wicked in the Church ; for if thou art a good 

man, thou hast Christ now by faith, and the Sacrament, and 

thou shalt have Him always, for when Tliou hast departed 

Luke 23, hencc, thou shalt go to Him who said to the thief, To-day 

shalt thou be with Me in paradise. But if thou art wicked, 

thou seeraest to have Christ because thou art baptized with 

the baptism of Christ, because thou approachest to the 

altar of Christ : but by reason of thy wicked life, thou shalt 

not have Him alway. It is not *thou hast,' but ye have, 

the whole body of wicked men being addressed in Judas. 

c. i*. Much people of the Jetcs iherefore knew that He was there, 

and they came not for Jesus' sake only, but that they might 

see Lazarus also, ivhom He had raised from the dead. 

Curiosity brought them, not love. Theophyl. They wished 

to see with their own eyes him who had been raised from the 

dead, and thought that Lazarus might bring back a report 

Au<j. Tr. of the reo-ions below. Aug. When the news of this great 

1 14 • 1 

miracle had spread every where, and was supported by such 
clear evidence, that they could neither suppress or deny the 
fact, then, The chlef priests consulted that they nnght put 
Lazarus to death. O blind rage ! as if the Lord could raise 
the dead, and not raise the slain. Lo, the Lord hath done 

VER. 1- — 11. ST. JOHN. 397 

both. He raised Lnzarus, and He raised Himself. Chrys. Ctirj-s. 
No other miracle of Christ excited such rage as this. It ixvi''i 
was so pubhc, aud so wonderful, to see a man walking and 
talking after he had bcen dead four days. And the fact was 
so undeniable. In the case of some other miracles they had 
charged Him with breaking the sabbath, and so diverted 
people's minds : but here there was uothing to find fault 
with, and therefore they vent their anger upon Lazarus. 
They would have done the same to the blind man, liad they 
not had the charge to make of breaking the sabbath. Theu 
again the latter was a poor man, and they cast him out of 
the temple ; but Lazarus was a man of rank, as is plain 
fr 'm the uumber who came to comfort his sisters. It vexed 
them to see all leaving the feast, which was now coming ou, 
and going to Beihany. Alcuin. Mystically, that He came 
to Bethany six days before the passover, means, that He 
Who raade all things in six days, Who created man on the 
sixth, in the sixth age of the world, the sixth day, the sixth 
hour, came to redcem mankind. The Lord's Supper is the 
faith of the Church, working by love. Martha serveth, 
whenever a belicviug soul dcvotes itself to the worship of 
the Lord. Lazarus is one of them that sit at table, when 
those who have been raised from the death of sin, rejoice 
togethcr with the ri^^litcous, who have bcen ever such, in 
the presence of trutli, and are fed with the gifts of heavenly 
grace. The banquet is given in Bethany, which means, 
house of obcdience, i.e. in the Church : for the Cliurch is 
the house of obedience. Aug. The ointment with which ah<?. 
Mary anointed the fcet of Jesus was justice. It was there- Tr. li.6. 
foie a poiind. It was ointment of spikenard (pistici) too, 
very precious. n/crTt9 is Greek for faith. Dost thou seek 
todojustice? The just liveth by faith. Anoint the feet of Heb. lo, 
Jesus by good hving, follow the Lord's footsteps : if thou ' 
hast a superfluity, give to the poor, and thou hast wiped the 
Lord's fcet j for the hair is a superfluous part of the body. 
Alcuin. And observe, on the first occasion of her anoint- 
ing, she anointed His feet ouly, but now she anoints both 
His feet aud head. The former denotes the beginnings of 
peuitence, the latter the righteousness of souls perfccted. 
By the head of our Lord the loftiness of His Divine nature, 


by His feet the lowliness of His incarnation arc signified ; 

or by the head, Christ Hiraself, by the feet, the poor who 
Aus. Tr. are His members. Aug. The house was fiUed with the 
^^- ^- odour ; the world was filled with the good fame. 

12. On the next day much people that were come 
to the feast, when they heard that Jesus was coming 
to Jerusalem, 

13. Took branches of palm trees, and went forth to 
meet Him, and cried, Hosanna : Blessed is the King 
of Israel that cometh in the name of the Lord. 

14. And Jesus, when He had found a young ass, 
sat thereon ; as it is written, 

15. Fear not, daughter of Sion : behold, thy King 
cometh, sitting on an ass's colt. 

16. These things understood not His disciples at 
the first : but when Jesus was glorified, then remem- 
bered they that these things were written of Him, and 
that they had done these things unto Him. 

17. The people therefore that was with Him when 
He called Lazarus out of his grave, and raised him 
from the dead, bare record. 

18. For this cause the people also met Him, for 
that they heard that He had done this miracle. 

19. The Pharisees therefore said among them- 
selves, Perceive ye how ye prevail nothing? behold, 
the world is gone after Him. 

Chrys. Chrys. Thc Law enjoined, that on the tenth day of the 

Hom. month a hT,rab or a kid should be shut up in the house, 

^'^' and be kept to the fourteenth day of the same month, on 

the evening of which day it was sacrificed. In accordance 

with this law, the Elect Lamb, the Lamb without spot, when 

He went up to Jemsalem to be immolated for the sanctifi- 

cation of the people, went up five days before, i.e. on the 

Aug.Tr. tenth day. Aug. See how great was the fruit of His preach- 

li- ing, and how large a flock of the lost sheep of the house of 

Israel heard the voice of their Shepherd : On the next day 

VER. 12 — 19. ST. JOHN. 399 

niuch people that were come to thefeast, ivhen they heard that 
Jesus was coming to Jerusalem, took branches of palm trees. 
The branches of palms are songs of praise, for the victory 
vvhich our Lord was about to obtain by His death over death, 
and Ilis triumph over the devil, the prince of death, by the 
trophy of the cross. Chrys. They shewed now at last that Chrys. 
they thought Him greater tlian a prophet : And ivent forth .^T* 
to meet Him, and cried, Hosanna ! Blessed is the King of 
Israel, that cometh in the name of the Lord. Aug. Hosanna Aug. Tr. 
is a siraple exclamation, rather indicating some excitement ^*" ^" 
of tlie miud, thau haviug auy particular meaning ; like many 
interjectious that we have in Latiu. Bede. It is a com- 
pound of two words ; Hosi is shortened into save ; Anna a 
mere exchxmation, complete. Blessed is He that cometh in 
the name of the Lord. The name of the Lord here is the 
name of God the Father; though we raay understand it as 
His own Name ; inasmuch as He also is the Lord. But the 
former sense agrees better with the text above, 7 am come in v. 43. 
My Father's Name. Ile does not lose His diviuity, when 
He teaches us humility. Chrys. This is what more than Chrys. 
any thing made meu believe iu Christ, viz. the assurance that , !"•, 
Ile was not opposed to God, that Ile came frora the Father. 
The words shew us the divinity of Christ. Hosanna is, 
Save us ; aud salvatiou in Scripture is attributed to God 
aloue. And cometh, it is said, not is brought : the formcr 
befits a lord, the latter a servant. In the name of the Lord, 
goes to prove the same thing. Ile does uot come iu the 
name of a servant, but in the narae of the Lord. Aug. ^ug. Tr. 
It were a sraall thing to the King eternal to be made ^i- *• 
a human king. Christ was not the King of Israel, to ex- 
act tribute, and command armies, but to dircct souls, and 
briug them to the kingdora of heaven. For Christ thea to 
be King of Israel, was a condescension, not an elevation, 
a sign of His pity, not an increase of Ilis power. For He 
who was called on earth the King of the Jews, is in heaven 
the King of Angels. Theophyl. The Jews, when they 
callcd Hira King of Israel, dreamed of an earthly kiug. 
They expected a king to arise, of more than huraan great- 
ness, who would deliver them from the government of the 
Romans. But how did our Lord come ? The next words 


tell us j And Jesus ivhen He had found a young ass, snt 

Aug. Tr. thereon. Aug. Johu relates the matter briefly, the other 

Evaugehsts are more fuU. The ass, we read in them, was 

the foal of an ass on which no man had sat : i.e. the Gentile 

world, who had not received our Lord. The other ass, 

which was brought, {not the foal, for there were two,) is the 

Chrys. belleviug Jew. Chrys. He did this prophetically, to figure 

\^^\ the unclean Gentiles being brought into subjection to the 

Aug. Gospel ; and also as a fulfilment of prophecy. Aug. This 

^^' ^'" act of our Lord's is poiuted to in the Prophets, though the 

malignant rulers of the Jews did not see in it anv fulfilment 

of prophecy : As it is ivritten, Fear not, daughter of Slon, 

behold Thy King cometh sitting on an ass^s colt. Yca, in 

tliat nation thoiigh reprobate, though bhnd, there remained 

still the daughter of Sion ; even Jerusalem. To her it is 

said, Fear not, acknowledge Him whora thou praisest, and 

tremble not whcn He suff^ers. That blood it is which shall 

Ciirys. wipe away thy sins, and redeem thy life. Chrys. Or thus : 

ixvi"i Whereas thcy had had wicked kings, who had subjected 

them to wars, He saith to them, Trust Me, I ara not such 

as they, but gentle and mild : which He shewed by the 

manner of His entrance. For He did not enter at the head 

of an army, but simply riding on an ass. And observe the 

(t>i\o<ro- philosophy of the Evangehst, who is not ashamed of con- 

fessing his ignorauce at the time of wliat these things 

meant : These things understood not the disciple at the first, 

Aug. but when Jesus was glorified. Aug. i.e. When He shevved 

""' '■ the power of His resurrection, then they remembered that 

these things ivere writen of Him, and that they had done these 

things unto Him, i.e. those things that were written of Him. 

Chrys. Chrys. Our Lord had not then revealed these things lo 

jyj Y them. Indeed it would have been a scandal to them had 

they known Him to be King at the time of His sufferings. 

Nor would they have understood the nature of His kingdom, 

but have mistaken it for a temporal one. Theophyl. See 

non occ, theu the consequences of our Lord's passion ^ It was not 

to no purpose that He had reserved His greatest miracle for 

the last. For the resurrection of Lazarus it was that made 

the crowd believe in Him. The people therefore that was 

' i.e. in its effect up^jn tlie minds of the disciples, enliglitening them. 

VER. 20—26. ST. JOHN. 401 

iviih Him tchen He called Lazarus out of his grave, and raised 
him from ihe dead, bare record. For this cause the people 
also met Him, for thai they heard thai He had done this 
miracle. Hence the spite and plotting of the Pharisees : 
The Pharisees iherefore said among themselves, Perceive ye 
how ye prevail nothing ? behold the world is gone ajter Him. 
AuG. The crowd was disturbed by the crowd. But why Aug. 
grudgeth that blind crowd, that the world shoukl go after Turba 
Him, by Whom the world was made? Chrys. The world tuibavit 

11 1 mi • 11 1 f< turbam 

means here the crowd. Ihis seems to be the spcech oi chrys. 

that part who were sound in their faith, but dared not Hom. 

. . Ixvi. 2. 

profess it. They try to deter the rest by exposing the in- 

superable difficulties they would have to contend with. The- 

OPHYL. As if they said, The more you attack Ilim, the more 

will His power and reputatiou iucrease. \Vhat use theu of 

these attempts ? 

20. And there were certain Greeks among them 
that came up to vvorship at the feast. 

21. The same came therefore to PhiHp, which was 
of Bethsaida of GaUlce, and desired him, saying, Sir, 
we would see Jesus. 

22. Phihp cometh and telleth Andrew : and again 
Andrcw and Phihp tell Jesus. 

23. And Jesus answered them, saying, The hour 
is come, that thc Son of man should be glorificd. 

24. Verily, verily, I say unto you, Except a corn of 
wdieat fall into the ground and die, it abidcth alone : 
but if it die, it bringeth forth much fruit. 

25. Hc that lovcth his hfe shall lose it, and he 
that hateth his Hfe in this world shall keep it unto 
life eternah 

26. If any man serve Me, let him follow Me ; and 
where I am, there shall also My servant be : if any 
man serve Me, him will My Father honour. 

Bede. The temple at Jerusalera was so famous, that on 
the feast days, not only the people near, but many Geutiles 

VOL. IV. u d 


frora distant countries came to worsliip in it ; as that eunuch 
of Candace, Queen of the Ethiopians, mentioned in the Acts. 
The Gentiles vvho were at Jerusalem now, had come up for 
this purpose : And there were certain Gentiles among them 
Ciirys, who came to worship at the feast. Chrys. The time being 
ixvL 2. ^io^^ near, when they would be made proselytes. They hear 
Christ talked of, and wish to see Him : The same came there- 
fore to Philip, which was of Bethsaida of Galilee, and desired 
Aug. him, saying, Sir, tve would see Jesus. Aug. Lo ! the Jews 
Tr. ii. 8. ^jgi^ ^Q l^-|j Him, the Gentiles to see Him. But they also 
were of the Jews who cried, Blessed is He that cometh in the 
name of the Lord. So behold them of the circumcision, 
and them of the uucircuracision, once so wide apart, coming 
together like two walls, and mecting in one faith of Christ 
by the kiss of peace. 
Chrys. Philip cometh and telleth Andrew. Chrys. As being the 

ixvH. 2. clder disciple. He had heard our Saviour say, Go not into 
Matt. i/ie yjay of the Gentiles ; and therefore he communicates 
with his fellow-disciple, and they refer the mattcr to their 
Aiig. Tr. Lord: And again Andreiv and Philip tell Jesus. Aug. 
Listen we to the voice of the corncr stone : And Jesus an- 
swered them, saying, The hour is come, that the Son of man 
should be glorified. Did He think Himself glorified because 
the Gentiles wished to see? No. But He saw that after 
His passion and resurrection, the Gentiles in all lands would 
believe on Him ; and took occasion from this request of 
some Gentiles to see Him, to announce the approaching 
fulness of the Gentiles, for that the hour of His being glori- 
fied was now at hand, and that after He was glorified in the 
heavens, the Gentiles would believe; according to the pas- 
Ps. ,56, sage in the Psalm, Set up Thyself, God, above the heavens, 
and 107. g^^ j^j^y giofy abovc ttll the earth. But it was necessary 
that His exaltation and glory should be preceded by His 
hurailiation and pas.sion ; wherefore He says, Verily, verily, 
I say unto you, Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground 
and die, it abideth alone : but if it die, it bringeth forth much 
fruit. That corn was He ; to be mortified in the unbelief 
of the Jews, to be multiplied in the faith of the Gentiles, 
Bede. He Himself, of the seed of the Patriarchs, was sown 
iu the field of this world, that by dyiug, He might rise 

VER. 20—26. ST. joHx. 403 

again witli increase. He died alone ; He rose again with 
many. Chrys. He illustrates His discourse by an example Chrys. 
from nature. A grain of corn produces fruit, after it has i^yj"'^ 
died. How much more then must the Son of God? The 
Gentiles were to be called after the Jews had finally of- 
fended ; i.e. after His crucitixion. Now then that the Gen- 
tiles of their own accord offered their faith, He saw that His 
crucifixion could not be far ofi". And to console the sorrow 
of His disciples, which He foresaw would arise, Hc tells 
them that to bear patiently not only His dcath, but their 
own too, is the only way to good: He that loveth his life shall 
lose it. AuG, This may be understood in two ways : 1. IfAug. Tr. 
thou lovest it, lose it : if thou wouldcst prcserve thy life in '" ' 
Christ, fear not death for Christ. 2. Do not love thy life here, 
lest thou lose it hcreaftcr. The latter seems to be the more 
evangelical sense ; for it follows, And he that hateth his life evan- 
in this world, shall lcecp it unto life eternal. Chrys. He ^*^ '^"^ 
loveth his Hfe in this world, who indulges its inordinate Hom. 
desires ; he hateth it, who rcsists thcm. It is not, who doth '^^'"- ^- 
not yield to, but, ivho hateth. For as we cannot bear to 
hear the voice or see the face of them whom we hate ; so 
when the soul invites us to things contrary to God, we 
shouhl turn her away from thcm with all our might. Theo- 
PHYL. It were harsh to say that a man should hate his soul ; 
so He adds, in this world : i. e. for a particular timc, not for 
ever. And we shall gain iu the cnd by so doing : shall keep 
it unto hfe eternah Aug. Lut think not for an instant, that Anjr. Tr. 
by hating thy soul, is meant that thou maycst kill thyself. ''• ^'^- 
For wicked and perverse men have sometimes so mistaken it, 
and have burnt and strangled themselves, thrown themselves 
from precipices, and in other ways put an end to tliemselves. 
This did not Christ tcach ; nay, when the devil tcmpted 
Him to cast Himself down, II e said, Get thee hence, Satan^\ 
But when no other choice is given thee; when the perse- 
cutor threatens death, and thou must either disobey God's 
law, or depart out of this hfe, then liate thy hfe in this 
world, that thou mayest keep it unto hfe eternal. Chrys. ci.iys. 
This p- csent hfe is swcet to them who are given up to it. Il"'"- 

^ This is the second teinptation in Matthew. " Get tlice hence," conies after 
ail tliree. 

Dd 2 


But he who looks heavenwards, and sees wliat good things 
are there, soon despises this life. When the better life ap- 
pears, the worse is despised. This is Chrisfs raeaning, when 
He says, If a7iy man serve Me, let himfollow Me, i. e. imitate 
Me, both in My death, and hfe. For he who serves, should 
Auf?. follow him whom he serves. Aug. But what is it to serve 
^'' ''■ Christ? The very words explain. They serve Christ who 
seek not their own things, but the things of Jesus Christ, 
i. e. MvhofoUow Him, walk in His, not their own, ways, do all 
good works for Christ^s sake, not only works of mercy to 
men's bodies, but all others, till at length they fulfil that 
great work of love, and lay down their Uves for the brethren. 
But what fruit, what reward ? you ask. The next words 
tell you : And where I am, there shall also My servant be. 
Love Him for His own sake, and think it a rich reward for 
Chrys. thy scrvicc, to be with Him. Chrys. So then death will be 
^^n' followed by resurrcction. Where I am, He says ; for Christ 
was in heaven before His resurrection. Thither let us ascend 
in heart and in mind. 

Tf any man serve Me, him will My Father honour. This 
must be understood as an explanation of the preceding. 
There also shall My servant be. For what greater honour 
can an adopted son receive than to be where the Only Son 
ciirys, is? Chrys. Hc says, My Father will honour IFim, not, I will 
ixvii!' honour him ; because they had not yet proper notions of His 
nature, and thought Him iuferior to the Fathcr. 

27. Now is My soul troubled ; and what shall I say ? 
Father, save Ate from this hour : but for this cause 
came I unto this hour. 

28. Father, glorify Thy narae. Then carae there 
a voice from heaven, saying, I have both glorified it, 
and will glorify it again. 

29. The people therefore, that stood by, and heard 
it, said that it thundered : others said, An angel spake 
to Him. 

30. Jesus answered and said, This voice came not 
because of Me, but for your sakes. 

VER. 27 — 33. ST. JOHN. 405 

31. Now is the judgment of this world : now shall 
the prince of this world be cast out. 

32. And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will 
draw all men unto Me. 

33. This He said, signifying what death He should 

Chrys. To our Lord's exhortation to His disciples to en- Chrys. 
durance, they might have replied that it was easy for Hira, ?^T- 
Wbo was out of the reach of human pain, to talk philoso- 
phically about death, and to recommend others to bear wliat 
Ile is in no danger of baving to bear Himself. So IIc lcts 
them see that Hc is Himsclf in an agony, but tliat lle does 
not intend to dechne death, merely for tbe sake of reheving 
Himself: Now is My soul trouhhd. Aug. I bear Ilim say, Aug.Tr. 
He that hateth his life in this world, shull keep it unto life ^"' '^' 
eternal ; and I am ravished, I despise tbe world ; tbc wbole 
of this hfe, however long, is but a vapour in my sigbt; all 
temporal tbings are vile, in comparison witb eternah Aiid 
again I bear Him say, Now is My soul troubled. Tbou 
biddcst my soul fullow Tbee ; but I see Tby soul troubled. 
AVbat foundation sball I scck, if tbe Rock gives way ? Lord, 
I acknowledge Tby merc}'. Tbou of Tby \o\e wast of Tbiuc 
own will troublcd, to console tbose who are troubled tbrough 
the infirmity of nature ; tbat tbe raemijcrs of Tby body 
perish not in dcspair. Tbe Ilead took upon Ilimself tbe 
affections of His raembers. He was not troubled by any 
tbing, but, as was said above, Ile troubled Hbnself. Chrys. c. 11, S3. 
As He draws near to tbc Cross, His buman nature appears, jjo^,^^ 
a nature tbat did not wisli to die, but clcaved to tbis present Ixvii. 
]ife. He shews tbat He is not quite witbout buman fcehngs. 
For the desire of tbis prcsent life is not ncccssarily wrong, 
any more tban hunger. Cbrist bad a body free frora sin, 
but not from natural infirmities. But tbese attach solely to 
tbe dispensation of Mis bumauity, not to His divinity. Aug. Augr- 
Lastly, let tbe man wbo would foUow Him, hcar at wbat 
hour he should follow. A fearful hour has perhaps corae : 
a choice is offcred, eithcr to do wrong, or sufFcr : tbe weak 
soul is troublcd. Hear our Lord. What shall I say ? Bede. 
i. e. What but something to confirra My foUowers ? Father^ 


Aug. Tr. save 3Ie from this hour. Aug. He teaches thee Whom thou 
shouldest call on, whose will prefer to thine own. Let Him 
not seem to fall from His greatness, because He wishes thee 
to rise from thy meanness. He took upon Him man's in- 
firmity, that He might teach the afflicted to say, Not what I 
wiU, but what Thou wilt. Wherefore He adds, But for this 
cause came I unto this hour. Father, glorify Thy name : 

Clirys. i.e. in My passion and resurrection. Chrys. As if He said, 

ixvli, 2. I cannot say why I should ask to be saved from it; For 
for this cause came I unto this hour. However ye may be 
troubled and dejected at the thought of dying, do not run 
away from death. I am troubled, yet I ask not to be sparcd. 
I do not say, Save Me from this hour, but the contrary, 
Glorify Thy name. To die for the truth was to glorify God, 
as the event sliewed; for after His crucifixion the whole 
world was to be converted to the knowledge and worship of 
God, both the Father and the Son. But this He is silent 

Then came there a voice from heaven, saying, I have both 

Greg. glorified it, and will (ilorifu it ar/ain. Gkkg. When God 

Mor:il. ^ •' '_ o j./ ,j 

xxviii. speaks audibly, as He does hcre, but no visiblc appearance 
is seen, He speaks through the medium of a rational crea- 

Aupr. Tr. ture; i.e. by the voice of an Angel. Aug. I have glorified 
it, i.e. before I made the world ; and will glorify it again, 
i.e. when Thou shalt rise from the dead. Or, / have glorified 
it, when Thou wast born of a Virgin, didst work miracles, 
wast made manifest by the Holy Ghost descending in the 
shape of a dove ; and will glorify it again, when Thou shalt 
rise from the dead, and, as God, be exalted above the 
heavens, and Thy glory above all the earth. 

TJie jieojile therefore that stood by and heard it, said that 

Cbrys. it thundered. Chrys. The voice though loud and distinct, 

Ixvii. 2. soon passed ofF frora their gross, carnal, and sluggish minds; 
only the sound remaining. Others perceived an articulate 
voice, but did not catch what it said : Others said, An Angel 
spake to Him. 

Jesus answere